A Learning Management System. (LMS) is software for delivering, tracking and managing training. LMSs range from simple systems for managing training records to software for distributing courses over the Internet and offering features for online collaboration. In many instances, corporate training departments purchase LMSs to automate record-keeping as well as the registration of employees for classroom and online courses. Student self-service (e.g. self-registration on instructor-led training), training workflow (e.g. user notification, manager approval, waitlist management), the provision of on-line learning (e.g. Computer-Based Training, read & understand), on-line assessment, management of continuous professional education (CPE), collaborative learning (e.g. application sharing, discussion threads), and training resource management (e.g. instructors, facilities, equipment), are some of the additional dimensions to leading Learning Management Systems. Most LMSs are web-based to facilitate &quot;anytime, any place, any pace&quot; access to learning content and administration. LMSs are favoured by regulated industries (e.g. financial services and biopharma) where compliance training is essential. Leading LMS providers seek to include integrated &quot;performance management systems,&quot; which encompass such functionality as performance management (i.e. period-based appraisals), competency management, skills-gap analysis, succession planning, and multi-rater assessments (360 degree reviews). For the commercial market, the development path for Learning and Performance Management Systems (LPMS) appears to be towards the inclusion of recruitment and reward functionality. With these enhancements in place, the complete lifecycle of student development, from recruitment to retirement, will be covered. LMSs are based on a variety of development platforms, from Java EE based architectures to Microsoft .NET, and usually employ the use of a robust database back-end. While most systems are commercially developed and frequently have non-free software licences or restrict access to their source code, free and open-source models do exist. Other than the most simple, basic functionality, LMSs cater to, and focus on, different educational, administrative, and deployment requirements. Open source and web-based LMS software solutions are increasingly important.
You will use the LMS to: access course materials (such as lecture slides and assignment sheets) view announcements (announcements will be posted throughout the semester and will contain important information about the subject, such as reminders about an upcoming assignment due date) perform online tasks (such as submitting an assignment). The course outline, lecture notes, assignments, and other learning resources will all be made available through the LMS. In addition, you will also have access to online tools such as feedback quizzes, interactive courseware, and audio recordings of lectures.
Open source is a development methodology, which offers practical accessibility to a product's source (goods and knowledge). Some consider open source as one of various possible design approaches, while others consider it a critical strategic element of their operations. Before open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; the term open source gained popularity with the rise of the Internet, which provided access to diverse production models, communication paths, and interactive communities. See The Open Source Definition for the exact operational definition and examples of licenses that satisfy, and do not satisfy, those principles. Under Perens' definition, open source describes a broad general type of software license that makes source code available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent copyright restrictions. The principles, as stated, say absolutely nothing about trademark or patent use and require absolutely no cooperation to ensure that any common audit or release regime applies to any derived works. It is an explicit “feature” of open source that it may put no restrictions on the use or distribution by any organization or user. It forbids this, in principle, to guarantee continued access to derived works even by the major original contributors. In contrast to free software or open content licenses, which are often confused with open source but have much more rigorous rules and conventions, open source deliberately errs in favor of allowing any use by any party whatsoever, and offers few or no means or recourses to prevent a free rider problem or deal with proliferation of bad copies that mislead end users. Perhaps because of this flexibility, which facilitates large commercial users and vendors, the most successful applications of open source have been in consortium. These use other means such as trademarks to control bad copies and require specific performance guarantees from consortium members to assure re-integration of improvements. Accordingly they do not need potentially conflicting clauses in licenses. The loose definition has led to a proliferation of licenses that can claim to be open source but which would not satisfy the share alike provision that free software and open content licenses require. A very common license, the Creative Commons CC-by-nc-sa, requires a commercial user to acquire a separate license for-profit use. This is explicitly against the open source principles, as it discriminates against a type of use or user. However, the requirement imposed by free software to reliably redistribute derived works, does not violate these principles. Accordingly, free software and consortium licenses are a type of open source, but open content isn't insofar as it allows such restrictions.
The Architecture of Participation Some systems are designed to encourage participation. In his paper, The Cornucopia of the Commons , Dan Bricklin noted that there are three ways to build a large database. The first, demonstrated by Yahoo!, is to pay people to do it. The second, inspired by lessons from the open source community, is to get volunteers to perform the same task. The Open Directory Project , an open source Yahoo competitor, is the result. But Napster demonstrated a third way. Because Napster set its defaults to automatically serve any music that was downloaded, every user automatically helped to build the value of the shared database. This same approach has been followed by all other P2P file sharing services. One of the key lessons of the Web 2.0 era is this: Users add value . But only a small percentage of users will go to the trouble of adding value to your application via explicit means. Therefore, Web 2.0 companies set inclusive defaults for aggregating user data and building value as a side-effect of ordinary use of the application . As noted above, they build systems that get better the more people use them. Mitch Kapor once noted that &quot;architecture is politics.&quot; Participation is intrinsic to Napster, part of its fundamental architecture. This architectural insight may also be more central to the success of open source software than the more frequently cited appeal to volunteerism. The architecture of the internet, and the World Wide Web, as well as of open source software projects like Linux, Apache, and Perl, is such that users pursuing their own &quot;selfish&quot; interests build collective value as an automatic byproduct. Each of these projects has a small core, well-defined extension mechanisms, and an approach that lets any well-behaved component be added by anyone, growing the outer layers of what Larry Wall, the creator of Perl, refers to as &quot;the onion.&quot; In other words, these technologies demonstrate network effects, simply through the way that they have been designed. These projects can be seen to have a natural architecture of participation. But as Amazon demonstrates, by consistent effort (as well as economic incentives such as the Associates program), it is possible to overlay such an architecture on a system that would not normally seem to possess it.
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The OPEN SOURCE platforms for Distance Training Francesco FEDELE [email_address] Senior Consultant Università Telematica Guglielmo Marconi
Index <ul><li>What is an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Open source LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Tour of a typical LMS </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do with an LMS </li></ul><ul><li>Demo </li></ul><ul><li>Closing remarks </li></ul>
Learning Management Systems <ul><li>A Learning Management System. (LMS) is software for delivering, tracking and managing training. </li></ul><ul><li>Most LMSs are web-based to facilitate "anytime, any place, any pace" access to learning content and administration. </li></ul>
What is an LMS used for ? <ul><li>Disseminate content </li></ul><ul><li>Link users to online resources </li></ul><ul><li>Enable ongoing communication </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage rich interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Assess performance </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporate existing / emerging technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate active learning </li></ul>
Virtual C@mpus and eduC@mpus <ul><li>Platform demo </li></ul>
Open Source <ul><li>Open Source software is copyrighted but provided freely </li></ul><ul><li>You can copy it, use it and customize it so long as you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide the source to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not modify or remove the original license and copyrights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>apply this same license to any work you do </li></ul></ul>
Getting Started With editing turned on, the course creator can now Add activities from an intuitive drop-down list of module plug-in features. An LMS usually has a “modular” design so adding the Activities that form a course is a simple process: 1. Course creation privileges are assigned to the teacher. 2. You may have the option of selecting from one of different course layout; Topic , Weekly or Social format. 3. Click “Turn editing on” within the blank course template. 4. Create the course!
Inserting Learning Objects <ul><li>M aybe you already have or can access a collection of “Learning Objects”, small modules that present a single subject. </li></ul><ul><li>These Learning Objects are packaged as SCORM modules </li></ul>
SCORM <ul><li>Most LMS support the SCORM standard, which allows you to import learning objects into the course you are creating </li></ul>Module 2 Module 1 Course Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Glossary Part A Part B Assessment
Course Management Features - Modules Assignment Used to assign online or offline tasks; learners can submit tasks in any file format (e.g. MS Office, PDF, image, a/v etc.). Chat Allows real-time synchronous communication by learners. Choice Instructors create a question and a number of choices for learners; results are posted for learners to view. Use this module to do quick surveys on subject matter. Dialogue Property screens guide instructor through setup when creating a new Assignment Assignment activity can require the learner to upload a completed project. Allows for one-to-one asynchronous message exchange between instructor and learner, or learner to learner.
Course Management Features - Modules Forums Threaded discussion boards for asynchronous group exchange on shared subject matter. Participation in forums can be an integral part of the learning experience, helping students define and evolve their understanding of subject matter. Students can Rate a forum post, based on Scales set up by the course creator
Course Management Features - Modules Glossary Create a glossary of terms used in a course. Has display format options including entry list, encyclopedia, FAQ, dictionary style and more. Journal Learners reflect, record and revise ideas. Label Add descriptions with images in any area of the course homepage. Lesson Allows instructor to create and manage a set of linked "Pages". Each page can end with a question. The student chooses one answer from a set of answers and either goes forward, backward or stays in the same place in the lesson. Glossary terms appear in highlight within all activity resources.
Course Management Features - Modules Quiz Create all the familiar forms of assessment including true-false, multiple choice, short answer, matching question, random questions, numerical questions, embedded answer questions with descriptive text and graphics. Instructors have granular control in defining course assessments, and can import quiz questions from popular formats.
Course Management Features - Modules Resource The primary tool for bringing content into a course; may be plain text, uploaded files, links to the web, Wiki or Rich Text (Moodle has built-in text editors ) or a bibliography type reference. Survey This module aids an instructor in making online classes more effective by offering a variety of surveys (COLLES, ATTLS), including critical incident sampling. Workshop An activity for peer assessment of documents (Word, PP etc.) that students submit online. Participants can assess each other’s project. Teacher makes final student assessment, and can control opening and closing periods.
Learner Management Features <ul><li>Creating learning content is only part of what a good course management system (CMS) must do. The CMS must manage learners in a variety of ways. Learner management includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to information about learners in a course. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to segment participants into groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Site, course and user calendar event scheduling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And so much more…e.g. applying scales to different learner activities, managing grades, tracking user access logs and uploading external files for use within the course etc. </li></ul></ul>
Learner Management Features – Participants One click and you can view activity from all participants enrolled in the course. Learners create a personal profile that can include a picture, helping connect students socially in the online learning community. Learners complete a personal profile page that helps build the online learning community. Adding a picture and details to the profile creates a social connection.
Learner Management Features - Groups Assigning learners to a group is a common practice in education and business. Moodle allows the course instructor to easily create group categories, and determine how members will interact with each other and within various activities . Creating distinct group names is easy. Learners and teachers are assigned to a group by clicking a single button.
Learner Management Features - Calendar Keeping a calendar of events is important to both the learner and course instructor. Events can be created for different categories, including: Upcoming Events appear on the course homepage, alerting the learner across all courses they are enrolled in of different category events. Alerts are color-coded by category. <ul><li>Global events that appear in all courses (system admin). </li></ul><ul><li>Course events set by an instructor. </li></ul><ul><li>Group events set by instructor relative only to a group. </li></ul><ul><li>User events set by learner (e.g. due dates, personal etc.). </li></ul>
Learner Management Features – Admin The Administration control panel puts all important learner management functions a single click away. Teachers and Students can be manually enrolled or removed from a course. Configuration of course Backup and Restore is achieved on a single screen. Restoring an existing course or Uploading a file archive from storage is accomplished with a single mouse click. Moodle makes it easy to re-use and share courses with other teachers. Backup can include or exclude student files and course data.
Learner Management Features - Scales Instructors may define custom Scales to be used for grading Forums , Assignments and Journals . Standard scales include assigning a value from 1-100% for each submission (or no grade), and indicating whether the learner was demonstrating one of three characteristics in the activity: Custom scales allow the instructor to fine tune their grading for specific content. Easily create several types of scales, and connect them with different activities you Add to the course. <ul><li>Shows mostly CONNECTED knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Shows mostly SEPARATE knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>Equally separate and connected. </li></ul>
Learner Management Features - Grades The Grades feature in Moodle provides a quick view of all Forum, Assignment, Journal, Quiz, Lesson and Workshop grades. The grading scale applied to a learner’s submission is shown, along with a cumulative total, on a single page. Grades can be downloaded in Excel or plain text for inclusion into an existing electronic gradebook
Learner Management Features - Grades Viewing Assignment and Journal submissions, and adding Grades and comments, are done from a single page that displays all enrolled students. Managing student submissions are done from one central screen. This cuts down on the time it takes to assess many students work.
Learner Management Features - Logs Monitor when and what course resources the learner has accessed. Reports provide detailed learner activity. Logs pin-point where a student is within coursework. Easily locate specific course, student, date and module activity access.
Learner Management Features - Files Centrally locate all course resources within the Files area of Moodle so they are available when creating new activities. Files storage area resembles your computer, making it easy to add, move, zip and delete resources.
Learner Management Features - Help Help file is usually just a button click away. Courses include a Teacher only forum, where colleagues can collaborate on tasks and share ideas. Teacher Manual documentation provides step-by-step instructions on all aspects of course and learner management
Learner Experience - Login Learners find it easy to navigate a Moodle course homepage in their browser; intuitive “breadcrumb” links are always present. Login occurs on a familiar screen. Initial account set up may be handled by the learner or administrator. Most LMS have thir own authentication system, but will integrate with an external database, POP3, IMAP, LDAP or NNTP, allowing domain wide login. Navigation bar provides breadcrumb links from course homepage to activities
Learner Experience – Enrollment Keys Instructors can require an “enrollment key” to allow participation in a class. Enrollment keys are provided to learners separately from the log in process. Courses requiring an enrollment key are indicated in “Course categories” description. Course category displays descriptions of each course. Symbols on description page indicate when a course requires an enrollment key and allows Guest entry. Students see a list of courses they are enrolled in (My courses) on site homepage after login.
Learner Experience – E-Mail Notification Rich text e-mail is sent to each learner “subscribed” to different Forums. Instructors can set private Dialogues to e-mail notification that comments have been added. When learners “subscribe” to forums they are notified by e-mail of new postings. Additionally, instructors can set e-mail notification for private Dialogues.
Learner Experience – 24/7/365 Anywhere! Learners can select from a list of languages at Login Learners can login any time, anywhere to interact with coursework, and can specify the Time Zone and Language they wish to use. M any LMSs have interface support for a lot of different languages.
Challenges 1 <ul><li>Facilitate collaboration between faculty and administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate collaboration between graduates of the program, program administrators, and others </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct all placement exams for incoming freshmen – online! </li></ul>
Challenges 2 <ul><li>Collaborative environment for global membership of medical professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Professor needs to bring his colleagues together, in real time, from disparate institutions – to talk about environmental concerns </li></ul>
Challenges 3 <ul><li>Director of Language Center needs to bring her European Student Leaders together – to talk about their program and experiences, and to showcase student work. </li></ul><ul><li>Director of MS in Higher Education needs to get together her program’s students to view demos, receive communiqués, interact with administrators and each other, etc. to enhance their group. </li></ul>
Challenges 4 <ul><li>A department is running a small conference and needs a way for reviewers from regional universities to read, evaluate, and discuss the paper proposals (4 tracks), and for all to access, post-conference. </li></ul><ul><li>A summer program in Engineering has some doctoral students paired up with educators from another School District of Philadelphia.hey need to work together both synchronously and asynchronously. </li></ul>
Challenges 5 <ul><li>Central place to post materials for faculty members and to link them to demos of emerging technologies. </li></ul>
Goldberg Machines Hands-on project for upper primary and secondary students. Students viewed the stimulus video, then briefly explored online information about Rube Goldberg, designed and constructed a Goldberg machine, then made a video demonstrating their machine.. Leichhardt’s Rally A travel buddy called Leichhardt who visits places in the NT for users to guess the location by reading the clues and locating the places on a map. Deserts Investigating ways in which we can live more sustainably in the desert. An opportunity to explore real-life issues facing our society and the future. Users need to develop an Action Plan focusing on SUSTAINABILITY.
Online Collaboration Territory Tales Territory Tales is an Online Collaboration Environment which allows students to chat to authors about their books and post information to share with other students in the Territory. It is a focus throughout Literacy and Numeracy Week
<ul><li>Professional Learning Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Learning Communities have been set up for Professional Dialogue and collaboration. The following are some examples Professional Learning Communities are used for.. </li></ul><ul><li>Principals in Clusters to communicate School Councils Leadership Programs Special Interest Groups Pilot Groups </li></ul>
Online Courses E-ticket & Web”n” Net are courses provided by CDU. E-Ticket covers the Basic knowledge & skills to operate personalcomputer. Web N Net is an introduction to Internet and the WorldWide Web. Hitlist – Created by KSA for primary student to evaluate relevant & appropriateness and validity of internet sites Famous Five – Created by KSA for early years to learn about the Five Food Groups.