&gt;5 million die by unsafe drinking water, lack of sanitation, and insufficient water for hygiene. At any given time, almost half of the people in developing countries suffer from water-related diseases. Collectively, they are more lethal than AIDS, according to WHO.
Water borne diseases
WATER RELATED DISEASES
Dr.K. Anantha Murugan
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
THE TABLE SHOWS ESTIMATES OF THE MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY
RATES OF SOME MAJOR WATER-RELATED DISEASES WORLDWIDE (AFTER
DISEASE CASES PER YEAR DEATHS PER YEAR
CHOLERA 384 11
THYPHOID 500 25
GIARDIASIS 500 LOW
DIARRHOEAL DISEASES 1,500,000 4,000
ASCARIASIS 1,000 20
TRICHURIASIS 100 LOW
ANCYLOSTOMA 1,500 60
DRACUNCULIASIS > 5,000 -
SCHISTOSOMIASIS 200,000 800
TRACHOMA 360,000 9,000
Diseases Related to Water
WATER - BORNE DISEASES
Diseases caused by ingestion of water contaminated
by human or animal excrement, which contain
Include cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary
dysentery and other diarrheal diseases as
Viral Gastroenteritis (Virus)
WATER - BORNE DISEASES
In addition, water-borne disease can be caused
by the pollution of water with chemicals that
have an adverse effect on health
Nitrates from fertilizers
Carcinogenic pesticides (DDT)
Lead (from pipes)
WATER - WASHED DISEASES
Diseases caused by poor personal hygiene
and skin and eye contact with
These include scabies, trachoma, typhus,
and other flea, lice and tick-borne diseases.
Diseases caused by parasites found in
intermediate organisms living in
These include schistosomiasis and
Water-related diseases are caused by insect vectors,
especially mosquitoes, that breed or feed near
They are not typically associated with lack of access to
clean drinking water or sanitation services
These include dengue, malaria, filariasis,
onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis and yellow fever
~80% of infectious
> 5 million people
die each year
> 2 million die from
Most of those dying
are small children
REPORTS FROM WORLD HEALTH
Has ReportedThat Water Born Diseases Kill more people than any other
disease in the World
1.1 billion people globally lack basic access to drinking water resources
Some 3.4 million people, many of them young children, die each year
from water-borne diseases, such as intestinal diarrhea (cholera, typhoid
fever and dysentery), caused by microbially-contaminated water
supplies that are linked to deficient or non-existent sanitation and
sewage disposal facilities.
Globally, water-borne diseases are the second leading cause of death in
children below the age of five years, while childhood mortality rates
from acute respiratory infections ranks first.
While 2.4 billion people have inadequate sanitation facilities, which
accounts for many water related acute and chronic diseases
LIST OF WATER AND SANITATION RELATED
DISEASES ACCORDING TO WHO
Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.
Guinea-Worm Disease (Dracunculiasis).
LIST OF WATER AND SANITATION RELATED
DISEASES ACCODIND TO WHO
Onchocerciasis (River Blindness).
Typhoid and Paratyphoid Enteric Fevers.
Ascariasis is found worldwide. Infection occurs with greatest
frequency in tropical and subtropical regions,and in any areas
with inadequate sanitation.
Ascariasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by Ascaris
lumbricoides, a large roundworm.The eggs of the worm are
found in soil contaminated by human faeces or in uncooked food
contaminated by soil containing eggs of the worm.
Eating uncooked food grown in contaminated soil or irrigated
with inadequately treated wastewater is another frequent
avenue of infection.
Ascariasis is one of the most common human parasitic
Worldwide, severe Ascaris infections cause approximately
Scabies is a contagious skin infection that spreads
rapidly in crowded conditions and is found worldwide.
Personal hygiene is an important preventive measure
and access to adequate water supply is important in
Epidemics have been linked to poverty, poor water
supply, sanitation and overcrowding.
There are about 300 million cases of scabies in the
world each year.
Malaria, the world's most important parasitic
infectious disease, is transmitted by mosquitoes which
breed in fresh or occasionally brackish water.
Malaria is among the five leading causes of death in
under-5-year-old children in Africa.
WHO estimates 300-500 million cases of malaria, with
over one million deaths each year.
Hepatitis, a broad term for inflammation of the liver, has a
number of infectious and non-infectious causes.
Two of the viruses that cause hepatitis (hepatitis A and E) can be
transmitted through water and food; hygiene is therefore
important in their control
Hepatitis A and E viruses, while unrelated to one another, are
both transmitted via the faecal-oral route,
Most often through contaminated water
From person to person.
Via food contaminated by infected foodhandlers,uncooked
foods, or foods handledafter cooking”
Typhoid fever is the result of systemic infection mainly
by salmonella typhi.
It occurs in all parts of the world where water supplies
and sanitation are sub-standard.
The disease is characterised by a typical continuous
fever for 3 to 4 weeks, relative bradycardia with
involvement of lymphoid tissues
It is endemic in India. Reported data for the year 2011
shows 1.06 million cases and 346 deaths.The
prevalance rate in India is 88 cases/lac population and
death rate is 0.029/lac population.
Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease caused by vibrio
cholera O1 (Classical or ElTor)
Cholera transmission is linked to inadequate
environmental management.Typical at-risk areas
include peri-urban slums and in areas where as a
consequence of disaster, disruption of water and
sanitation system takes place.
It remains a global threat to public health and key
indicator of lack of social development.
Reported cases for 2011 alone, a total of 589,854 cases
were notified from 58 countries, including 7,816
The key management of a patient who has a water borne
infection is identifying the specific organism and
instituting specific therapy appropriate for the organism.
Supportive therapy includes:
1 Monitoring the patient’s response to therapy.
2 Ensuring hydration and fluid balance
3 Continually observing for complications and
providing information to both the patient and family.
Nursing intervention:The goals of nursing management are to
give supportive care and to monitor for complications.
1 ) Encourage high fluid intake.
2 ) During the period of anorexia, the patient should receive
frequent small feedings, supplemented, if necessary by IV
infusion of glucose containing fluids.
3 ) Encourage the patient to express fears / worries.
4 ) Skin care (perineal care).
5 ) Teach the patient about his or her specific disease and
therapeutic regimens. She or he is instructed about personal
hygiene and the maintenance of the home environment to
prevent the spread of infection to other family member.