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Water borne diseases

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water borne diseases

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Water borne diseases

  1. 1. WATER RELATED DISEASES By Dr.K. Anantha Murugan INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF MEDICINE
  2. 2. THE TABLE SHOWS ESTIMATES OF THE MORTALITY AND MORBIDITY RATES OF SOME MAJOR WATER-RELATED DISEASES WORLDWIDE (AFTER WHO, 2005) DISEASE CASES PER YEAR DEATHS PER YEAR (THOUSANDS) (THOUSANDS) CHOLERA 384 11 THYPHOID 500 25 GIARDIASIS 500 LOW DIARRHOEAL DISEASES 1,500,000 4,000 ASCARIASIS 1,000 20 TRICHURIASIS 100 LOW ANCYLOSTOMA 1,500 60 DRACUNCULIASIS > 5,000 - SCHISTOSOMIASIS 200,000 800 TRACHOMA 360,000 9,000
  3. 3. Diseases Related to Water Water-borne Diseases Water-washed Diseases Water-based Diseases Water-related Diseases
  4. 4. WATER - BORNE DISEASES  Diseases caused by ingestion of water contaminated by human or animal excrement, which contain pathogenic microorganisms.  Include cholera, typhoid, amoebic and bacillary dysentery and other diarrheal diseases as  Giardiasis (Protozoan)  Cryptosporidiosis (Bacteria)  Campylobacteriosis (Bacteria)  Shigellosis (Bacteria)  Viral Gastroenteritis (Virus)  Cyclosporiasis (Parasite)
  5. 5. WATER - BORNE DISEASES  In addition, water-borne disease can be caused by the pollution of water with chemicals that have an adverse effect on health  Arsenic  Flouride  Nitrates from fertilizers  Carcinogenic pesticides (DDT)  Lead (from pipes)  Heavy Metals
  6. 6. water washed diseases
  7. 7. WATER - WASHED DISEASES  Diseases caused by poor personal hygiene and skin and eye contact with contaminated water.  These include scabies, trachoma, typhus, and other flea, lice and tick-borne diseases.
  8. 8. WATER-BASED DISEASES  Diseases caused by parasites found in intermediate organisms living in contaminated water  These include schistosomiasis and dracunculiasis
  9. 9. WATER-RELATED DISEASES  Water-related diseases are caused by insect vectors, especially mosquitoes, that breed or feed near contaminated water  They are not typically associated with lack of access to clean drinking water or sanitation services  These include dengue, malaria, filariasis, onchocerciasis, trypanosomiasis and yellow fever
  10. 10. The Problem  ~80% of infectious diseases  > 5 million people die each year  > 2 million die from water-related diarrhea alone  Most of those dying are small children
  11. 11. REPORTS FROM WORLD HEALTH ORGANISAION  Has ReportedThat Water Born Diseases Kill more people than any other disease in the World  1.1 billion people globally lack basic access to drinking water resources  Some 3.4 million people, many of them young children, die each year from water-borne diseases, such as intestinal diarrhea (cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery), caused by microbially-contaminated water supplies that are linked to deficient or non-existent sanitation and sewage disposal facilities.  Globally, water-borne diseases are the second leading cause of death in children below the age of five years, while childhood mortality rates from acute respiratory infections ranks first.  While 2.4 billion people have inadequate sanitation facilities, which accounts for many water related acute and chronic diseases
  12. 12. LIST OF WATER AND SANITATION RELATED DISEASES ACCORDING TO WHO  Anemia  Arsenicosis  Ascariasis  Campylobacteriosis.  Cholera.  CyanobacterialToxins  Dengue and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever.  Diarrhea .  Drowning  Fluorosis  Guinea-Worm Disease (Dracunculiasis).  Hepatitis.
  13. 13. LIST OF WATER AND SANITATION RELATED DISEASES ACCODIND TO WHO  Japanese Encephalitis.  Lead Poisoning.  Leptospirosis  Malaria .  Malnutrition .  Methaemoglobinemia  Onchocerciasis (River Blindness).  Ringworm (Tinea)  Scabies  Schistosomiasis.  Spinal Injury  Trachoma.  Typhoid and Paratyphoid Enteric Fevers.
  14. 14. ASCARIASIS  Ascariasis is found worldwide. Infection occurs with greatest frequency in tropical and subtropical regions,and in any areas with inadequate sanitation.  Ascariasis is an infection of the small intestine caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, a large roundworm.The eggs of the worm are found in soil contaminated by human faeces or in uncooked food contaminated by soil containing eggs of the worm.  Eating uncooked food grown in contaminated soil or irrigated with inadequately treated wastewater is another frequent avenue of infection.  Ascariasis is one of the most common human parasitic infections.  Worldwide, severe Ascaris infections cause approximately 60,000 deaths.
  15. 15. SCABIES  Scabies is a contagious skin infection that spreads rapidly in crowded conditions and is found worldwide.  Personal hygiene is an important preventive measure and access to adequate water supply is important in control.  Epidemics have been linked to poverty, poor water supply, sanitation and overcrowding.  There are about 300 million cases of scabies in the world each year.
  16. 16. MALARIA  Malaria, the world's most important parasitic infectious disease, is transmitted by mosquitoes which breed in fresh or occasionally brackish water.  Malaria is among the five leading causes of death in under-5-year-old children in Africa.  WHO estimates 300-500 million cases of malaria, with over one million deaths each year.
  17. 17. HEPATITIS  Hepatitis, a broad term for inflammation of the liver, has a number of infectious and non-infectious causes.  Two of the viruses that cause hepatitis (hepatitis A and E) can be transmitted through water and food; hygiene is therefore important in their control  Hepatitis A and E viruses, while unrelated to one another, are both transmitted via the faecal-oral route, Most often through contaminated water From person to person. Via food contaminated by infected foodhandlers,uncooked foods, or foods handledafter cooking”
  18. 18. TYPHOID  Typhoid fever is the result of systemic infection mainly by salmonella typhi.  It occurs in all parts of the world where water supplies and sanitation are sub-standard.  The disease is characterised by a typical continuous fever for 3 to 4 weeks, relative bradycardia with involvement of lymphoid tissues  It is endemic in India. Reported data for the year 2011 shows 1.06 million cases and 346 deaths.The prevalance rate in India is 88 cases/lac population and death rate is 0.029/lac population.
  19. 19. CHOLERA  Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease caused by vibrio cholera O1 (Classical or ElTor)  Cholera transmission is linked to inadequate environmental management.Typical at-risk areas include peri-urban slums and in areas where as a consequence of disaster, disruption of water and sanitation system takes place.  It remains a global threat to public health and key indicator of lack of social development.  Reported cases for 2011 alone, a total of 589,854 cases were notified from 58 countries, including 7,816 deaths.
  20. 20. CASE MANAGEMENT  The key management of a patient who has a water borne infection is identifying the specific organism and instituting specific therapy appropriate for the organism.  Supportive therapy includes: 1 Monitoring the patient’s response to therapy. 2 Ensuring hydration and fluid balance 3 Continually observing for complications and providing information to both the patient and family.
  21. 21. CASE MANAGEMENT  􀂾 Nursing intervention:The goals of nursing management are to give supportive care and to monitor for complications. 1 ) Encourage high fluid intake. 2 ) During the period of anorexia, the patient should receive frequent small feedings, supplemented, if necessary by IV infusion of glucose containing fluids. 3 ) Encourage the patient to express fears / worries. 4 ) Skin care (perineal care). 5 ) Teach the patient about his or her specific disease and therapeutic regimens. She or he is instructed about personal hygiene and the maintenance of the home environment to prevent the spread of infection to other family member.
  22. 22. HAVE A SAFE DRINKING WATER

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