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 DATA ANLYSIS 
 BY ; 
 Ms. KAVITHA. M. R
Introduction; 
Once the data are collected with the 
researcher turns his focus of attention on 
their processing. 
A researcher has to make his plan for each 
and every stage of the research process. 
As such, good researcher makes a perfect 
plan of processing and analysis of data. To 
some researchers data processing and 
analysis is not a very serious activity.
Introduction; 
Data process is an intermediary stage of work 
between data collection and data analysis. 
The collected data through various tools such 
as interview schedule, questionnaires, data 
sheets, and field notes contains a vast mass of 
data. 
And these collected information doesn’t gives 
straight away answers to research questions. 
The collected data is in raw materials, so it 
needs processing.
Data processing consists of a 
number of closely related 
operations; 
•Editing 
•Coding and Classification 
•Tabulation
Once the data is collected, then these 
aspects to be followed very importantly 
1. Checking the questionnaire Thorley. 
2. Sorting out and reducing information collected to 
manageable proportions. 
3. Summarizing the data in tabular form. 
4. Analyzing facts . 
5. Interpreting the results or converting data into statements 
,propositions or conclusion which ultimately will answer the 
research questions.
Editing: 
Editing of data is a process of examining the collected 
raw data to detect errors and omissions and to 
correct these when possible. 
• a careful scrutiny of the completed questionnaires 
and the schedule. 
• Editing is done to assure that the data are accurate, 
consistent with other facts gathered, uniformly 
entered, as completed as possible and have been well 
arranged to facilitate coding and tabulation.

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Data analysis copy

  • 1.  DATA ANLYSIS  BY ;  Ms. KAVITHA. M. R
  • 2. Introduction; Once the data are collected with the researcher turns his focus of attention on their processing. A researcher has to make his plan for each and every stage of the research process. As such, good researcher makes a perfect plan of processing and analysis of data. To some researchers data processing and analysis is not a very serious activity.
  • 3. Introduction; Data process is an intermediary stage of work between data collection and data analysis. The collected data through various tools such as interview schedule, questionnaires, data sheets, and field notes contains a vast mass of data. And these collected information doesn’t gives straight away answers to research questions. The collected data is in raw materials, so it needs processing.
  • 4. Data processing consists of a number of closely related operations; •Editing •Coding and Classification •Tabulation
  • 5. Once the data is collected, then these aspects to be followed very importantly 1. Checking the questionnaire Thorley. 2. Sorting out and reducing information collected to manageable proportions. 3. Summarizing the data in tabular form. 4. Analyzing facts . 5. Interpreting the results or converting data into statements ,propositions or conclusion which ultimately will answer the research questions.
  • 6. Editing: Editing of data is a process of examining the collected raw data to detect errors and omissions and to correct these when possible. • a careful scrutiny of the completed questionnaires and the schedule. • Editing is done to assure that the data are accurate, consistent with other facts gathered, uniformly entered, as completed as possible and have been well arranged to facilitate coding and tabulation.
  • 7. The editing could be classified as; 1. Field editing and 2. central editing.
  • 8. •Field Editing; Field editing consists in the review of the reporting forms by the investigator for completing (translating or rewriting) what the letter has written in abbreviated and or ill illegible form at the time of recording the respondent’s response.  it is done as soon as possible after the interview, preferably on the very day or on the next day.  field editing the investigator must restrain him and must not correct errors of omission by simply guessing what the informant would have said if the question had been asked.
  • 9. •Central Editing; Central editing takes place when all forms or schedules have been completed and returned to the office.  This can be done by individual in case of small study, whereas in the larger studies a team of editors will do the editing.
  • 10. The editors would edit the inappropriate on missing replies; the editor can sometimes determine the proper answer by reviewing the other information in the schedule. Sometimes the respondents can be contacted for the clarifications.
  • 11. Important aspects in the editing process are; 1. Completeness; 2. Accuracy; 3. Uniformity;
  • 12. Coding ; Coding process assigns numerals or other symbols to the several responses of the data set. In simple coding is translating answers into numerical values or assigning symbols/ numbers to the various categories of variables to be used in data analysis.
  • 13. Coding is necessary for efficient analysis and through it the several replies may be reduced to a small number of classes which contain the critical information required for analysis.
  • 14. A. Numerical coding; Coding need not necessarily be numeric, it can also be alphabetic. Coding has to be compulsorily numeric, when the variable is to be subject to further parametric analysis
  • 15. B. Alphabetic coding; A mere tabulation or frequency count or graphical representation of the variable may be given an alphabetic coding.
  • 16. C. Zero coding; A coding of zero has to be assigned carefully to a variable. In most of the cases when manual analysis is done, a code of “0” would imply a “no response” from the respondents. Hence, if a value of 0 is to be given to a specific response in the data sheet, it should not lead to the same interpretation of “no response”. For ex; there will be a tendency to give a code of 0 to a “no” answer. However, if the respondent had not chosen “yes’ or “no”, then a different coding than 0 should be given in the data sheet.
  • 17. Question number Variable/observati on Response categories code 1.1 Organization Private Pt Public Pb Government Go 3.4 Owner of vehicle yes 2 No 1 4.2 Vehicle performance Excellent 5 Good 4 Adequate 3 Bad 2 Worst 1 5.1 Age Up to 20 years 1 21-40 years 2 40-60 years 3 Above 60 years 4 5.2 Occupation Salaried S Professional P Technical T Business B Retired R House wife H
  • 18. • Classification; • The process of arranging data in groups or classes on the basis of common characteristics. • Data having common characteristics are placed in one class and in this way entire data get divided into number of groups or classes.
  • 19. •Classification according to attributes : The data are classified on the basis of common characteristics which can either be descriptive (such as literacy, sex, emotions, honesty) etc. A descriptive characteristic refers to qualitative phenomenon which cannot be measured quantitatively; only their presence or absence in an individual item can be noticed. Data obtained this way on the basis of certain attributes are known as statics of attributes and their classification is said to be classification according to attributes.
  • 20. •Classification according to class-interval: The numerical characteristics refer to quantitative phenomenon which can be measured through some stastical units. Data retaining to income, production, age weight etc. Such data are called as stastics of variables and are classified on the basis of class intervals. For ex; persons whose income says are within Rs 202-Rs 400 can form one group, those whose incomes are within Rs 401- Rs 600 can another group.
  • 21. In the case of open ended questions to classify responses the researcher looks for major characteristics of the responses and puts accordingly.
  • 22. In case of attitude scales a researcher has to keep in mind the direction or weightage of responses. Forex; when responses “strongly agree” is coded as 5 the subsequent codes would be in order. Therefore, if there are responses like “agree” “undecided” , “ disagree” and “ strongly Disagree”, they have to be coded as 4,3,2, and 1.
  • 23. The matrix questions have to be coded taking into consideration each cell as one variable. For ex; if the column of matrix represents employment status, namely “permanent” and “temporary” and the row represents employers or type of employer, namely, government and private, the first cell would represent a variable “government permanent” . The second cell would represent “government temporary” and so on.
  • 24. Tabulation: Tabulation is the process of summarizing raw data and displaying the same in compact form (i.e. in the form of statistical tables) for further analysis. It involves counting the number of cases falling into each of the categories identified by the researcher. In a broader sense, tabulation is an orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows. This can be done manually or through computer.
  • 25. Importance of Tabulation; •It conserves space and reduce explanatory and descriptive statement to a minimum. •It facilitates the process of comparison •It facilitates the summation of items and the detection of errors and omissions. •It provides a basis for various statistical computations.
  • 26. computerized data processing; When the sample size is large and or when the variables studied is vast and inter related data can be transcribed to the computer for further easy processing.
  • 27. Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages. The input requirement will be the column and row variables (EXCEL spread sheet). The software package then computes the number of records in each of the row/column categories. The most popular package is the Statical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS, Systat ). It is an integrated set of programs suitable for analysis of social science data. This package contains programs for a wide range of operations and analysis such as handling missing data recording, variable information, simple descriptive analysis, cross tabulation, multivariate analysis and non-parametric analysis
  • 28. Example of Master Sheet / CHART The master sheets explain complete coding process of the collected data. Respon dents Sl no. No Variable labels Age desig natio n Level of educ atio n Marit al status Natur e of work Durati on of work Wag es Attitude of employer 1 A B D C D A A A 2 B A D C C A A E 3 C A D C E D E A 4 D E D C E A A C 5 E E A D B E C D
  • 29. Some important points that can be kept in mind while preparing the coding for computerized data entry are; •Use a ‘natural ‘ coding scheme: •Avoid the blank space as a coding category. Do not use the – “ “, +, symbols .
  • 30. Presentation and Interpretation of Data. Construction of frequency table:
  • 31. Components of tables: The major components of a table are; •Heading •Table number •Title of the table •Designation of units •Body •Sub-head: heading of all rows or blocks of items •Body head: headings of all columns or main captions and their sub-captions. •Field/body: the cells in rows and columns. •Notations • Footnotes, wherever applicable •Source, wherever applicable
  • 32. Types of tables; •Uni-variate /One way tables Uni-variate analysis refers to tables, which give data relating to one variable. Uni-variate tables, which are more commonly known as frequency distribution tables, how frequently an item repeats. Further properties of distribution can be found out by various measures of central tendencies.
  • 33. Example The below table showing awareness of the respondents Level of awareness Distribution of respondents Frequencies % High 110 39.3 Medium 106 37.9 Low 64 21.8 Total 280 100.0
  • 34. •Bi-variate /Two way table: Distribution in terms of two or more variables and the relationship between two variables are shown in two- way tables. Example: table showing levels of awareness towards the Act and wage Differentials of the Respondents. Awareness about the ACT Wage differentials High Medium l Low Total High 94(66.2) 99(10.5) 7(13.5) 110(39.3 ) Medium 37(26.1) 58 (67.4) 11(21.2) 106(37.9 ) Low 11(7.7) 86(30.7) 52(14.6) 280(100. 0) Total 142 86 52 280(100. 0)
  • 35. •Multi-variate Analysis: If the researcher is interested in assessing the joint effect of three or more variables, he uses the techniques of multi-variate analysis. The most common stastical technique used for multi-variate analysis is regression analysis. In the first step of multi-variable analysis, the researcher has to obtain the correlation between the variables which are having stastically significant correlation. These variables are put in the regression analysis.
  • 36. Diagrammatic Representation: A diagram helps to understand the data easily. All stastical packages, MS Excel and Open Office offer a wide range of graphs. In case of qualitative data most common graphs are bar charts and pie charts. The most commonly used graphic forms may be grouped into the following categories; Graphs Histogram & Bar charts Pie chart Pictogram Pyramid Diagram
  • 37. • Graph: The graph offers a visual presentation of the results. The line graph can also provide markers for each data point marker for each variable can be different to distinguish it from other variables. The marker also highlights the value at any specific point
  • 38. 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4 Series 3 Series 2 Series 1
  • 39. •Histograms Histograms and bar charts have two axes that intersect at right angles. One axis (horizontal one) is divided into intervals representing the various possible values of the variables. The other axis (vertical one) is divided into intervals representing frequencies. Histogram depicts the data graphically with vertical bars adjacent to each others. 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 6 8 10
  • 40. Bar chart: Bar charts are similar to histograms except that the bars are separated. Bar charts can be used for nominal level data to show different variables. Ex, diagram; 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 Series 3 Series 2 Series 1
  • 41. Pie charts: Pie charts are circular charts divided into slices. Each slice represents a possible score and its size is proportional to occurrence of those scores in the sample. The component parts from the segments of the circle. The circle chart is usually a percentage chart. The data are converted to percentage of the total and the proportional segments; therefore give a clear picture of the relationship among the components. 1.4 1.2 3.2 8.2 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
  • 42. • Pictogram: Each picture represents (man, animal, vehicles, crops,) a certain number and total number of pictures gives the total number of events/ elements. Pictograms are an exciting way to summaries data and are often used in newspapers. Examples for pictogram;
  • 44. •Pyramid diagram; Pyramid consists of many levels and presents one or two variables.
  • 45. RESEARCH REPORT The final and very important step in a research study is to write its report. The research report is a means for communication our research experiences to others and adding them to the fund of knowledge.
  • 46. Functions of research report; •It serve as a means for presenting the problem studied, methods and techniques used for collecting and analyzing data, the findings , conclusions and recommendations in an organized manner. •It serves as a basic reference material for future use in developing research proposal in the same or related area. •A report serves as a means for judging the quality of the completed research project. •It is a means for evaluating the researcher’s ability and competence to do research. •It provides factual base for formulating policies and strategies relating to the subject matter studied. •It provides systematic knowledge on problems and issues analyzed.
  • 47. Different steps in writing report: •Logical analysis of the subject matter; •Preparation of the final out line •Preparation of the rough draft •Rewriting and polishing of the rough draft •Preparation of the final bibliography •Writing the final draft
  • 48. Planning report writing; •The target audience •The communication characteristic of audience. •The intended purposes of the report •The type of report •The scope of the report •The style of reporting •The format of report •Outline/time table of the report
  • 49. BIBILOGRAPHY; •Methodology of research in social sciences – Dr.O.R. Krishnaswami, Himalayan publishing house, 1999. •Research for social workers ,An introduction to methods, 2nd edition Margaret Alston , Wendy Bowles •Research Methodology Methods and techniques (Second Revised Edition 2004) & third edition 2014. C. R. Kothari, New Age International Publishers. •Practice of social research – social work perspective D.K.Lal Das Rawat publication, 2004.

Editor's Notes

  1. Once the data is collected, then these six aspects to be followed very importantl
  2. THANK YOU