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  1. 1. The Fight for Slavery in CaliforniaBy James M. McPherson<br />Kristina Underwood<br />History 141<br />
  2. 2. Mexican-American War (1846-1848)<br />Debate on the expansion of slave territory<br />Supposedly settled by Missouri Compromise in 1820<br />Outcome of war increased the U.S. by 1/3<br />Penn. Congressman David Wilmot- proposed “Proviso”: no slavery or involuntary servitude should exist in any land obtained from the war<br />Passed in congress, but blocked by Southerners (both Democrats and Whigs) in the Senate<br />President James K. Polk found expansion to be evil<br />Senator Daniel Webster said weather wouldn’t permit slaves<br />Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848- gave California from Mexico to United States<br />
  3. 3. California<br />Gold was found in California 1849 thousands of men went the new territory<br />House of Representatives organized California as free territory, Southern in the Senate, once again, blocked this proposal<br />President Zachary Taylor (1848) thought statehood would solve the issue of slavery<br />The South feared that admission of California would make the Senate unbalanced when it came to North vs. South<br />1850- Congress accepted Henry Clay’s compromise of admitting California as a free state, stopping slavery in D.C., and admitting New Mexico and Utah with no slavery restrictions<br />
  4. 4. “Chivalry”<br />Southern-born politicians, proslavery<br />William Gwin- Mississippi planter, went to California 1849 and served as a senator<br />Gwin’s challenger was David Broderick from New York, moved to California and got into the 1857 Senate<br />David Terry, a Chiv, came to California from Texas in 1849, became chief justice<br />Terry challenged Broderick to a duel, Terry chose the weapon, Terry killed Broderick and won<br />1850s- Chiv Democrats killed three anti-Chivs in duels<br />Chivs pressed a bill that split California in two- slavery allowed in Southern California, passed in legislature 1859, died in Congress<br />
  5. 5. Filibustering Efforts<br />Started in the 1850s, derived from the Spanish word filibustero, another word for pirate<br />Leaders of Polk administration wanted Cuba to offset California<br />Narciso Lopez led American filibusterers and invaded Cuba in 1850 and 1851<br />1850- Spanish pushed Americans back to their ships<br />1851- Spanish killed 200 Americans and captured the rest of the army<br />Henry Crabb, Chivalry Democratic, led a filibustering to Mexico 1857<br />Mexican troops overcame the American troops<br />William Walker failed at leading troops to Baja California 1853<br />1855- Walker took two thousand filibusterers to Nicaragua and took over the government 1856<br />Central America overthrew Walker and executed him in 1860<br />