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  1. 1. Departamento de Geografía e Historia UNIT 2. POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS. KEYS FOR THE EXAM (you have to know…): - Define: • Contemporary Age: • Amendment (Enmienda): • Federal Republic: • General States: • Tercer estado: • National Sovereignty: • Sans Culottes: • Referendum: • Civil Code: • Estado-Satélite: José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página1 • Economic Blockade: • Estado-Tapón: • Confederation: • Ideology: • Statement: • Masonry: • Zollverein: • Country: • Nationalism: • Territorios irredentos: - Define and/or compare: • National Assembly and constituent assembly: • Jacobin and Girondin: • Carta Otorgada and constitution: • Holy Alliance and Quadruple alliance. • Census Suffrage and Universal Suffrage • Separatist nationalism and unitary nationalism. - Difference the profound and immediate causes of the independence of USA. - Resume in a diagram the causes of the French Revolution. - Summarize in a table the characteristics of each period of the French revolution. - List the names of some important characters (Robespierre, Metternich, Louis XVI…). - Say the essential difference between doctrinaire and democratic liberalism. - Compare in a table the doctrinaire and democratic liberalism. - Appreciate the importance of Napoleon as rescuer of the revolutionary achievements. - Recognize the Napoleonic map, the restoration map… - List the ideas defended by liberalism.
  2. 2. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE INDEPENDENCE OF USA. 1. Define: a) Constitution: b) Amendment (Enmienda): c) Federal Republic: 2. Analyse the text, following the steps below: “When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another (…) a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness (…) We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown”. Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin y George Washington. “Declaration of Independence of USA” (4th July 1776). a) Presentation of the text. Type, timing and location. - What text is it? Where is it located? When was it written? - Who wrote it? Write a short biography. b) Analysis of the text. Summarize and organize ideas. - What colonies declare independence? What country did not they obey? - What fundamental rights does the text recognize? - What is the role of government? Who emanates its power? - Why is legitimate sometimes to rebel against powers? - In the name of who did they make the decision? c) Historical context. - Why are they demanding the independence? - What do they criticize England? - What is the relationship with the enlightenment thoughts? - What incident led to the outbreak of the war independence? - How did the conflict ended? What new political system was? d) Conclusion. – Rate the importance of the text and explain why it is considered essential to José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página2 understanding the end of the old system.
  3. 3. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 1. Read and answer: Why is the French Revolution so important? “Before the revolution, king Louis XVI of France met in his person all the power. At the end of it, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned emperor, with similar powers. One might think then that nothing had changed. But it would not be true because, with the French Revolution, the structure of the old regime definitely made history. This revolution marked the beginning of the modern age” 2. Built a diagram of the causes of the French Revolution. To built it, you must follow these steps: - Identify the main ideas. I helped you writing them in bold. - You need to identify supporting ideas within each main idea. 3. Define in your own words. (You can find the definitions in the resume, textbook or in a dictionary). a) General states (Estados Generales): b) Tercer estado: c) Girondin: d) Jacobin: José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página3 e) National Sovereignty: f) Census Suffrage: g) Sans Culottes: h) Referendum: 4. What is the difference between…?: a) National Assembly and constituent assembly: b) Political Rights and social rights: 5. Complete in your notebook the table below. Rebellion of privileged people Constitutional Monarchy Convention or Republic Directory Dominant Social Group (nobility, bourgeoisie, commoner) Year of constitution Is the legislature unicameral or bicameral? Is there a census or universal suffrage? Who is the executive? Is there a list of rights? Is it large or small one?
  4. 4. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página4 ACTIVITIES: NAPOLEON. 1. Define: a) Civil code (Código Civil): b) Estado Satélite: c) Economic blockade. Do you know any country currently locked? 2. Make a biography of Napoleon. This exercise is voluntary. 3. Explain, for your point of view, if Napoleon ended the revolution or was a follower of his principles. 4. Work with the map of Europe in 1811. a) Which countries did the Napoleonic Empire extended? b) Which countries were dependent and controlled by France? c) What independence states become allies of Napoleon? d) Where was the most important popular rebellion against Napoleon? 5. Why Napoleon contributed to nationalism?
  5. 5. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE RESTORATION. 1. Make a biography of Metternich This exercise is voluntary. 2. Define: (All the definitions are in the resume) a) Carta Otorgada: b) Estado-Tapón: c) Confederation: d) Holy Alliance: 3. Complete the map in the next page following these steps: a) Write on the map the names of France and of the four winners of Napoleon (Austria, Russia, Prussia and Britain). Write their capitals. b) The Germanic confederation was formed by Prussia and Austria and numerous small states, among Hannover, Sajonia and Baviera. Write their names next to the numbers at the top of the map. c) The following states remain independent: The Netherland Kingdom, Sweden and Norway, The two Sicilies Kingdom, the papal states and the Piedmont Kingdom. Assigns, in the legend, a colour to each of these states and colour it. d) The Lombardo-Veneto Kingdom in northern Italy was held by Austria, so it appears with the same colour. Write the two main cities: Milan and Venice. e) Poland disappeared absorbed by Austria, Prussia and Russia. Write its name in the right place. f) Locate Switzerland, Spain, Portugal and Denmark. Colour each country in a different colour; write their names and capitals. g) Finish the map by writing the name of the Turkish Empire. 4. Now, compare this map with the map of the Empire of Napoleon and complete the following table with the territorial changes of each of the following statements: José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página5 Territorial Changes France Italy Prussia Austria Russia
  6. 6. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página6
  7. 7. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: WHAT THE REVOLUTIONARIES WERE FIGHTING José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página7 FOR? 1. Define: a) National sovereignty: b) Country: c) Social Rights: d) Political Rights: 2. Complete the following table comparing the doctrinaire liberalism with democratic liberalism. Doctrinaire liberalism Democratic liberalism Monarchy or Republic? Unicameral or bicameral parliament? Census suffrage or universal suffrage? Extended or reduced declaration of rights? 3. Answer the following questions about the suffrage: a) What are the differences between census suffrage and universal suffrage? b) Which of both seem you fairly? c) How is currently suffrage in Spain? 4. Currently, there are supporters and opponents of nationalism. Which of the following ideas correspond to each of them? a) “A Human being is a citizen of the world and not of a particular nation”. b) “A person who has been born in a particular nation will always belong to the nation, although he live his life in another country”. c) “One must be able to change his nationality if desired”. d) “A nation cannot be formed by region with different culture and language”. 5. Which of the ideas of the previous exercise do you agree? Why?
  8. 8. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: LIBERAL BOURGEOUIS REVOLURTIONS. 1. Define: a) Statement (Pronunciamiento): b) Masonry (Masonería): c) Zollverein: 2. Complete the table below comparing the revolutions of 1820, 1830 y 1848. José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página8 Revolutions of 1820 Revolutions of 1830 Revolutions of 1848 Dates Social Classes involved Ideologies supported Method of fight Countries where they occur Results that they obtained 3. Draw in your notebook a map of Europe and colour in it the countries that were liberal countries in 1830 and countries that were absolutist.
  9. 9. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE UNIFICATIONS OF ITALY AND GERMANY. 1. Complete in your notebook a map like this with the 7 states that existed in the Italian Peninsula before the unifications. 2. Explain, in your own words, the difference between federation and confederation. 3. Define: a) Customs Union (Unión Aduanera): b) II Reich: c) Kaiser: d) Territorios Irredentos: 4. Make a biography of… a) Otto Von Bismarck: b) Cavour (This part of the exercise is voluntary). 5. Complete the table below: José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página9 Germany Italy State directing the unification Prime Minister who makes the unification War events Main problems of the new states
  10. 10. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página10 REVIEW ACTIVITIES. 1. Which characters correspond to each of the definitions below? a) The most important Jacobin leader of the French Revolution: b) The French Monarch guillotined in the French Revolution: c) The French military who built a great empire in Europe between 1799-1815: d) The Italian revolutionary who liberated southern Italy and Sicily: e) The German chancellor who led the unification of Germany: 2. Built a chronological axis with the following events: • Meeting of the General States (5 May 1789). • Oath ball game (Juramento del juego de la Pelota) (20 June 1789). • Bastille day (14 June 1789). • Declaration of the rights of man and citizen (20 August 1789). • Escape of the King (20 June 1791). • Austria declares the war (20 April 1792). • Deposition of King (10 August 1792). • Assault on the Tuileries (2-6 September 1792). • National convention starts (21 September 1792). • Execution of Louis XVI (21 January 1793). • Creation of the revolutionary Court (10 March 1793). • Execution of Marie Antoniette (16 October 1793). • Execution of Robespierre (27 July 1794). • Directory starts (26 October 1795). • Babeuf and his friends were arrested (10 May 1796). • Coup of 18 Brumaire (9 November 1799). • Napoleon was crowned Emperor (1804). • Civil Code (1804). • Napoleon Defeats Austria (1805). • England defeat Napoleon at the battle of Trafalgar (1805). • Napoleon invades Spain (1809). • England defeat Napoleon and he was exiled to the island of Elba (1813). • Empiere of a hundred days (1814). • Napoleon is defeated definitely (1815). • Congress of Viena (1814). • Holy and quadruple alliance (1815). 3. Explain the differences between… a) Carta Otorgada and constitution: b) Holy and quadruple alliance:
  11. 11. Departamento de Geografía e Historia 4. Compare “The oath of the Horatii”, pinted by David, and “The death of Sardanapalus”, pinted by Delacroix: The information you need is in the textbook and in the resume. José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página11 The Oath of Horatii The death of Sardanapalus Topic if each picture Number and position of the characters Colour Movement Way to expression of feelings Author Artistic Style Context
  12. 12. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página12 EXTENSION ACTIVITY. 1. The analysis of the constitution of 1791. a) Describe the diagram: - What are the three powers of a state and its functions? - Who hold each of the powers? - How can the King participate in the legislature? - What powers hold the assembly over the king and the government? - Who holds sovereignty? - Which two groups of people are divided the population according to their political rights? - Who can vote? Who do they choose? - Is the voting system direct or indirect? b) Analyse the information: - What are the differences between this constitutional Monarchy and an absolute monarchy? - What guarantees this constitution? - What problems can the veto of the monarch cause? c) Historical context: - Under what circumstances was this constitution make? - What social interests did it respond? - Who were marginalized in the political system? - How did they react between 1792 and 1794?
  13. 13. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página13 RECOVERY ACTIVITIES. 1. Look at the three maps below and answer: a) Which belongs to before the French Revolution, which to Napoleon Empire and which to the Restoration? b) Explain why.
  14. 14. Departamento de Geografía e Historia 2. Which period of the French Revolution was each event? a) Execution of Louis XVI: b) Execution of Robespierre: c) Constitution of 1791: d) Coup of 18 Brumaire: José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página14