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Homeworks 1 the 18th century


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homeworks subject 1 the 18th century 4º ESO

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Homeworks 1 the 18th century

  1. 1. Departamento de Geografía e Historia UNIT 1. THE 18th CENTURY. KEYS FOR THE EXAM (you have to know…): • Define: ! Modern Age: ! Old System (Antiguo Régimen): ! Guilds (Gremios): ! Mercantilism: ! Physiocracy: ! Fallow (Barbecho): ! Three-Year Rotation: José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página1 ! Absolutism: ! Cuts (Corts) or General Statements (estados generals): ! Enlightened Despotism (Despotismo ilustrado): ! Concordat: • Knows the figures about birth rate, mortality and vegetative growth of the Old System. • Compare current society with stratified society. • Compare in a table current demographic system with Old Demographic System. • Differentiate between catastrophic mortality and ordinary mortality. • Differentiate between Deism, agnosticism and atheism. • Place in time and space The War of Spanish Succession. • Place the start time and the end of the Modern Age. • Built Pyramid Class Society. • Summarize in a diagram the reforms of the bourbons. • Analyze a graph of the old demographic cycle. • Recognizes a political map of Europe in the eighteenth century. • Appreciate the need for separation of powers. • List the privileges of the nobility and clergy. • List the characteristics of the illustration. • List the reforms of Carlos III. • Explain the causes of high birth rate, the decline in mortality, the riot of Squillace and the war of Spanish Succession. • Explain the meaning of expression: agrarian subsistence economy. • Explain the meaning of the word: “Balance of powers”. • Explain, in your owns words and briefly, what thought Voltaire, Locke, Rousseau and Montesquieu. • Explain, in your own words, the decrees of new plant.
  2. 2. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página2 INITIAL ACTIVITIES 1. Remember the characteristics of the Middle age in relation to the following aspects: a) Political: Power Structure. b) The Economy: companies. c) Society: Social groups. d) Culture: Thought and arts. 2. Now think about these things in the current world: a) The Policy: - Who has the power today? - How they justify this power: by choice of people, by the grace of God…? b) The Economy: - What people mostly work: in primary, secondary or tertiary sector? - Do you think you have enough to live or have more than we need? - Do you think it has always been so? Since When? c) The Society: - What Social groups are there today? - Do all people have the same rights? - How do each social group differ from the others? - Do women have equal rights today? - Do you think it has always been so? d) The Culture: - Are we religious? - What are our concerns?
  3. 3. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: STRATIFIED SOCIETY. 1. Define: a) Modern Age: b) Old Regime: c) Stratified society (Soc. Estamental): d) Tithe (Diezmo): 2. Built a social pyramid and fill the box side. [Look for the information in the summary] 3. Order this causes in order to explain how the bourgeoisie appeared: The had to increase the amount of currency in circulation Demographic and Economic Recovery Traders accumulate profits The great epidemics of the fourteenth century (The black Death) disappear They open new trade routes Enriched traders invest in new business 4. Look at the pictures and answer the questions for each one: a) What social group own each image? b) What aspects (Clothing, housing type, room, objects…) show their José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página3 group and their lifestyle? c) What was their life? Where came his wealth or poverty?
  4. 4. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE DEMOGRAPHY. 1. Look at the graphic below and answer the questions: a) What is this graph about? b) How was the birth rate in the old demographic cycle? Why? c) How was the mortality in the old demographic cycle? Why? d) Explain the difference between ordinary and catastrophic mortality. e) How the vegetative growth was in the old demographic cycle? 2. Look at the graphic below and answer the questions: a) What does it represent? b) How many periods shows? c) What are the characteristics of each period? d) What period corresponds each? 3. Look at the map below. What areas of Spain were more densely populated in the eighteenth century? José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página4
  5. 5. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página5 ACTIVITIES: THE ECONOMY. 1. According to the picture below, explain the three-year rotation system. 2. Search for similarities and differences between commercialism [Mercantilismo] and physiocracy. [Read it in the summary and use your own words] 3. Define and give an example: [Look for them in the textbook, in the summary or in a dictionary, but NOT COPY, use your own words] a) Fallow (Barbecho): b) Subsistence: c) Guild (Gremio): d) Protectionism: e) Tariff (Arancel): f) Monopoly: 4. Explain how do you think each of the following measures bring more gold and silver to the country: [This is common sense; you have to think for yourself] a) Promote exports. b) Block the imports: Protectionism. c) Piracy. d) Reserve the colonial trade. 5. Copy in your notebook and fill in the following diagram: [You have the information in the textbook]
  6. 6. Departamento de Geografía e Historia HAVE YOU ENJOY WITH THIS EXERCISES? José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página6
  7. 7. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE ILLUSTRATION. 1. Define: a) Illustration: b) Agnosticism: c) Atheism: d) Superstition: e) Ideology: 2. Read the text and define Deism. With rare exceptions, philosophers admit the existence of a creator and organizer of the universe God. But that God does not intervene in Human History. In the old tradition life was as a valley of tears, as a simple way to eternal life, Diderot opposes the idea that there is just one duty: being Happy”. 3. Look the diagram “Separation of powers” in the resume: a) What three types of political powers exist and what are its functions? b) Compare with the current Spanish System. If you do not know, use logic. 4. Research one of the four philosophers illustrated of the resume. [Don´t “photocopy”, extracts the useful information and write with your own words] a) Some interesting facts about his private life. b) What are their most important books? c) What is their theory? How do they defend it? d) How importance have they have? José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página7 A. Carpentier and F. Lebrun. “A Brief History of Europe”.
  8. 8. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: ILLUSTRATED DESPOTISM. 1. Read both texts and answer the questions in your notebook: “All the sovereign power resides in me. It´s just for me so my court exist and have authority. And, as they have the power in my name, they can never turn against me. The legislative power is only mine, without any dependence or any partition. The full public order emanates from me, and the rights and interests of my nation rests in my hand” a) Where does the power of the king come from? Why do we have to obey him? b) Who was the first king who used this theory? [This is voluntary] 2. What is The Illustrated Despotism? How justified it Federico II? 3. Search for information about Oliver Cromwell. You should make the biography with your own way to express, not copying all you read. 4. Write the name of the principal countries of Europe in the eighteenth century. You have this map in your textbook. a) What are the major kingdoms that appear? b) Which territories in Europe and in the rest of world have each one? José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página8 Speech of Louis XIV to the parliament of Paris (1661) “God establishes kings as his ministers and reigns trough them over the people. The prince is the minister of God for goodness and avenger of bad actions. If you work badly, you have to tremble. So we have seen that the throne is not the throne of man, but it is the throne of God.” Bossuet. “Politics according to the scriptures” “You have to be crazy to believe that men have told another man: “We rise you above us because we like to be slaves”. Instead, They said: “We need you to keep the laws that we want to submit, we need you to rule us wisely, we need you to defend us. We will demand of you that you respect our freedom.” Frederick II Of Prussia (1781).
  9. 9. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página9
  10. 10. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: THE WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION. [For more information: html ] With the textbook and the resume, build a map of the war. 1. About the sides of the war: a) Charles II of Spain died childless. Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, was proclaimed king of Spain. Colour France and Spain (“Bourbon Alliance”) and writes their names and capitals. b) Austria-Hungary, Britain, The Nederlands, Portugal and Savoy prefer the archduke Charles of Austria. They made coalition of Hague and thus began the war. - Colour the coalition and write their names and capitals. - Why did they support the archduke Charles? c) The crown of Aragon supported the archduke Charles of Austria. Write the name. 2. About the development of the world: a) The archduke Charles was defeated in the battles of Brihuega, Almansa and Villaviciosa. Draw the sign of battle in them. b) What was the key event that allowed Philip to win the war? 3. About the outcome of the war. a) The Treaty of Utrecht was signed. Place Utrecht on the map. b) Philip V was recognized as King of Spain but, in return, had to give Minorca and Gibraltar to England; Naples, Sardinia, Flanders, Milan and Luxembourg to Austria. Write these names and colour according to legend of the map. José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página10 c) What Philip V abolished the crown of Aragon after the war? With what decree? How reorganized the territories of Aragon?
  11. 11. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página11 ACTIVITY: COMMENT MAP. A Comment Map can follow this scheme: 1. Presentation of the map: a) Rating: What kind of map is it? What is being said? b) Location in space and time. What historical moment represents? When? What territory is shown on the map? c) Legend: What means the colours, lines and signs of the legend? 2. Description and analysis of what appears on the map using the legend. a) What war did this Treaty end? b) What caused this war? Why was each country fighting in it? c) What territories did the Hispanic Monarchy lost after the Treaty? d) What countries were benefited? 3. Interpretation and historical context. To comment, you need to know the theory and relating it to explain what is on the map (“What we see on the map was because…”). a) What was the Hispanic Monarchy position in the international context if we compare with the previous two centuries? b) Explain what means “balance of power”. 4. Conclusions. Finally, we summarize the content of the map and do an assessment.
  12. 12. Departamento de Geografía e Historia ACTIVITIES: REFORMS OF CARLOS III. 1. Define: a) Customs (Aduanas): b) Royal Manufactures (manufacturas reales): c) Jurisdictions (Fueros): d) Cadastre (Catastro): e) Concordat: f) Institutions: 2. Investigate and summarize the works of the most important Spanish philosophers Illustrated: - Campomanes. - Floridablanca. - Feijoo. - Jovellanos. Works in groups, each group choose one of them. 3. Compose your personal opinion on these matters: a) In your opinion, do they have appropriate ideas? Why? b) Why they found difficulties to implementation it? 4. Read the text (in Spanish in the original) and answer the questions: “He juzgado por conveniente abolir y derogar los referidos fueros, privilegios, práctica y costumbre hasta aquí observados en los reinos de Aragón y Valencia, siendo mi voluntad que estos se reduzcan a las leyes de Castilla sin diferencia alguna en nada, pudiendo obtener por esta razón mis fidelísimos vasallos castellanos oficios y empleos en Aragón o Valencia, de la misma manera que los aragoneses y valencianos han de poder, en adelante, gozarlos en Castilla sin ninguna distinción.” a) What are the decrees of New Plant? b) Who is the author? Besides his name, explain who he is. c) Which is established in the decree? d) Why do you think that laws chosen for the whole state are the laws of Castilla? José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página12 Decreto de Nueva Planta de Felipe V (1707).
  13. 13. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página13 REVIEW ACTIVITIES. 1. Fill in the diagram below and define each element. 2. Complete the table in your notebook with the phrases of the picture. Review what you know and try to add more ideas at the table. Old System New Illustrated ideas Nowadays Political Power Religion Society Economy • Absolute Monarchy. • All powers concentrated in the king. • States with privileges. • Tolerance and religious freedom. • Social Equality. • Independent Justice. • Social inequality. • Economic control. • Parliamentary Monarchy. • Sovereignty of the nation. • Mercantilism. • Freedom of opinion and expression. • Physiocracy. • Freedom in Economy. 3. Complete, in your notebook, the table below: Birth Rate Mortality Vegetative 4. Write a sentence that summarize the Montesquieu’s thoughts and other that summarize the Rousseau´s thoughts. Growth Years Old Demographic Regime Demographic Revolution New Demographic Regime Structures of the old System Society Stratified and ___________ Economy Monarchy Demographic ______.
  14. 14. Departamento de Geografía e Historia “a mi lado izquierdo oí un ruido de alguno que nadaba y vi un juez que estaba en medio del arroyo lavándose las manos. Llégueme a preguntarle porqué se lavaba tanto y díjome que en vida, sobre ciertos negocios, se las habían untado y que estaba porfiando allí por no parecer con ellas de aquella suerte delante de la universal residencia” “alegó un ángel por el boticario que daba del balde a los pobres medicinas; me dijo un diablo que hallaba por su cuenta que habían sido más dañosos dos botes de su tienda que diez mil de pica en la guerra, porque todas sus medicinas eran espurias, y que con esto había hecho liga con una peste y había destruido dos lugares”. “el juez nos puede torcer o dilatar la justicia, el letrado, sustentar por su interés nuestra injusta demanda; el mercader chuparnos la hacienda; Todas las personas con quién tratamos nos pueden hacer algún daño; pero quitarnos la vida sin quedar sujetos al temor del castigo, ninguno, sólo los médicos nos pueden matar y nos matan sin temor… “Es costumbre y condición de los mercaderes de Sevilla, y de otras ciudades, mostrar su riqueza, no en sus personas, sino en la de sus hijos; porque los mercaderes son mayores en su sombra. En sus tratos y contratos, tratánse modestamente y sus hijos los tratan y autorizan como si fuesen hijos de algún príncipe; y algunos hay que les procuran títulos, y ponerles en el pecho la marca que tanto distingue la gente principal de la plebeya”. “No soy tan pobre que no tengo en mi tierra un solar de casas que, a estar en pie y bien labradas, valdrían más de doscientas mil maravedíes…y tengo un palomar que a no estar derribado daría cada año más de doscientos palominos. Y otras cosas que me callo, que dejé. Y vine a esta ciudad pensando que hallaría buen asiento, más no ha sucedido como pensé.” José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página14 RECOVERY ACTIVITIES. 1. Which social group is described in each text (in Spanish in original)? Francisco Quevedo. “sueños y discursos” Miguel de Cervantes. “el licenciado vidriera” 2. Which kind of government supports the text? Lazarillo de Tormes. “Jacques Coeur era un hombre de origen plebeyo, muy hábil. Fue el primer francés que poseyó buques que, cargando tejidos de lana, se dirigían a Egipto. Allí vendían estos productos y adquirían seda y especias que transportaban a Francia. Este hombre ofreció al rey Carlos VII un préstamo de 100.000 escudos de oro”. “Any man has received from Nature the right to rule over others. Freedom is a gift from heaven and every individual has the right to enjoy it. If Nature has established an authority, is the father: but even this has its limits. Any others authority comes from force and violence or the consent of the governed by a contract. Diderot. “Political Authority”. The Encyclopedia.
  15. 15. Departamento de Geografía e Historia 3. Explain why are true or false the following statements: a) Voltaire was a Spanish Philosopher. b) Carlos III was an absolute Monarch who reigned in France in the eighteenth century. c) The illustrated people wanted to improve teaching. d) Rousseau wrote a book titled “The social contract”. e) Philip V abolished the privileges of some Spanish territories. José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página15
  16. 16. Departamento de Geografía e Historia “When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person or corporation, then there is no freedom because we fear that the same Monarch or senate make tyrannical laws. The same happens when justice is not separated from the legislative and executive power. In the first case, the power over life and freedom would be arbitrary for being yourself judge and legislator. On the second case, it would be tyrannical because the judge would enjoy the same force as an aggressor”. José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página16 EXTENSION ACTIVITIES. 1. Read the texts below. Montesquieu. “The Spirit of the Laws”. 2. Read the texts and answer the questions: a) What differences do you observe between the Monarchies described in each text? b) At what historical period belong one and the other? c) How is called each kind of Monarchy? . “The greatest good is Freedom and equality, without with Freedom can not exist. True equality is not that wealth was the same for all of us, but no one was rich enough to buy another and no one was so poor as to be forced to sell himself. As the force or things tends to destroy equality, we must make laws to keep it. Then, what is the government? An institution responsible for the execution of the laws and the maintenance of Freedom. That is the solution that gives the social contract. But the government is only representative of the people. Any law that has not been ratified by the people is invalid. Anybody is bound to obey the illegitimate power. To renounce Freedom is to renounce being a Man.” J.J. Rousseau. “The Social Contract”.. . “In the absolute monarchy it had consolidated a new power state, recent and relatively centralized which, with its needs and its own dynamic bureaucracy printed the political system of the old regime. ¿Modern state? Supporters of the concept emphasize the important change that led to the replacement of vassal loyalty ties for other based on being a membership in a territorial community. They also highlight the concentration of power in the hands of a single ruler. The progressive lost of political influence by the nobility, the emergence of a bureaucracy and a new nobility of service and an administrative centralization. Absolutism, on the other hand, was not so limited, and not so centralized state as we sometimes imagine. Remained the lordships and courts of provincial governments collected by estate (Clergy, nobility and royal cities). Ruíz Torres. “Age of reason”. 1993. ”
  17. 17. Departamento de Geografía e Historia “What happened in the Kingdoms? Feudalism had been a half-century gaining the prerogatives of the sovereign. How could these men not think that the lands belonged to them and were for their children? In principle, all major subjects will have to provide military aid to the king when war breaks out, but, in facts, offer the help they want, according to their interest and require some privileges in return, generally result in land. E. Pognon. “Daily life in 1.000 B.C”. Topics today. Madrid. 1991. 3. Look at the map and answer the questions. a) Describe the trade routes of the eighteenth century. b) What products were exchanged? c) Which countries were involved? 4. Look at the map of the Europe at the end of the fifteenth century and answer: a) What great Monarchies appear in Western Europe yet? b) What is the kind of government of each one? c) In which territories was divides Spain and Italy? d) Explain the strategic importance of Constantinople and the consequences for its conquest of the Turkish Empire. José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página17
  18. 18. Departamento de Geografía e Historia José Carlos Núñez Vidal Página18