Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Whose Copyright Economy

809 views

Published on

Presentation in Whoose Copyright Economy seminar in Finnish Parliament in Dec 11th 2009.

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to like this

Whose Copyright Economy

  1. 1. Whose Immaterial Economy? Jyrki J.J. Kasvi
  2. 2. Information society civilization Information processing Pre-language Speech Writing Printing press ICT technology Available information ~ 10 7 bits ~ 10 9 bits ~ 10 11 bits ~ 10 17 bits ~ 10 25 bits <ul><li>Printing press gave birth to copyright as we know it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect content providers against distributors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT tehcnology is going to need a corresponding system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But to protect whom against whom? </li></ul></ul>Civilization level Pack Tribes/villages Towns/cities Industrial Networking
  3. 3. Anne’s act 1709 <ul><li>In 1709 the first actual copyright law was enacted in United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined the three interest groups whose relationships copyright laws still governs: content provider, publisher and consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers had no right to limit the way consumers use the content they purchase, DRM would have been illegal in 1709. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It took 300 years from Gutenberg’s invention to get a law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The principles of Anne’s act worked for almost 300 years! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires small copying costs and centralised control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In digital world the copying costs are zero and each and every computer is a potential printing press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now the change happens much faster than 300-400 years ago. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Challenge and opportunity <ul><li>Printing press created the basis for copyright system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making of new copies of content is cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to centrally supervise and control copying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and popular culture were born as a result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But the profession of scribes was wiped out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital technology requires new rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It costs nothing to copy, edit and distribute content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to centrally supervise or control copying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What new cultural phenomena digital technology makes possible? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media, crowdsourcing, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rip-n-mix & mash-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Goals for a new copyright system <ul><li>Of these we probably have a wide consensus </li></ul><ul><li>To maximise production and use of content – the expansion of culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the original goal of the patent system was to maximise the distribution and use of new innovations – expansion of economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To secure livelihood of content makers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What about benefits of media industry shareholders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production and marketing services used by content makers are also under threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To facilitate new forms of content, expression and culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing, mash-ups etc. vs. copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of means to achieve these goals we still need to discuss </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problematic details <ul><li>Copyrights of public information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have been used to limit publication and usage of public information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to use content created by public cultural institutions and broadcasting companies? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyrights in developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and education institutions of developing countries cannot afford the prices of scientific and educational materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disabled people’s equal access to information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content should be transferable to formats accessible to disabled people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRM should allow blind people’s screen readers to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyrights of software have been forgotten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically the most important sector of copyright economy in Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The intimate relationship of media industry and law makers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The secrecy of ACTA negotiations have not stopped media industry lobbyists from being informed (better than politicians or NGO’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer and civil rights have been secondary to economic interests </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Supervision and control <ul><li>The only way to enforce traditional copyrights in digital age is to supervise continuously everybody’s digital communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for supervision and judgement? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cutting internet connections is the only working punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of expression? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for enforcing punishments? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install supervision compulsory software on each and every computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who would be watching the watchmen? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cloud computing politics <ul><li>Applications, content and computing are becoming cloud computing services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content providers must become service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kindle etc. Is doing the same to books and newspapers as Spotify did to music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV channels may die but IP television services grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The tension between the rights of content providers, publishers and customers stays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon removed 1984 from their clients’ Kindles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is going to happen to public libraries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers would be more than happy to see libraries dwindle </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Difficult near future <ul><li>Media industry is going through a painful structural change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD and DVD, even mp3 and mpeg are going to follow LP and C to oblivion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content becomes service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amateur media challenges industrial media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed and shared content production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial news media are facing a challenge to survive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The role of public broadcasting and media increases </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sukupuolten välinen digikuilu? Discussion U.S. Army Photo

×