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Whose Copyright Economy


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Presentation in Whoose Copyright Economy seminar in Finnish Parliament in Dec 11th 2009.

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Whose Copyright Economy

  1. 1. Whose Immaterial Economy? Jyrki J.J. Kasvi
  2. 2. Information society civilization Information processing Pre-language Speech Writing Printing press ICT technology Available information ~ 10 7 bits ~ 10 9 bits ~ 10 11 bits ~ 10 17 bits ~ 10 25 bits <ul><li>Printing press gave birth to copyright as we know it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To protect content providers against distributors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ICT tehcnology is going to need a corresponding system : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But to protect whom against whom? </li></ul></ul>Civilization level Pack Tribes/villages Towns/cities Industrial Networking
  3. 3. Anne’s act 1709 <ul><li>In 1709 the first actual copyright law was enacted in United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined the three interest groups whose relationships copyright laws still governs: content provider, publisher and consumer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers had no right to limit the way consumers use the content they purchase, DRM would have been illegal in 1709. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It took 300 years from Gutenberg’s invention to get a law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The principles of Anne’s act worked for almost 300 years! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires small copying costs and centralised control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In digital world the copying costs are zero and each and every computer is a potential printing press </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now the change happens much faster than 300-400 years ago. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Challenge and opportunity <ul><li>Printing press created the basis for copyright system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making of new copies of content is cheap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to centrally supervise and control copying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newspapers and popular culture were born as a result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But the profession of scribes was wiped out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital technology requires new rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It costs nothing to copy, edit and distribute content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is impossible to centrally supervise or control copying </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What new cultural phenomena digital technology makes possible? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social media, crowdsourcing, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rip-n-mix & mash-up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Goals for a new copyright system <ul><li>Of these we probably have a wide consensus </li></ul><ul><li>To maximise production and use of content – the expansion of culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. the original goal of the patent system was to maximise the distribution and use of new innovations – expansion of economy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To secure livelihood of content makers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What about benefits of media industry shareholders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production and marketing services used by content makers are also under threat </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To facilitate new forms of content, expression and culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowdsourcing, mash-ups etc. vs. copyright </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Of means to achieve these goals we still need to discuss </li></ul>
  6. 6. Problematic details <ul><li>Copyrights of public information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have been used to limit publication and usage of public information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to use content created by public cultural institutions and broadcasting companies? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyrights in developing countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research and education institutions of developing countries cannot afford the prices of scientific and educational materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disabled people’s equal access to information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content should be transferable to formats accessible to disabled people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DRM should allow blind people’s screen readers to work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Copyrights of software have been forgotten </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economically the most important sector of copyright economy in Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The intimate relationship of media industry and law makers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The secrecy of ACTA negotiations have not stopped media industry lobbyists from being informed (better than politicians or NGO’s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer and civil rights have been secondary to economic interests </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Supervision and control <ul><li>The only way to enforce traditional copyrights in digital age is to supervise continuously everybody’s digital communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for supervision and judgement? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cutting internet connections is the only working punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of expression? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for enforcing punishments? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese proposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Install supervision compulsory software on each and every computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Who would be watching the watchmen? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cloud computing politics <ul><li>Applications, content and computing are becoming cloud computing services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content providers must become service providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kindle etc. Is doing the same to books and newspapers as Spotify did to music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TV channels may die but IP television services grow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The tension between the rights of content providers, publishers and customers stays </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amazon removed 1984 from their clients’ Kindles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is going to happen to public libraries? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishers would be more than happy to see libraries dwindle </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Difficult near future <ul><li>Media industry is going through a painful structural change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CD and DVD, even mp3 and mpeg are going to follow LP and C to oblivion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content becomes service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amateur media challenges industrial media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributed and shared content production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial news media are facing a challenge to survive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The role of public broadcasting and media increases </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Sukupuolten välinen digikuilu? Discussion U.S. Army Photo