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2.5 gui


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GUI based Software Testing

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2.5 gui

  1. 1. GUI-based Testing Alessandro Marchetto Fondazione Bruno Kessler - IRST
  2. 2. 2 GUI-based Testing • One of the practical methods commonly used to detect the presence of errors (failures) in a computer program is to exercise it by using its Graphical User Interface. Our program The output is correct? I1, I2, I3, …, In, … Expected results = ? Obtained results “Inputs” GUI
  3. 3. GUI-based Testing: again four main questions  At which level conducting the testing? 3  Unit  Integration  System  Regression  How to choose inputs?  using the specifications/use cases/requirements  using the code  only considering the GUI (functionality, structure)  How to identify the expected output?  test oracles  How good test cases are?  when we can stop the testing activity
  4. 4. 4 GUI …. what?  GUI as a means to use/interact with the software systems  GUI are nowadays almost ubiquitous, even in safety critical systems  Different types of device (web, pc, tablet, palm, mobile)  GUI interacts with the underlying code by method calls or messages  GUI can exercise remote code  GUI responds to user events (e.g., mouse clicks)  GUIs are event-driven systems  Testing GUI correctness is critical for system usability, robustness and safety  The whole system can be executed by means of the GUI
  5. 5. GUI …. more formally A GUI (Graphical User Interface) is a hierarchical, 5 graphical front end to a software system A GUI contains graphical objects w, called widgets, each with a set of properties p, which have discrete values v at run-time. At any time during the execution, the values of the properties of each widget of a GUI define the GUI state: {… (w, p, v), …} A graphical event e is a state transducer, which yields the GUI from a state S to the next state S’.
  6. 6. 6 GUI-based Testing  Testing GUI software systems is different from testing non-GUI software  Non-GUI testing: suites are composed of test cases that invoke methods of the system and catch the return value/s;  GUI-based testing: suites are composed of test cases that are:  able to recognize/identify the components of a GUI;  able to exercise GUI events (e.g., mouse clicks);  able to provide inputs to the GUI components (e.g., filling text fields);  able to test the functionality underlying a GUI set of components;  able to check the GUI representations to see if they are consistent with the expected ones;  often, strongly dependent on the used technology;
  7. 7. 7 GUI testing difficulties  GUI test automation is difficult  Often GUI test automation is technology-dependent  Observing and trace GUI states is difficult  UI state explosion problem  A lot of possible states of the GUI  Controlling GUI events is difficult  Explosion of the possible combinations of events to do the same thing  GUI test maintenance is hard and costly  ……
  8. 8. 8 GUI testing advantages  Automation is feasible  Several frameworks and tools support it  Easy to conduct for non-expert people  It is funny to do  ……
  9. 9. Which type of GUI-based testing? 9  System testing  Test the whole system  Acceptance testing  Accept the system  Regression testing  Test the system w.r.t. changes
  10. 10. 10 GUI-based Acceptance Testing Acceptance Tests are specified by the customer and analyst to test that the overall system is functioning as required (Do developers build the right system?). How?  Manual Acceptance testing. User exercises the system manually using his creativity.  Acceptance testing with “GUI Test Drivers” (at the GUI level). These tools help the developer do functional/acceptance testing through a user interface such as a native GUI or web interface.  Table-based acceptance testing. Starting from a user story (or use case or textual requirement), the customer enters in a table the expectations of the program’s behavior.  Black-Box (aka functional) approaches can be used to define test specification then executed manually, by means of the GUI or by table-based testing.
  11. 11. Approaches for GUI-based testing 11  Manual based  Based on the domain and application knowledge of the tester  Capture and Replay  Based on capture and replay of user sessions  Model-based testing  Based on the execution of user sessions selected from a model of the GUI  Which type of model to use?  Event-based model  State-based model  Domain model  How do obtain the model to be used?  Specification-based model  Model recovered from existing software systems  Log-based model
  12. 12. Coverage criteria for GUI-based testing  Conventional code-based coverage cannot be 12 adequate;  GUIs are implemented in terms of event-based system, hence, the abstraction level is different w.r.t. the conventional system code. So mapping between GUI events and system code can not be so easy.  Possible coverage criteria:  Event-coverage: all events of the GUI need to be executed at least once  State-coverage: “all states” of the GUI need to be exercised at least once  Functionality-coverage: .. using a functional point of view
  13. 13. Event-based Model Model the space of GUI event interactions as a graph Given a GUI: 1. create a graph model of all the possible sequences that a user can execute 2. use the model to generate event sequences 13
  14. 14. 14 Event-based Model “Event-flow graph” File New Open Save … Edit Cut Copy Paste Replace Undo … Editbox0 Editbox1 Match case Find next Replace Replace all Cancel Top level TC: <S0, event1, event2, …> Oracle: <State1, State2, …> & !CRASH
  15. 15. 15 Event-based Model Model Type:  Complete event-model  Partial event-model Event types:  Structural events (Edit, Replace)  Termination events (Ok, cancel)  System interaction events (Editbox0, Find next) Coverage criteria  Event coverage  Event coverage according the exercised functionality  Coverage of semantically interactive events  2-way, 3-way coverage  ….
  16. 16. 16 State-based Model Model the space of GUI event interactions as a state model, e.g., by using a finite state machine (FSM): • States are screenshot/representation of the GUI • Transitions are GUI events that change the GUI state Given a GUI: 1. create a FSM of the possible sequences that a user can execute, considering the GUI state 2. use the FSM to generate event sequences e1 e2 e3 e4 e5
  17. 17. 17 State-based Model <ok> FSM: - State: GUI screenshot -Transition: event that changes the GUI state <fill + ok> <click> <click> <click> <fill> <fill> <ok> <fill + ok>
  18. 18. 18 ..example Problem: state explosion!  Use of a state abstraction function It maps concrete states into abstract states (i.e., sets of concrete states)
  19. 19. 19 Log-based Recovered Model  How do obtain the model?  starting from system specification or requirements  starting from the system (i.e., reverse engineering) 1. trace some system executions (at method calls level) 2. infer a model 3. refine it manually, if needed
  20. 20. Test oracles for GUI-based testing  It could be difficult to detect faults looking the GUI 20  Crash testing is often used;  In a GUI test case, an incorrect GUI states can take the user to an unexpected/wrong interface screen or it can make the user unable to do a specific action;  e.g., after the click of a button, we try to click the button again but we fail since the button no longer exists, after the first click.  A GUI state can be “represented” by the components expected to be part of the GUI in a give time and their state/value  e.g., window position, GUI objects, GUI title, GUI content, GUI screenshots,
  21. 21. 21 GUI errors: examples  Incorrect functioning  Missing commands (e.g., GUI events)  Incorrect GUI screenshots/states  The absence of mandatory UI components (e.g., text fields and buttons)  Incorrect default values for fields or UI objects  Data validation errors  Incorrect messages to the user, after errors  Wrong UI construction  ….
  22. 22. 22 GUI-based Testing: process 1. Identify the testing objective by defining a coverage criteria 2. Generate test cases from GUI structure, specification, model  Generate sequences of GUI events  Complete them with inputs and expected oracles 3. Define executable test cases 4. Run them and check the results
  23. 23. 23 GUI-based Regression Testing  GUI-based testing means to execute the GUI of a system exercising its GUI components;  A small changes in the GUI layout can make the GUI test cases old and useless;  Hence, GUI-based test suite need to be maintained and often chagned  supporting tools are welcomed  Often, GUIs are realized by means of rapid prototyping or automatic framework. This requires an efficient approach to generate and maintain GUI test suite  supporting tools are welcomed
  24. 24. Capture and Replay A capture and replay testing tool captures user sessions (user inputs and events) and store them in scripts (one per session) suitable to be used to replay the user session. An ad-hoc infrastructure is needed to intercept GUI events, GUI states, thus storing user sessions and also to be able to replay them. - they can work at application or VM level 24
  25. 25. 25 Recorded information  Inputs, outputs, and other information needed to replay a user session need to be recorded during the capture process.  Examples:  General information: date/time of recording, etc.  System start-up information  Events from test tool to system  Point of control, event  Events from system to test tool  Checkpoints / expected outputs  Time stamps
  26. 26. 26 Capture and Replay: the process 1. The tester interacts with the system GUI to run the system, thus generating sessions of sequence of mouse clicks, UI and keyboard events; 2. The tool captures and stores the user events and the GUI screenshots;  a script is produced per each user session 3. The tester can automatically replay the execution by running the script  the script can be also changed by the tester  the script can be enriched with expected output, checkpoints  the script can be replicated to generate many variants (e.g., changing the input values) 4. In case of GUI changes, the script must be updated
  27. 27. 27 Tools for GUI-based testing  Marathon  Abbot Java  Guitar  HtmlUnit, HttpUnit,JWebUnit  HtmlFixture  Selenium  …. Web
  28. 28. 28 Running Example: Calculator Calc_1 :  Logic mixed to GUI  GUI realized by using Swing Calc_2 :  Logic mixed to GUI  GUI realized by using AWT Calc_3 :  Logic separated from the GUI  GUI realized by using AWT +Swing These apps are from the net hence please refer to the author’s copyright
  29. 29. Marathon  Is a tool that helps writing System/GUI tests 29 for Java/Swing applications  Consists of a recorder, player, and an editor  Records tests script in Python  It is possible to use it without knowing Python …  Allows to insert assertions in the script easily  Using a specific GUI  Shows testing results using JUnit’s control bar  Red/green   download Marathon and its user manual
  30. 30. 30 Marathon example (1)  A calculator application was developed (Swing)  We want to write tests for the calculator  Ex. add two values  Steps: 1. create a new Marathon project 2. create a new empty test (a test is a Python script file) 3. build the test (recording)
  31. 31. 31 Marathon example (2) Record the script • click on the record button in the toolbar – the red circle • enter “12 + 4 =”, the result is displayed (16) • press control + right-click in the text area, to open the contextual menu • select Assert Text • stop recording (the button with a red square), the script now looks like: • save the script
  32. 32. 32 Marathon example (3) Run the script • Select the “JUnit” tab • Click the test view, you should see your new created test • Click on the “Run all tests” button, in the JUnit’s control bar • and … • get the green bar …
  33. 33. 33 Abbot  Is a tool that helps writing System/GUI tests for Java AWT/Swing applications  Consists of a recorder, player, and an editor (via Costello, built on top of Abbot)  Records tests script in Java  Allows to write test cases directly from Java code (named programmatic GUI testing)  Allows to insert assertions in the script easily  Shows testing results using JUnit’s control bar  Red/green  Two main building blocks:  ComponentReferences to get a handle on a GUI component  Robot: to perform user-level actions on various GUI components   download Marathon and its user manual
  34. 34. 34 Abbot example (1)  A calculator application was developed (AWT/Swing)  We want to write tests for the calculator  Ex. add two values  Steps: 1. create a new empty Abbot test 2. Initialize the test with the application under test information 3. build the test (recording)
  35. 35. 35 Abbot example (2) Recording 1. Start recording of all actions 2. Execute the software 3. Add assertions 1. select the GUI element with SHIFT+F1 2. select the property (e.g., (“Text”) 3. set the expected value 4. Stop recording
  36. 36. 36 Guitar  A testing framework implementing the “Event-flow graph” approach  Four main components:  The GUIRipper: extract GUI information from a program  The GUIStructure2Graph: build a traversable graph representation of the GUI elements  The TestCaseGenerator: create an extensive set of test cases based on the graph  The GUIReplayer: run the program as instructed by these tests  It is a research tool…   It requires ANT to be executed
  37. 37. 37 Guitar (1) Four main components: (1) GUIRipper: GUI information extraction >ant -f jfcripper.xml (2) GUIStructure2Graph: Event-flow graph inference >ant -v -f GUIStructure2GraphConvert.xml
  38. 38. Guitar (2) (3) TestCaseGenerator: Test cases generation traversing the graph 38 >ant -v -f TestCaseGenerator.xml (4) GUIReplayer: Run the program GUI according to the generated test cases >ant -f jfcreplayer.xml
  39. 39. Tools for other GUI-based testing of Java  HtmlUnit, HttpUnit, JWebUnit  HtmlFixture  Selenium  …. 39
  40. 40. 40 XUnit Web tools HtmlUnit, HTTPUnit, JWebUnit, etc. - They are inspired by JUnit - They let us to verify the functionalities of Web sites - They emulate the relevant portions of browser behavior form submission, JavaScript, http authentication, cookies, automatic page redirection, etc. - They allow Java test code to examine returned pages in terms of text, DOM, or containers of forms, tables, and links - They make it easy to write Junit tests that verify HTTP requests and responses
  41. 41. Send the request 41 … HttpUnit example import junit.framework.TestCase; import com.meterware.httpunit.WebResponse; import com.meterware.httpunit.WebConversation; import com.meterware.httpunit.WebForm; import com.meterware.httpunit.WebRequest; public class SearchExample extends TestCase { public void testSearch() throws Exception { WebConversation wc = new WebConversation(); WebResponse resp = wc.getResponse(""); WebForm form = resp.getForms()[0]; form.setParameter("q", "HttpUnit"); WebRequest req = form.getRequest("btnG"); resp = wc.getResponse(req); assertNotNull(resp.getLinkWith("HttpUnit")); resp = resp.getLinkWith("HttpUnit").click(); assertEquals(resp.getTitle(), "HttpUnit"); assertNotNull(resp.getLinkWith("User's Manual")); } } Set the google page Fill the google form get the google response verify the response
  42. 42. HtmlFixture - It is used to exercise and test web pages. - It allows us make assertions about the structure of a page and to navigate between pages. - We can also fire java script, submit forms, "click" links, etc. - It is based on a fixture that lets us navigate to any element of the page DOM. To use this we need some knowledge about the DOM (Document Object Model). 42
  43. 43. 43 … example
  44. 44. 44 Capture and Replay for Web Selenium Selenium IDE: a Firefox add-on that will do simple record-and- playback of interactions with the browser Selenium WebDriver: a collection of language specific bindings to drive a browser -- the way it is meant to be driven.
  45. 45. Additional references -Atif M. Memon. An event-flow model of GUI-based applications for testing. Software Testing, Verification and Reliability, 2007, John Wiley & Sons -Atif M. Memon, M.E. Pollack, Mary Lou Soffa. A planning-based Approach to GUI testing. International Software/Internet Quality Week, May 2000 -Marlon Vieira, Johanne Leduc, Bill Hasling, Rajesh Subramanyan, Juergen Kazmeier. Automation of GUI Testing Using a Model-driven Approach AST’06 -Jessica Chen and Suganthan Subramaniam. A GUI Environment to Manipulate FSMs for Testing GUI-based Applications in Java. International Conference on System Sciences, 2001 -Alessandro Marchetto, Paolo Tonella and Filippo Ricca. State-based testing of Ajax Applications. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Software Testing, 2008 45