Unconscious Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) Unconscious○ Contains all the thoughts and feelings we are unaware ofFree association○ A patient says out loud whatever comes to mind Explores the unconscious
Ego, Superego, Id Ego “The mediator” Conscious part of personality Superego “The angel” Represents persons ideals and morals and setsthe standard for judgment. Id “The devil” Made up of our selfish, aggressive, and sexualdesires
Psychosexual Stages Oral (0-18 mo) Pleasure center=mouth Biting, sucking, chewing Anal (18-36 mo) Pleasure center=bowel and bladder elimination Deals with desire for control Phallic (3-6 yrs) Pleasure center=genitals Incestuous, sexual feelings Latency (6 to puberty) Undeveloped sexual feelings Genital (Puberty on) Maturation of sexual interests
Freudian Defense Mechanisms 7 defense mechanisms the ego uses toreduce anxiety Reduces anxiety by altering reality andremoving anxiety-arousing thoughts.
7 Freudian DefenseMechanisms Repression Removing anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, andmemories from consciousness Regression Resorting to childish behavior Reaction Formation Switching unacceptable behavior into their opposites Projection Seeing your faults in others Rationalization Making excuses Displacement Shift aggression to another target that is less threatening.
Neo-Freudian Theorists andIdeas Accepted Freud’s basic ideas Did not believe sex and aggression arethe only important concepts Placed more of an emphasis on theconscious mind 3 major Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler Karen Horney Carl Jung
Assessing UnconsciousProcesses Projective tests Aim to provide an insight into our thoughts andfeelings Vague images and asks patients to describe it or tella story about it Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Used to asses unconscious thoughts Ambiguous pictures are shown and the patient mustcreate a story about them Rorschach Inkblot Test Most widely used projection test Set of 10 inkblots in which a patient must describewhat they see
Evaluating the PsychoanalyticPerspective Many criticized Freud in the 20th century Claimed his theories were outdated Critics doubt gender identity and consciousform as a child and end at age 6 Some claim repression is a myth due to lackof evidence and since it is not testable Modern evidence Terror-Management Theory: claims that faithin ones worldview and self-esteem reduceanxiety and fear of death
Maslow’s Self-ActualizingPerson Maslow proposed we are motivated by ahierarchy of needs Humans seek self-actualization (fulfilling ourpotential) Attempted to turn psychology’s attentionaway from the unconscious and focusmore on the growth potential of healthypeople Believed humans to be basically good
Rogers’ Person-CenteredPerspective According to Rogers, people nurturegrowth by being open in feelings andbeing accepted by others Unconditional Positive Regard An attitude of total acceptance towardsanother Self-Concept All the thoughts and feelings we have inresponse to the question: “Who am I?”
The Trait Perspective Trait researches attempt to describepersonality by placing people at points onseveral trait dimensions simultaneously Attempt to isolate important dimensions by usingfactor analysis Hans Eysenck proposed that there are 2 maindimensions of traits that make up personality Extroversion & Introversion Stability & Instability Brain scans show extroverts and introvertsdiffer in levels of brain arousal Kagan believed heredity influences personality
The Big Five (cont) How stable are these traits? In adulthood, traits are quite stable andconsistant Vary in decades after college How heritable are they? Heritability varies with diversity of peoplestudied but usually heritable How well do they apply to various cultures? Apply reasonably well Do they predict other personal attributes? Yes, the Big Five traits are good indicators of ofother personal attributes.
Person Situation Controversy Some critics of trade-perspective saywhile some traits persist overtime, behavior varies from situation tosituation Traits are not a good predictor ofbehavior Supporters say that people’s averagebehavior is usually pretty consistant
Reciprocal Influences Reciprocal Determinism How environment influences personality Three main points:○ Different people choose differentenvironments based on personality○ Personalities are shaped by how we react toevents○ Personalities help create situations for us toreact to
Personal Control Feeling in control of your environment 2 types: External Locus of Control○ Learned helplessness○ Often when people feel helpless or depressed○ Outside forces control fate Internal Locus of Control○ You control your fate
Self-Esteem How good or bad one feels abouthis/herself High self-esteem tends to lead to lesspressure to conform, confidence, andgeneral happiness Low self-esteem often coexist withfeelings of unhappiness and personalproblems
Self-Serving Bias Thinking highly of oneself People accept more responsibility forgood deeds rather than bad ones Defensive Self-Esteem: Fragile and egotistic Secure Self-Esteem: Less fragile and does not depend on howothers see you