Cigre 66full (1)

1,177 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,177
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
12
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Cigre 66full (1)

  1. 1. Revista ISSN 1806-1877 nº 66 - Março de 2012 Artigos do Symposium Bologna,do Symposium Recife,XIV ERIAC e do XXI SNPTEE Linha de 230kV da Copel Foto:Adriano Aparecido Dellallibera
  2. 2. Para mais informações eventos@cigre.org.br • Tel.:(21) 2556-5929 EletroEvolução - Sistemas de potência ISSN 1806-1877 - nº 66 - Março de 2012 Conselho editorial: Saulo José Nascimento Cisneiros (PR) - CIGRÉ/ONS José Henrique Machado Fernandes - ELETRONORTE João Guedes de Campos Barros - CEPEL Jerzy Zbigniew Leopold Lepecki - CIGRÉ Dourival de Souza Carvalho Junior - EPE Paulo Gomes - ONS José Sidnei Colombo Martini - USP/POLI José Wanderley Marangon Lima - UNIFEI Hélio Moreira Valgas - ENERGY CHOICE João Batista Guimarães Ferreira da Silva - DAMP ELECTRIC Paulo Cesar Fernandez - CEs A/ELETROBRÁS José Antonio Jardini - CEs B/USP/POLI Luiz Augusto Barroso - CEs C/PSR Orsino Oliveira Filho - CEs D/CEPEL Ricardo Cavalcanti Furtado - CONSULTOR Evanise Neves de Mesquita - CONSULTORA projeto gráfico e edição: Flávia Guimarães impressão: Rona Editora tiragem: 1.000 exemplares eletroevolução – sistemas de potência é publicada pelo Comitê Nacional Brasileiro de Produção e Transmissão de Energia Elétrica (CIGRÉ-Brasil) diretoria cigré-brasil: Antônio Varejão de Godoy Diretor Presidente Josias Matos de Araújo Diretor 1º Vice-presidente Saulo José Nascimento Cisneiros Diretor 2º Vice-presidente Antonio Simões Pires Diretor Financeiro Sérgio do Espírito Santo Diretor Administrativo endereço: CIGRÉ-Brasil Praia do Flamengo, 66 – Bloco B – Sala 408 – Flamengo Rio de Janeiro – RJ – CEP 22210-903 – Tel: (21) 2556.5929 cigre@cigre.org.br sumário 75 Lista dos Comitês de Estudo Representantes Brasileiros 4 Editorial 4 Artigo convidado 9 notícias 18 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA Strategic Environmental Assessment for Power Developments 23 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA Brazilian Experience on Long Distance Transmission Systems and Future Trends/Challenges 30 Symposium Recife Performance and Risk Assessment of Electric Power System 37 XIV ERIAC Análisis de la Influencia del Desequilibrio de la Red y de las Condiciones de Falta en el Cálculo de Huecos de Tensión Utilizando los Métodos de Componentes Simétricas y Componentes de Fase 44 XXI SNPTEE Técnicas para Avaliação da Vida Útil Residual em Máquinas Tipo Francis como Critério para Modernização da Usina Hidrelétrica 54 XXI SNPTEE Inclusão de Medições Fasoriais na Estimação de Estados com Presevação da Estrutura dos Estimadores Convencionais 62 XXI SNPTEE Análise de Baterias de íon-lítio para Siatemas de Geração Suprindo Pequenas Comunidades Isoladas 69 XXI SNPTEE Desafios para o Projeto de uma Subestação de 4800 MVA de Potência Instalada e 63 KA de Corrente de Curto-circuito no Setor 230 KV Março 06 a 08 – São Paulo –SP Curso Power System Dynamics – Prof.Prabha Kundur – C2 26 a 28 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ Workshop Integração e Operação de Usinas Eólicas – C2 19 e 20 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ Planejamento da Expansão de Sistemas Considerando o Aumento de Fontes Renováveis e o Atendimento a Grandes Centros Urbanos - NovasTecnologias – C1 Abril 24 e 25 – São Paulo – SP 1º CMDT – Colóquio sobre Materiais Dielétricos e Técnicas Emergentes de Ensaios e Diagnóstico – D1 Maio A definir – Belo Horizonte – MG Estado da Arte em tecnologias para Monitoramento de LT´s – B2 20 a 23 – Rio de Janeiro – RJ XII SEPOPE – Simpósio de Especialistas em Planejamento da Operação e Expansão Elétrica – CIGRE- Brasil 27 a 29 São Paulo – SP V SMARS – Seminário de Meio Ambiente e Responsabilidade Social do Setor Elétrico – C3 Junho 11 – São Paulo – SP Workshop Internacional sobre Cabos Isolados (Cabos Supercondutores e Mitigação de Campos Magnéticos em Linhas Subterrâneas) – B1 Julho 16/17 ou 17/18 – A definir (RJ ou SP) III SINREM – Simpósio Nacional de Regulação,Economia e Mercados de Energia Elétrica – C5 Agosto 23 a 31 – Paris –França 44ª Sessão Bienal – CIGRE Paris Outubro 21 a 24 – Angra dos Reis – RJ V ENAM – Encontro Nacional de Máquinas Rotativas – A1 Novembro 18 a 21 – Florianópolis – SC XI STPC – Seminário Técnico de Proteção e Controle – B5 26 a 29 – Brasília – DF XII EDAO – Encontro para Debates de Assuntos da Operação – C2 Calendário de eventos 2012 Revista ISSN 1806-1877 nº 66 - Março de 2012 Artigos do Symposium Bologna,do Symposium Recife,XIV ERIAC e do XXI SNPTEE Linha de 230kV da Copel Foto:Adriano Aparecido Dellallibera
  3. 3. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 54 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 Artigo convidadoeditorial Em 2011 o Comitê Nacional Brasileiro do Cigré (Cigré-Brasil), incansável na busca de seu objetivo de promover o intercâmbio e o desenvolvimento tecnológico da engenharia no Brasil, completou 40 anos, um marco em sua história! OPaísbuscahojeconsolidarocrescimento sustentado da sua economia e desenvolver novas fontes de geração de energia, de forma limpa e renovável, para garantir o abastecimento. A estimativa é de que o crescimento médio anual da demanda total de eletricidade será de 4,5% ao ano,passando de 472 mil GWh em 2011 para 736 mil GWh em 2021. Isso sem falar em outros grandes desafios como a transmissão em longas distâncias, implantação das redes inteligentes de energia e a integração energética com os países vizinhos. Neste contexto,o Cigré-Brasil,por meio de seus Comitês de Estudo, promove a difusão do conhecimento com a organização de seminários, fóruns e eventos que possibilitam a realização de intercâmbios nacionais e internacionais, na busca incessante do aprimoramento técnico para aplicação nas empresas do setor. É importante salientar que o Cigré-Brasil possui um patrimônio físico, financeiro e técnico consolidado, que permite oferecer o suporte necessário para o desenvolvimento dos profissionais de engenharia do nosso País. Dentro deste contexto,no ano de 2011 foram realizadas por meio do Fundo de Viagens 66 viagens internacionais,correspondendo a uma realização orçamentária de R$ 377.384,53.Este valor é representativo,pois representa 29% do total das despesas realizadas no ano de 2011. A Diretoria do Cigré-Brasil busca exercer uma gestão alinhada aos princípios de excelência da qualidade para que se possa perenizar a produção e o compartilhamento contínuo do conhecimento coletivo.Tudo em prol do desenvolvimento e do fortalecimento do setor elétrico brasileiro. Antônio Simões Pires Diretor Financeiro do Cigré-Brasil Conhecimento e crescimento Smart Grid Program Challenges for its Deployment in Brazil Josias M. de Araujo - Eletronorte l Ildo Wilson Grudtner - MME l Roberto Caldas - CEPEL Marcelo C. de Araujo - Eletronorte l Marcos Franco Moreira - MME l Landulfo Alvarenga - CEPEL Hugo Lamin - ANEEL l Agnes Maria Costa - MME l Fabio C. de Souza - CEPEL l Paulo Henrique S. Lopes - ANEEL Adrimar V. Nascimento - MME l Fernando H. Oliveira - EPE l Márcio V. P. Alcântara - ANEEL Thiago Guilherme F. Prado - MME l Geraldo Pimentel - ONS l Maria A.B. Ferrano - Eletrobras SUMMARY - The deployment of smart grids is not yet mature in the world and in Brazil. The first pilot programs to test the technology are now beginning to emerge. The smart grids have been adopted in restricted locations such as neighborhoods or small towns, to put into practice its concepts and measure the gains that can be achieved. The lack of regulation for the development of smart grids is one of the reasons why there are different technologies in the market today. The diversity of products and services available to electricity distribution companies may seem positive as long as it provides competition and accelerates the development of the sector but it is also seen as a risk by experts. The Ministry of Mines and Energy of Brazil – MME has established a Working Group to analyze and identify the actions needed to support the establishment of public policies for the deployment of a Brazilian Program to Smart Grid. This article aims to present an approach to the Smart Grid Program in Brazil and some issues identified by the Working Group, that are important for the establishment of a Brazilian Program of Intelligent Networks. KEYWORDS - Smart Grids, Policies and deployment. 1. 0 Introduction In order to divulge to the concept of smart grids in Brazil, the first step on the task of identifying the main challenges to be faced is to identify the driving factors that would justify its implementation, namely: to seek, like other countries, the role that grids must play in the country. In the United States, some of main reasons to modernize the electric grid are: the need for increased security of the energy supply and the need to conform to the energy trading format (demand for energy measurement systems that meet the free choice of the supplier). In Europe in general, as well as attending to the structure of the free market, there are concerns with the reconfiguration of the energy matrix, increasing the penetration of alternative energy sources. In Brazil, it is not expected that the dissemination of the concept of smart grids is driven by the pursuit of a cleaner energy generation or by the modernization of generation and transmission, since 90% of the national matrix is already coming from renewable sources and the Brazilian interconnected system already incorporates many of the characteristics expected for a “Smart Grid” in electric power generation and transmission. In this regard, Brazil has its own state of art solutions, either in methodologies for electro energetic optimization or tools for supervision and control,in real time, of the National Interconnected System. Regarding the electricity sector, the technologies within the smart grid (smart metering in particular) allow the application of different tariffs and create the possibility of more consumption profile control among consumers. In this context, it enables more energy efficiency and demand management, resulting in postponement of investments in both network and generation expansion,which results in low tariffs. In general, the smart grids deployment should be an initiative of the electricity distribution companies. However, there are some actions that need to be taken by the National Electric Energy Agency - ANEEL, in order to coordinate the employment of new technologies that seek benefits for the entire power sector. In order to drive the dealing of these issues nationally, the Brazilian Government, through the Ministry of Mines and Energy (MME), established a Working Group to analyze and identify the basic actions needed to support the establishment of public policies for the deployment of a Brazilian Program of Intelligent Electric Grid - “Smart Grid”. Accordingly, the MME Normative Resolution No. 440 of 15 April 2010 established as topics to be studied: (a) the state of the art of such “Smart Grid”programs,in Brazil and in other countries, (b) propositions to adequate regulations and general standards of public electric energy distribution, (c) identification of resources for financing and incentives for the production of equipments in the country, and (d) regulation of new possibilities to act in the market, which includes the possibility of users operating both as generators of energy (distributed generation) and consumers. The Working Group included the participation of representatives of institutions like the Ministry of Mines and Energy - MME (in the overall coordination role), the Energy Research Company – EPE (Empresa de Pesquisa Energética), the Research Center of Energy – CEPEL (Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Elétrica),the National Electric Energy Agency – ANEEL (Agência Nacional de Energia Elétrica), the National Electric System Operator – ONS (Operador Nacional do Sistema), the Board of Electric Energy Trading – CCEE (Câmara de Comercialização de Energia Elétrica),the National Institute of Metrology, Standardization and Industrial Quality – INMETRO (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Indsutrial), the National Telecommunications Agency - Anatel (Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações) and the Brazilian Electric Power Company – ELETROBRAS (Centrais Elétricas Brasileiras). Experts also were invited from companies and industry associations, manufacturers, universities and international government agencies. This article presents some of the common challenges to spreading intelligent grids worldwide that must be faced in Brazil. For better understanding, they were grouped under the following aspects: technology, markets, funding sources and regulation. 2. 0 Technology The technological base that supports the concept of smart grids is composed of three elements: equipment for measurement and driving,telecommunications infrastructure and computer systems that execute the functions of control, forecasting and information processing. In the measurement field, the challenge is to replace the current plant of electromechanical meters,about sixty million units, with electronic meters, which is essential to meet the required functions by intelligent grids. This challenge presents itself both to the industry and for utilities, including the responsibility of the regulating agent in establishing the requirements for measurement and the approval of the equipment by the institute of legal metrology, besides the need for adequately addressing their impact in electricity tariff. Issues related to communication systems pose challenges such as the choice for using shared resources (services provided by telecommunications companies) or proprietary systems (distribution utilities own and manage their Telecom infrastructure),the coexistence of technologies with different performances depending on the geographic characteristics of a particular service area or on the configuration of distribution networks. In the case of using radio frequencies, the choice of using frequency spectrum allocation reserved for private use on intelligent network solutions will require strong support from the regulator,compared to the existence of different actors in the telecommunications industry. The security of the information that will travel by various systems is another point of fundamental importance. Private data will be traveling across communication networks, and their protection must be guaranteed by all agents that have access to that information and their responsibility should be clearly defined. From the viewpoint of computational tools, we can consider that there are challenges to be addressed in different horizons.In the short term,we can highlight the concern about the adequacy of systems for handling large amounts of data. In the medium and long term, it will be needed to develop models that adequately represent a system with significant Artigo convidado
  4. 4. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 76 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 Artigo convidadoArtigo convidado participation of distributed generation and energy storage (in batteries for electric cars, for example), involving degrees of uncertainty higher than those in current systems. On the other hand, the validation of the developments involved, through experimental research before their introduction in the field, will be a fundamental step.Accordingly, appropriate laboratory infrastructure should be complemented or created in the country. Still on the technological aspect, we should consider the challenges associated with the increased number of small generators scattered throughout the distribution network as well as agents that alternate between the role of consumption and generation: the increasing complexity of operating the distribution system, which will have a bi-directional flow of energy, the need for changing the procedures of the distributors to operate, manage and protect their networks, increasing of the the complexity to control the level of supply voltage due to load variations and supply coming from the consumer; changes in the levels of short-circuiting of the networks driving the need to revisit protection schemes; possible increase in harmonic distortion in the network, the need to review the planning of operation to accommodate the intermittent generation, inherent to some alternative energy sources such as solar radiation and wind. Andfinally,weshouldapproachtheissueofinteroperability between systems and equipments on the distribution systems level, which poses the challenge of integrating multiple measurement solutions, telecommunications and information technology, a challenge not only in Brazil, as in other countries. Brazilian utilities are already looking for flexible solutions that enable compatibility with products from multiple vendors and technologies, such as automation systems, measurement, corporate systems, etc. It is observed that this issue is also related to characteristics of the business models adopted in each country. Experiments are known in the United States, for example, where local utilities are deploying solutions based on single suppliers with long- term contracts, while in several countries in Europe, there are rules that come to define the standardization of the physical layer of communication (DLMS / COSEM: “Device Language Message Specification”/“Companion Specification for Energy Metering” establishing rules based on existing standards for data exchange between meters). As distribution utilities need to work with large volumes of data, it will be needed to use system architectures that enable efficient data processing and information security. Moreover,these models and the communication shall comply with open standards in an attempt to achieve interoperability between systems. As for the substation automation, Brazil lies in a favorable technological condition for adoption of international standards such as IEC 61850 (Communication Networks and Systems for Power Utility Automation), which specifies a data model that not only facilitates the design of engineering automation, but also represents an important step towards interoperability. In other aspects, as a data model for control center it is recommended to use IEC 61970 (CIM - Common Information Model) and IEC 61968 (Application Integration at Electric Utilities - System Interfaces for Distribution Management) to the distribution level. On the security of information, a possible recommendation would be the adoption of the specification IEC 62351 (Communication Network and System Security).The Models and specifications defined by the standards cited began to be adopted in Brazil recently and there are still some hurdles to overcome in order for these to popularize among dealers and manufacturers of surveillance systems. In the case of IEC 61850, the savings in engineering design have been fully justifying its use. The wide use of other standards would be a consequence of the requirements for interoperability, which would mean a gradual implementation as long as systems migration occur. 3.0 Market The current model for selling power to the distribution segment, should be examined before the introduction of the figure of the agent consumer – one that is connected to the distribution network, and either consumes or produces energy - and before the many mechanisms proposed for its support (Feed-in Tariff, Quota, Net Metering, Energy Certificates). Which among them is more appropriate to the Brazilian reality? Parallel to the analysis of a market model aimed at microgeneration, it should be considered, right from the start, the design of a pricing structure that allows signalling to consumers served at low voltage, the variations in the cost of power supply during the day, which will encourage better management of its consumption. Alternatives should be considered for different regions, classes and levels of consumption. Still under the aspect of regulation we should study new business opportunities within the distribution area,and if the opportunities would be given to utilities or new agents for the electricity sector. 4. 0 Financing The challenge on this issue is to define the responsibilities of participation in the costs of implementing the features to be provided by intelligent networks, which should be carefully assessed. The simple transfer of deployment costs for the consumer does not seem to be a viable option, given the existing questions regarding current costs of energy supply. In addition, investment costs, which are part of the utility’s obligations and that are already embedded in rates of energy distribution, could also be included in the transfer to the consumer under the argument that they are part of the national deployment of intelligent networks in the country. In parallel, we should encourage the involvement of agents of promotion, research and financing, with the goal of providing viable projects for performance evaluation of proposed solutions; researches to develop new technologies and computational tools,and implementation of laboratories that allow the modeling of new alternatives of generation and storage, of charges behavior and control of electrical systems. 5.0 Regulation The great challenge regarding regulation is the dimension of the work to be made. It covers not only the revision of current legislation of the electricity sector, as well as the updating of legal instruments pertaining to electrical systems. It requires the participation of many agents such as industries, utilities, regulatory bodies and metrology, among others,as well as the approval of society.It’s a job that requires coordination and that is time consuming. In this process of adaptation, there are different paths. In some cases you may see a simplification of legislation related to energy trading, and, on the opposite side, an increase of complexity in the rules for connection and operation of distribution systems. One example is the ongoing work to make it viable to sell energy from micro generators. The changes already identified predict alterations in various instruments of regulation and standardization:simplifications in the rules and procedures of trade are being proposed, and simplifications on the requirements of measurement systems, but an increase in complexity in the Proceedings of Distribution is expected, especially regarding the rules of connecting and operating the system. Another challenge related to regulation is the regulatory approval of equipment and procedures that meet the new legislation. It should be considered that this activity is chronologically later than the development of new standards or the updating of old ones. 6. 0 The National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) and the Smart Grids Smart Grid is a wide concept and it involves a variety of technologies. The ANEEL already regulated some issues and others are still under analysis.Below are detailed some ANEEL actions related to smart grids. For the regulation process, ANEEL adopts a clear attitude that encourages the society participation. In this sense, technical meetings, seminars and mainly public hearings are held. 6.1. Geographic Information System (GIS) In December 2008, when the first version of the Brazilian Distribution Code (PRODIST) was approved by the Normative Resolutionnº345/2008,theAgencyregulatedthedeployment of Geographic Information System - GIS. Subsequently, the regulation was introduced in the Normative Resolution No. 395/2009.According to the rules,the distributions companies must use GIS systems to record all the information about assets and their electrical parameters, which include the structural topology of all distribution systems. 6.2. Power Line Communications (PLC) In August 2009, the Normative Resolution nº 375/2009 was issued, which regulates the use of distribution systems as a way to transport digital and analog signals (the PLC technology). The resolution states that the distribution company has only the freedom to make private use of PLC in the electricity distribution activities, but the company must follow rules to share the distribution systems with a third body (commercial service of Internet, video, voice, among others). 6.3. Micro generation Regarding micro generation that is also related to smart grids, the Regulatory Agency currently conducts studies to reduce the barriers for small power generators. A Public Consultation was held (CP nº. 015/2010), which is still under analysis of the contributions sent by the society. For 2011, there are plans for conducting another public hearing in order to adopt the final rules. 6.4.Smart metering Considering the use of smart meters in low voltage units, ANEEL promoted in 2008 the Smart Metering International Seminary. Then, the Agency introduced the Public Consultation No. 015/2009. From October 2010 to January 2011 the Public Hearing AP nº 043/2010 was held in order to obtain additional information concerning the minimum requirements for meters (the definition of the standard meter).The AP 043/2010 is still under analysis of the contributions and a resolution must be published in 2011.For the second half of 2011, there are plans to hold a new public hearing,which will deal with the replacement plan (timelines and targets for the companies). 6.5. Differentiated Rates The possibility of applying time-of-use tariffs for low voltage consumers is also under consideration. The ANEEL established the Public Consultation No. 011/2010 and the Public Hearing No. 120/2010. The objective is to obtain additional information about the proposal to change the methodology for setting the pricing structure applied to the electricity distribution sector in Brazil, which includes the definition of price signals in low voltage.The AP nº 120/2010 is still analyzing the contributions and a resolution must be published in 2011. 6.6. Prepayment The Regulatory Agency is studying the possibility of
  5. 5. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 98 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 NotíciasArtigo convidado setting a Public Hearing to debate the procedures to be adopted by the distribution companies who choose the prepayment system for low voltage consumers. 6.7. Other topics There is still need for studies to verify the feasibility of regulation of other topics, such as the integration of electric cars to the distribution networks, new services delivered by the distribution companies, new possibilities of consumers actions on the market, etc. 7.0 Facing Challenges It is worth noting that the creation of the MME working group was a positive action in order to balance the expectations created in the potential benefits related to intelligent grids.Many of the challenges presented have direct connection to the role of government bodies and regulatory authorities, such as the integration of public policies (renewable energy x hybrid electric vehicles), analysis of impacts on different sectors of the economy, enlightenment of society, among others. The numerous challenges listed above have shown the complexity and breadth of the subject, and considering the different degrees of maturity of solutions to presented problems,one must consider that the features to be provided by intelligent networks should be treated in a progressive fashion, attributing priorities for their introduction, and that the fullness of capability to be provided by intelligent networks must be achieved in the long term. The application of resources from funding agencies to evaluate the concept of intelligent networks should be stimulated and guided considering the importance of pilot projects and the creation of laboratories. The wide dissemination of results of projects involving intelligent networks should be encouraged, especially those financed by public funding agencies, so that benefits are reverted to society at large. It is necessary to reduce the information asymmetry between the consumer and the utilities.It is crucial that awareness campaigns are carried out to consumers so they can participate intensively from the beginning on the implementation of a “Smart Grid”, as it is done in other public services (mobile telephony, cable TV, Internet etc.). According to the Brazilian legislation (Law nº 9.991/2000), the utilities companies from the power sector must apply annually a minimum percentage of their net revenue in research and development projects (R&D), what is regulated by ANEEL (Normative Resolution nº 316/2008). On the smart grids field, there is a specific call for an R&D Strategic Project, which is the Project nº 11/2010: the Brazilian Smart Grid Program which is currently developed by several companies with a planned investment of approximately R$ 9 million. The Project nº 011/2010 was answered by some power companies (in particular by the distribution companies), and they established a group of 37 companies that began the implementation on January 2011. The project was divided into six research blocks: Smart Metering; Automation; Micro generation and Electric Vehicles;IT and Telecom;Public Policy; and the Consumer Perspective.It is expected that the project be completed until September 2011. The project goal is the creation of a national plan for technology migration in the Brazilian power sector, including: • Features and requirements, with emphasis on smart metering; • Standardized technologies and methodologies; • Public policies for R&D, manufacturing and finance, including the development of the equipment and services chain; and technological lines; • Needs of appropriate legislation and regulation; • Development of a Training Program for Manpower to the power sector in Brazil; • The role of consumers and the ways of their effective integration. The electrical energy companies begin to develop projects to test the concepts of intelligent networks.Cemig,the utilitie that operates in the Southeast, has launched a project in the city of Sete Lagoas, near Belo Horizonte, the capital of Minas Gerais state, which provides for the installation of more than 90,000 smart meters, substation automation and network and use of a bidirectional communication system. Another major project is being implemented by Eletrobras in Parintins, city of Amazonas state in the North. Approximately 17,000 consumers will receive smart meters. The final observation is that many actions aimed at overcoming these challenges are already in progress: technology solutions and systems are already being submitted, the review of regulatory instruments is already being studied and new resolutions are already being developed by regulatory agencies, the research institutes are already preparing laboratories, the academic community has begun to publish articles and theses related to the theme and pilot projects are mushrooming in different regions, under the coordination of different utilities. 8.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Working Group MME - Smart Grid, Brasil, 2011. No período de 01 a 02 de setembro de 2011 foi realizado no auditório da Eletrobrás Eletronorte, em Brasília, o Curso sobre Linhas deTransmissão em Corrente Contínua – HVDC,que contou com a presença de 137 participantes. O evento foi promovido pelo Comitê de Estudos – B2 – Linhas Aéreas do CIGRÉ-Brasil e contou com o apoio da Eletronorte. O curso sobre Linhas de Corrente Contínua – HVDC teve por finalidade introduzir as tecnologias existentes e os mais recentes avanços aplicados as linhas de transmissão em corrente contínua, em fase de acentuada expansão em todo o mundo e, em especial, no Brasil. Segundo o coordenador do Comitê de Estudo B2, Ruy Menezes,“o curso visou atender uma demanda do setor elétrico,pois corrente contínua é um tema apaixonante e desafiador. Este é um assunto que precisa ser debatido constantemente,principalmente,com o surgimento de inúmeros empreendimentos”. No curso foram apresentados os seguintes tópicos: • Teoria Básica da Transmissão e da Conversão CA/CC e CC/ CA – Histórico – Tipos de LTs de Corrente Contínua; • Critérios de Projeto para Linhas de Corrente Contínua; • Sobretensões e Coordenação de Isolamento de LTs de Cor- rente Contínua; • Efeitos Elétricos de LTs de Corrente Contínua: Corona, Gra- dientes, Perdas Corona, RI, RA, Campo Elétrico ao Nível do Solo e Corrente Iônica; • Cálculo Mecânico de LTs de Corrente Contínua; • Torres para LTs de Corrente Contínua; • Fundações para LTs de Corrente Contínua; • Aspectos Especiais de Projeto,Locação e Meio Ambiente de LTs de Corrente Contínua; • Otimização de LTs de Corrente Contínua – Conversão de Linhas CA em CC – Comparação Econômica CA e CC; • Comparação de Alternativas de Cabos Condutores para o Bipolo 2,± 600 kVColetora Porto Velho – Araraquara 2; • Otimização Global de um Sistema de CC (LT e Conversoras); • Aterramento de Sistemas de Corrente Contínua – Linha de Eletrodo; • Aspectos de Confiabilidade de Sistemas de Corrente Con- tínua – HVDC; • Isoladores e Cadeias para LTs de Corrente Continua – Pecu- liaridades e Ensaios; • Isoladores Poliméricos para LTs de Corrente Contínua; • Aspectos Operativos e de Manutenção de LTs de Corrente Contínua. Após a realização do curso,foi circulado entre os participantes o questionário de Avaliação, que foi considerado “Bom / Ótimo” para 91% dos participantes, o demonstra o sucesso da iniciativa. Dentre as avaliações destacamos os seguintes depoimentos: O engenheiro eletricista Sidney Santana Matos disse que “o encontro foi uma ótima oportunidade para conhecer melhor a tecnologia.A maioria de nós (engenheiros) trabalha com corrente alternada e estudar possibilidades de trazer esses avanços para o nosso meio é muito importante”. O engenheiro mecânico Milton Diniz afirmou que “todos os eventos idealizados pelo CIGRÉ possuem um caráter de atualização de pesquisas, integração dos fabricantes com os pesquisadores e dados teóricos dos assuntos. Essa mescla de profissionais é o que torna os cursos mais interessantes”. Por fim o CE-B2 agradece a Diretoria, a secretaria do CIGRÉ- Brasil,ao Comitê Organizador do presente curso,composto pelos engenheiros José Henrique M. Fernandes, João Félix Nolasco e JoséAntonioJardini,bem comoaEletronorte,pelo apoio recebido durante a organização e realização do Curso Sobre Linhas de Transmissão em Corrente Contínua – HVDC. Comitê de Estudo B2 Realiza com Sucesso Curso sobre Linha de Transmissão em Corrente Contínua
  6. 6. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 1110 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 bienal paris 2010 NotíciasNotícias O Comitê Israelense do Cigré realizou no período de 23 a 29 de outubro de 2011,em Tel Aviv,Israel,as atividades anuais do Comitê.Estiveram presentes representantes de 24 paises. A participação brasileira nestes eventos tem qualificado o Brasil como um dos países que sempre tem importantes contribuições nos temas de ambiente. O Cigré-Brasil foi representado por Arilde Sutil Gabriel (Copel), José Antonio Bulcão (Eletrobras Furnas) e Mírian Regini Nuti (consultora), que participaram das reuniões dos grupos de trabalho, da reunião do Comitê e do Simpósio.Na reunião do Comitê,foi apresentado um relato das atividades do CE C3 do Brasil e a organização do V SMARS – Seminário de Meio Ambiente e Responsabilide Social do Setor Elétrico,que será realizado no período de 27 a 29 de maio de 2012,em São Paulo. O Simpósio foi realizado no dia 27 na cidade de Tel Aviv, em um auditório no Dan Tel Aviv Hotel, com cerca de 80 participantes. Dentre os temas tratados ressalta-se a importância dos SUPER GRID, presente em duas palestras do Simpósio (MedGrid e Super Grid), para a qual o Brasil teria contribuições significativas devido as características dos nosso sistema elétrico.Ressalta-se ainda que os artigos apresentados no Simpósio se encontram disponíveis no site do Cigré-Brasil (www.cigre.org.br em“Eventos Realizados”) O Simpósio contou com 3 palestras,14 apresentações de papers selecionados de 9 diferentes países e 6 sessões posters.O Brasil foi representado com 2 papers,um de Alquindar Pedroso,da COPPE-UFRJ,e o outro do colega do Cigré-Brasil José Antonio Bulcão,da Eletrobrás-Furnas. Ficou clara a importância das interconexões de longa distância de grande complexidade, ministradas por Jean Kowal (MedGrid), sob o título “The MedGrid Initiative for a Sustainable Development of Mediterranean Countries”e por Giovanni de Santi (JRC Director, European Comission),sob o título“The European Supergrid and the role of HDVC interconnections”. Outros pontos de destaque da reunião foram os seguintes:a apresentação feita pelo Dr.Lambrozo,da França,sobre o estado da arte da questão de campos elétrico e magnéticos;o convite feito pela IAIA (International Association of Impact Assessment) para a realização de uma mesa redonda no congresso internacional dessa associação a realizar-se em maio de 2012;a realização de um Colóquio sobre Efeitos de Campos Elétricos e Magnéticos,em 2013,pelo Comitê Japonês do Cigré;cabe destacar que pela terceira vez consecutiva um membro do Cigré-Brasil será um dos relatores da sessão bienal de Paris em 2012. A reunião anual em 2011 do SC B4 - Elos de Corrente Contínua e Eletrônica de Potencia ocorreu na Austrália, no período de 15 a 21 de outubro, nas cidades de Melbourne e Brisbane. Como de praxe, junto com a reunião administrativa do SC B4,ocorreram também reuniões de diversos Working Groups, aproveitando-se a oportunidade da presença dosváriosmembrosdoSC,alémdeumColóquiosobreotema“Enhancing the Transmission Networks”nos últimos dois dias.Dentre outros eventos, foi também programada uma visita técnica a uma das subestações da interligação em HVDC de Basslink. Houve ainda a realização de um Tutorial de um dia. Nos últimos anos a coordenação do CE B4 tem envidado esforços para que um maior número de membros possa participar das atividades no exterior, viabilizando a ingresso de membros brasileiros nos WGs. Neste sentido foi formada a maior delegação do CE B4, na história recente, que participou de reunião de SC em ano impar. Esta delegação, com 6 integrantes, foi composta pelo seu Coordenador e Secretário, respectivamente Sergio do Espirito Santo (Furnas) e Wo Wei Ping (Cepel), além de seus membros: John Graham (ABB), Carlos Gama (Alstom Grid),Marcio Szechtman (Dual) e José Jardini (USP). AsreuniõesdeWGsserealizaramemsalasdoMelbourneConvention and Exhibition Centre,na cidade de Melbourne,nos dias 15 e 16/10. Ao todo houve reuniões de 16 WGs, dos quais 11 tiveram participação de delegados brasileiros. No dia 17/10 foi realizada a reunião administrativa do SC B4 também no Melbourne Convention Centre,que foi conduzida pelo Coordenador do SC B4, Bjarne Andersen, e seu Secretário, Stig Nilsson, com uma audiência de cerca de 80 participantes. Normalmente esta reunião é restrita aos membros regulares do SC B4,de forma que apenas o Sérgio do Espirito Santo teria assento. Por uma gentileza do Coordenador do SC B4, foi permitido que os demais integrantes da delegação brasileira também participassem desta reunião como convidados, permitindo assim o acesso às notícias mais recentes da indústria do HVDC e FACTS. Os principais temas discutidos referem-se às atividades dos vários WGs,e os projetos na área de HVDC e FACTS em execução pelo mundo. Um tópico debatido, de responsabilidade do CE B4, foi a reunião do SC B4 do ano de 2013, que será realizada no Brasil. O coordenador do CE B4 Sérgio do Espírito Santo fez uma apresentação mostrando o estágio de preparação deste evento,que consistirá em reuniões e seminário em Brasília, além de visita técnica às conversoras HVDC da transmissão do Madeira em PortoVelho. Em seguida,no dia 18.10,foi realizada a visita técnica à conversora de LoyYang,umdosextremosdainterligaçãoemHVDCdeBasslink,localizada a cerca de 170 km de Melbourne.Este elo em corrente contínua conecta o sistema elétrico do estado deVictoria ao da ilha daTasmânia,através de um cabo submarino de cerca de 300 km. Consiste num monopolo com retorno metálico de 500 MW em 400kV, em operação comercial desde 2005.Atualmente opera na maior parte do tempo alimentando a ilha de Tasmânia,mas foi projetado com capacidade bidirecional. O seminário “HVDC and Power Electronics – Enhancing the TransmissionNetworks”foisediadonoNovoteldacidadedeBrisbane,nos dias 20 e 21.10, com uma platéia de cerca de 120 participantes. Foram apresentados 33trabalhos,dos quais 2 foram de autoria do representante brasileiro Marcio Szechtman,abordando,primeiro no Painel de Abertura, o tema de“Planning of HVDC Projects – Challenges towards a Succesfull Implementation”e “Key Issuses in the Design Review of Madeira HVDC Transmission System”,em co-autoria com a equipe do ONS. Com base em todas as discussões e apresentações realizadas nas referidas atividades,podem ser destacadas as seguintes conclusões: •HáumexpressivoaumentodeprojetosdeHVDCcomousodecon- versores VSC,principalmente em conexões de fazendas eólicas off-shore, em alimentação de plataformas em alto mar e em interligações de siste- mas de baixa potência de curto; • Esta tendência também se verifica na área de FACTS com o aumen- to significativo de projetos de STATCOM,se comparado a SVCs; • Para Nelson River 3 foi identificada a necessidade de elevação de níveis de potência de curto no lado dos inversores,o que indicaria o uso dos tradicionais compensadores síncronos, caso se opte por bipolo do tipo LCC.Por outro lado,a Manitoba Hydro está estudando uma maneira para possibilitar uma solução estática que evite o uso de síncronos,pro- vavelmente um bipolo deVSC; • A ideia da implementação de HVDC grids,com cabos subterrâneos e uso de conversores VSC,está amadurecendo a passos largos diante da crescente dificuldade de instalação de linhas aéreas,em especial na Eu- ropa; • No entanto, existe a expectativa de que os HVDC grids se concreti- zem efetivamente em algumas décadas,quando novos desenvolvimen- tos tecnológicos em disjuntores DC (mais rápidos e econômicos),cabos (tensões mais elevadas) e conversoresVSC (menores perdas) viabilizarem economicamente estas redes de forma inequívoca; • O SC B4 tem tido especial atenção em HVDC grids ao criar vários WGs dedicados a diferentes aspectos deste assunto:controle e proteção, filosofias de controle,modelagem para simulação e confiabilidade,entre outros; • A experiência brasileira no Projeto de Transmissão do Madeira des- pertou alto interesse da plateia,particularmente quanto às questões de múltiplos agentes compartilhando instalações elétricas adjacentes e o gerenciamento de modelos computacionais de distintos provedores de equipamentos,em estudos de tempo real. 1.Agregação ao CE A1 de novos participantes através de campanha de sensibilização durante eventos como SNPTEE, ERIAC e ENAM. O Comitê tem 62 participantes oriundos de 28 empresas, representando fabricantes de equipamentos e sistemas, consultores, produtores de energia, centros de pesquisa e universidades. 2.Participantes em Grupos de Trabalho nacionais: GT de monitoramento (14 participantes), GT de modernização e repotenciação de hidrelétricas (6 participantes) e GT de estudo de envelhecimento de parafusos (4 participantes). 3.ParticipaçãoemGruposdeTrabalhoInternacionais:21membros participam de 12 dos 20 GTs em funcionamento, sendo que 2 GTs são coordenados por membros do CE A1 do Cigre-Brasil. 4.Participação em congressos nacionais:ERIAC em Maio e SNPTEE emOutubro,seguidosdereuniãodoCEA1,aprimeiraemFozde Iguaçucom25participantes,asegundaemFlorianópoliscom30 participantes.O tema de reunião de Foz foi o aprofundamento do estudo do acidente da hidrelétrica de Sayano na Rússia, ocorrido em agosto de 2009,com a apresentação da política de segurança das empresas geradoras.O tema da reunião de Foz, sempre ligado à segurança das instalações,abordou o assunto dos sistemas de proteção contra incêndio, com as opiniões diversas dos fabricantes e usuários. 5.Participação em reunião internacional do SC A1 em Beijing, associada a um seminário organizado pelo Comitê Nacional da China, aonde foi notória a força da engenharia chinesa pelo numero dos trabalhos apresentados (72% do total) e pela qualidade dos mesmos. Apesar de ter uma matriz energética baseada fortemente no carvão, os esforços para sair desta dependência são notórios, com investimentos pesados em geração eólica (40 GW instalados) e em tecnologia associada (geradores de imãs permanentes). 6.Organização do V ENAM em parceria com a Eletronuclear e com o apoio de todas as empresas do grupo Eletrobrás, com destaque para a própria Eletrobrás, Furnas e Cepel, a ser realizado de 21 a 25 de Outubro de 2012. Simpósio“Long–distance and Cross-border Electric Power System Interconnections:Strategic needs,Sustainability,Environmental and Social Issues”e Reunião Anual do Study Committee C3 Notícias do Comitê de Estudos B4 Participação do CE B4 na reunião anual do SC B4 na AustráliaDestaques do CE A1 em 2011
  7. 7. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 1312 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 NotíciasNotícias Revista do CIGRÉ-Brasil de publicação trimestral nos meses de Março, Junho, Setembro e Dezembro para profissionais que atuam em Sistemas Elétricos de Potência. A Revista publica artigos de alta qualidade, apresentados em eventos nacionais e internacionais doCIGRÉedoCIGRÉ-Brasil,artigosescritosporGrupos de Trabalho e Comitês Técnicos do CIGRÉ-Brasil, além de artigos convidados.A revista tem circulação nacional e no âmbito do Mercosul.Tem uma tiragem de 1.000 exemplares e estádisponível para download pelos associados. Os seus leitores estão espalhados por cerca de 60 empresas e universidades e mais de 600 especialistas do setor. A data para envio de Anúncios é até o primeiro dia do mês anterior ao da publicação. Os custos para publicação de anúncios em4coresnaRevistaEletroEvoluçãosãoosseguintes: Página Inteira (220mmx307mm) R$ 4.000,00 Meia página (210 mmx 50,5mm) R$ 3.000,00 Contracapa R$ 5.000,00 Verso Capa R$ 4.500,00 Verso Contracapa R$ 4.300,00 Data para envio: Até o primeiro dia do mês anterior ao da publicação. eletroevolucao@cigre.org.br PUBLICAÇÃO DE ANÚNCIOS NA ELETROEVOLUÇÃO – Sistemas de Potência Em Novembro de 2011 foi realizada em Sidnei na Austrália a reunião e o colóquio internacional do comitê de estudo C5 “Mercados de Eletricidade e Regulação”.O Brasil foi representado pelo Secretário do C5,engo João Carlos Mello.O tema do colóquio foi“Drivers for Regulatory and Market Design Changes”e incluiu um workshop abordando“Distúrbios de Mercado”. No colóquio foram realizadas 12 apresentações de diversos mercados cobrindo os seguintes tópicos:“Reliability Security of Supply”,“Generation Transmission Investment”,“Impact of new technology”,“Market Design”,“Retail markets”e“Market Design and large scale wind resources”.No workshop de“Distúrbios de Mercado”foram apresentados casos referentes a 6 países – Estados Unidos,Nova Zelândia,Coréia do Sul,Irlanda,Inglaterra e Austrália.A oportunidade de avaliar e conhecer questões em outros mercados internacionais é sempre muito salutar para em especial para os membros do C5 do comitê brasileiro. Como o evento é organizado nesta edição pelos Comitês de Estudos A1 e D1, o nome passará a ser Encontro Nacional de Máquinas Rotativas,Materiais eTecnologias Emergentes de Ensaios, conservando sua sigla de ENAM. A coordenação do evento é da ELETRONUCLEAR com a participação da ELETROBRAS, FURNAS e CEPEL.Oeventoserárealizadode21a25deOutubro2012noHotel Vila Galê em Angra dos Reis. TEMÁRIO • Cálculo e projeto: métodos de cálculo de dimensionamento, da maquina ou dos seus componentes,modelagem,ensaios simu- lados; • Materiais usados na fabricação garantindo a sustentabilidade: escolha e ensaios de materiais,ensaios de tipo,pesquisa de novos materiais; • Gestão da operação e da manutenção:estudo de casos,apre- sentação de melhorias,estudos dos custos e benefícios; • Técnicas de ensaios, focando principalmente as emergentes ligadas a aplicação de novas tecnologias; • Técnicas de monitoramento, envolvendo vibrações, tem- peraturas, oscilações, descargas parciais, cavitação, vazão, visando aplicação a algoritmos de diagnóstico e prognóstico, benefícios apurados na gestão dos ativos; deverão ser consideradas tam- bém tecnologias de sensores,de sistemas de monitoramento e de gestão de dados; • Divulgação paralela das ações das empresas geradoras com a proteção sócia ambiental,através de exposições e palestras proferi- das junto à sociedade local. NOTÍCIAS DO CE C5 NOTÍCIAS DOVENAM ORGANIZAÇÃO E COORDENAÇÃO
  8. 8. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 1514 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 NotíciasNotícias 21ª edição do SNPTEE reafirma importância do evento A 21ª edição do Seminário Nacional de Produção e Transmissão de Energia Elétrica (SNPTEE),realizada entre os dias 23 e 26 de outubro de 2011,no Costão do Santinho Resort, em Florianópolis, mostrou, mais uma vez, a importância do evento para o setor elétrico brasileiro.O evento deste ano foi organizado pela Eletrosul. A cerimônia oficial de abertura do XXI SNPTEE aconteceu na noite de domingo de 23.10, com a presençadeváriasautoridades,entreelas,osecretário executivo do Ministério de Minas e Energia, Márcio Zimmermann, representando o ministro Edison Lobão, o diretor de Transmissão da Eletrobras, José Muniz Lopes, representando o diretor presidente, José da Costa Carvalho Neto, o diretor presidente da Eletrosul, Eurides Mescolotto, o diretor geral do Operador Nacional do Sistema, Hermes Chipp, e o presidente do Cigré-Brasil,AntônioVarejão de Godoy. “Este é um evento fundamental. O País inteiro deveria estar de olhos voltados para cá, pois estamos construindo aqui o futuro do Brasil.Quero que cada participante se sinta importante por fazer parte deste momento”, afirmou o presidente da Eletrosul, anfitriã do evento, ao dar boas vindas ao grande público presente na abertura. Foi consenso entre as autoridades presentes na abertura do seminário que a produção técnica e científica apresentada nos três dias de evento é de extrema importância para o desenvolvimento do setor elétrico. ExpoSNPTEE apresenta as mais recentes inovações do setor Na noite de domingo foi aberta, também, a ExpoSNPTEE, que reuniu mais de 50 expositores, entre concessionárias de geração, transmissão e distribuição, fabricantes de equipamentos, fornecedores de serviços e instituições de pesquisa, apresentando as mais recentes inovações tecnológicas do setor. Um coquetel de boas vindas aos participantes marcou a abertura da feira. A feira atraiu a atenção de todos os congressistas que, nos intervalos das sessões técnicas, aproveitavam para conhecer as novidades do setor e do mercado. Presidente da Eletrobras abriu trabalhos técnicos A palestra de abertura do Seminário Nacional de Produção eTransmissão de Energia Elétrica (SNPTEE), uma das novidades introduzidas na programação, foi um dos pontos altos do evento. Mais de 1,6 mil pessoas lotaram o auditório para acompanhar a apresentação do presidente da Eletrobras, José da Costa Carvalho Neto,sobre os Desafios da Geração e da Transmissão no Brasil. Carvalho Neto mostrou os avanços do sistema elétrico na última década e as perspectivas para os próximos 20 anos, no que diz respeito à confiabilidade elétrica (redução do índice de falhas), universalização do acesso à energia, modicidade tarifária e ampliação das fontes renováveis na matriz energéticabrasileira.Hoje,oBrasiljátemumaposição privilegiada em relação à média mundial. Quase metade da matriz (45,5%) é de fontes renováveis, enquanto no mundo essa participação é de apenas 13%,aproximadamente. “As bases para o crescimento sustentável do setor elétrico brasileiro jáestão bem consolidadas”,afirmou o executivo.No entanto,ele salientou que hádesafios a serem superados.Um deles é dominar a tecnologia de energia solar fotovoltaica, que deverá ser uma das apostas do Brasil como fonte complementar, inclusive,em sistemas de geração distribuída. Produção técnica de qualidade Depois da palestra do presidente da Eletrobras, começaram as sessões técnicas de apresentação dos trabalhos selecionados entre cerca de 1,6 mil submetidos, abrangendo as áreas de geração, transmissão, operação, manutenção, equipamentos, comercialização, proteção e controle, planejamento, telecomunicações, eficiência energética, inovação tecnológica e meio ambiente. Aproximadamente 2 mil profissionais participaram dos três dias de plenárias técnicas, nas quais foram apresentados 493 trabalhos, que se traduzem em importantes contribuições para o setor. Ao final dos debates, cada um dos 15 Grupos de Estudo registrou suas constatações a respeito dos temas que devem entrar na pauta de discussões do dia a dia do setor elétrico e podem nortear o planejamento das empresas. São preocupações comoanecessidadedeaprimoraragestãodosativos de geração; de desenvolver sistemas de proteção e automação para atender a disseminação da geração distribuída; de haver estímulo governamental para o desenvolvimento da geração solar; de investir em fontes renováveis com baixa emissão de carbono como energia complementar, entre outras considerações. Essas e as demais constatações técnicas do XXI SNPTEE,também servirão de subsídio para a definição dos temas do próximo seminário a ser realizado em 2013, em Brasília, tendo como anfitriã a Eletronorte. Os autores dos três trabalhos eleitos como melhores em cada Grupo de Estudo foram homenageados na solenidade de encerramento do seminário. Os primeiros colocados dos grupos receberam um cristal alusivo ao evento e o direito de participar do sorteio de uma viagem e inscrição na Bienal Paris do Cigré, que será realizada em agosto de 2012. Painéis Técnicos Outra inovação de sucesso no XXI SNPTEE foram os Painéis Técnicos, realizados nos 15 Grupos de Estudo, na tarde do último dia do evento, que reuniram especialistas para debater assuntos atuais, de extrema relevância para o setor,tais como energia eólica e Usina de Belo Monte. Evento teve momentos de descontração e integração A organização do XXI SNPTEE proporcionou momentos de descontração e integração aos participantes. Já na abertura do evento, após o cerimonial, o Grupo Engenho apresentou o ritmo musical da Ilha de Santa Catarina. Em seguida, os participantes foram recebidos com um coquetel nos salões da ExpoSNPTEE, onde cada empresa expositora também se encarregou de atrair o público para seus estandes. Uma das festas mais comentadas, sem dúvida, foi a Mini Oktoberfest. Em pleno mês de outubro, período das mais famosas festas de Santa Catarina, os participantes do SNPTEE puderam experimentar as delícias da comida típica alemã, embalados pelo animado ritmo germânico de uma tradicional banda catarinense. Para encerrar a 21ª edição do SNPTEE com chave de ouro, foi oferecido um jantar em um dos locais mais famosos e bonitos de Florianópolis:o parador de praia P12,em Jurerê Internacional.
  9. 9. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 1716 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 bienal paris 2010Notícias Notícias
  10. 10. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 1918 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNASyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA Systems; (vi) dissemination of conclusions (Target Groups:Electric Utilities,Authorities,and Regulators). This paper presents a summary of this work and focuses on SEA studies for generation and transmission planning processes. 2.0 UNDERSTANDING SEA Over the last few years,the electric utility infrastruc- ture, as with the majority of other infrastructures, has experienced a great deal of difficulty with the authori- zation and social acceptance of projects,essentially de- riving from:(i) reduced public support,due to increased environmental sensitivity;(ii) the problem of identifying – given the restricted territorial spaces – specific layouts that meet quality standards for safeguarding public and environmental health; (iii) the limitations of urban development linked to the buffer belts (visual impact and perceived health threat due to the close proxim- ity) of the power lines;(iv) poor integration of electricity planning and regional/environmental planning; and, (v) increasingly complex planning, public consultation and governmental authorization processes associated with assessing and permitting lines and plants. Therefore,the problems posed by the development of electricity systems are of a twofold nature: on the one hand, the complex planning and authorization procedures; and, on the other, the need to take into referring to the environmental assessment of plans drawn up for a geographically established area and (iii) a sector environmental assessment, designed for specific economic activities, such as energy. The latter is a common type, mainly due to the demands of multilateral financing agencies, who have required the use of this type of instrument within certain situations. Several experts have indicated that SEA studies are able to promote sustainability,emphasising the role of SEA in not only promoting sustainable development but especially its ability in furthering more harmonized and environmentally-sensitive integrated plans and policies [2],[3],[4]. The Working Group - WG C3-06, at CIGRÉ, was created in 2006 to analyse and indicate the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) procedures and methods to be applied to the development of power systems. The scope of work of this WG has included the following tasks: (i) collection and analysis of legislation and technical standards regarding SEA in different countries, with specific reference to Power Systems development; (ii) collection and analysis of practical experiences (literature and/or “case studies”); (iii) synthesis and benchmarking of standards and experiences; (iv) identification of critical issues; (v) definition of criteria and recommendations for the standardisation of methodologies applicable to Power Strategic Environmental Assessment for Power Developments SUMMARY - This paper focuses on the SEA studies for generation and transmission planning process as a result of the WG C3-06 report [1].This Working Group, named Strategic Environmental Assessment, is part of the Cigré SC C3 – System Environmental Performance. Commonly some misunderstandings between EIA and SEA objectives and main procedures are observed. One possible reason is that SEA shares its original route and common principles with EIA.However,there are some aspects that provide significant differences between these two instruments of environmental planning. The first aspect is related to the decision- making process.While EIA is normally used at the end of the decision making cycle, with a limited number of feasible alternatives, SEA is meant to occur at earlier stages of the decision making cycle, when a broad range of potential alternatives can be considered. The perspective and level of detail is another important aspect. The perspective of SEA focuses on a sustainability agenda rather than focusing on the treatment of specific symptoms of environmental degradation. Unlike EIA, SEA uses a broad perspective with a low level of detail to provide a vision and overall framework. SEA is a tool for identifying and analysing opportunities and alternatives rather than assessing impacts. Beyond the difference between SEA and EIA, there are also two fundamentally different ways to approach SEA. One is the EIA-based approach.This type involves applying the same kind of assessment procedures as one would do in a traditional EIA, only to a broader scope. The second one is the sustainability-based SEA. In case one it attempts to study the carrying capacities of the environment and the collective desire of the stakeholders for preferred levels and kinds of development in a region. There are many guidelines that establish the basic stages of conducting a SEA. These stages are quite similar from one analysis to another and are intended to be valid for all plans and programmes whatever their sector.The following generic stages are usually part of the process of conducting a SEA study: (i) Screening: identification of the need for SEA; (ii) Scoping: targets setting the boundaries for the study; (iii) Identification and assessment of alternatives scenarios; (iv) Report: analysis and report preparation and review;(v)Decision: consultation and decision making; (vi) Monitoring: measure,report,monitoring and follow-up. Asaresult,SEAshoulddeliverwhatisintended,namely an increased likelihood of sustainable development. According to the international experience and the work carried out by the WG C3-06, some guidelines and recommendations for SEA in the power sector are presented in the paper. KEYWORDS - Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA); Policy, Plans and Programmes (PPP); Power development; Generation and transmission planning process;Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). 1.0 INTRODUCTION SEA is a comprehensive concept covering many forms of environmental evaluation, such as: (i) environmental assessment for policies, although still very restricted in its range; (ii) regional assessments, Dr. R. C. FURTADO (Convenor, Brazil) l F. SERRAN (Secretary, Brazil) l S. COCHART (France) l F. CRESPO (Spain) C. DOERNEMANN (Germany) l V. DU FOUR (Belgium) l F. HAVENGA (South Africa) l S. MARTIN (Australia) l J. OGLEVIE (USA) lF. PARADA (Portugal) l H. SANDERS (Netherlands) l Dr. G. SINGLETON (Canada) l T. SMOLKA (Germany) H. SOIBELZON (Argentina) l M. VAZQUEZ (Spain) l M. CECCARIGLIA (Italy) l W. WANG (China) l J.-L. BESSEDE (France)
  11. 11. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 2120 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA and the SEA report are taken into account when developing the final plan.An official report must follow the plan clarifying the reasons for its selection, how the considerations of the environmental report and public consultation were taken into account and the monitoring measures to be implemented. When the plan is implemented, monitoring of significant environmental effects must be carried out to ensure that during the course of project development any unanticipated effects are identified and the appropriate measures are taken. 3.2.Measurements used in SEA One of the main steps in developing a SEA methodology is to develop indicators relevant to the selected objectives. An indicator is a measurable variable (quantitative) or a descriptive variable that permits the criteria to be observed. Underlying data is essential to the selection of an indicator and the required data should be available and of satisfactory quality.The indicators are developed in order for them to be applied to different plan alternatives.Based on the adoption of sustainable development goals, countries and companies are increasingly taking into account indicators of environmental performance evaluations, particularly in their policies,plans and programmes. Although many studies have used indicators, specific SEAs may expand, reduce or even change them,depending on the specific conditions.Therefore, the list of indicators may present significant variations depending on the country or the type of plan or programme being studied. The selection of aspects and indicators depends on the studied areas, and the list of indicators - such as direct land use,noise level of installations, number of people living under or nearby a HV line, etc., can differ from country to country and may be different for generation and transmission. It is important to highlight that site-specific conditions are important in the selection of indicators. 4.0 CONCLUDING REMARKS As noted in this paper, several advances have already been made to incorporate SEA methodology in the power sector.Nevertheless,additional efforts are needed to fully incorporate SEA studies and concepts into power sector planning and to ensure that SEA is not regarded simply as an onerous requirement and an administrative hurdle.As a result,SEA should deliver what is intended, namely an increased likelihood of sustainable development. According to international experience and work carried out by the WG C3-06, the following guidelines already under development, approved along with the planned ones; e) the identification of sensitivities and enhancement opportunities; f) the identification of measures to prevent,reduce,mitigate,compensate and, if possible, eliminate negative environmental impacts of the implementation of programmes and plans; g) a summary of the reasons for choosing the alternatives for which environmental evaluations have been carried out. The environmental report and the draft plan or programme are then made available to the public concerned, as well to the authorities with specific environmental responsibilities, in order to begin the public consultation phase. Once the public consultation ends, the promoter must then take into account these results in the final version of the plan or programme. The SEA for transmission has been applied to plans and programmes,such as National Development Plans. It has also been applied as the first step of the planning process for regional and international power system interconnections. In these cases, the planning process provides the assessment of a region with the intent to select a“corridor”for the transmission line.A“corridor”is understood as the section of territory where technical, environmental and territorial conditions meet the requirements for routing power transmission lines and related plants. The SEA report for generation should allow comprehension of the socio-environmental dynamics of the entire region and of the existing and planned generation projects, in a sustainable perspective, as follows [7]: (i) a spatial and temporal evaluation of the integrated effects of generation projects for different scenarios; (ii) general guidelines for the implementation of generation projects, considering the results of the studies developed for each sub- region, the areas of fragilities, the use and occupation of land and regional development; (iii) technical guidelines to be incorporated in future environmental studies of generation projects, aiming to support the environment permitting a process of planned projects within the scope area of the studies; (iv) a database comprising all the information generated or obtained throughout the development of the study. ConsultationisaveryimportantissueinanySEAand has been promoted by all countries conducting such studies. In this way, the draft plan and the SEA report should be presented to the public for consultation. The consultation is published in local and regional newspapers and on local radios,in Orders and Decrees, on the administration homepage and other means of communication. The results of public consultations must put into action all the legislative instruments and administrative procedures necessary for fulfilling this Directive. On March 21, 2003, during the Convention of Assessment of Environmental Impact, better known as the Kiev Protocol, fellow-members of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe signed the Protocol of Strategic Environmental Assessment. Only in Spain, Portugal, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands a SEA is mandatory for grid development planning or other plans in the power sector. There are some countries, such as Brazil, South Africa, China and Australia, where SEA studies are not regulated by legislation, and, therefore, are not mandatory. Some countries have published guideline documents for undertaking SEA (e.g. South Africa). In other countries, SEA studies are being developed voluntarily or through informal agreements. 3.1.Stages of SEA The following generic stages are usually part of the process for conducting a SEA study: (i) Screening: identifying the need for SEA; (ii) Scoping: targets setting boundaries for the study; (iii) Identification and assessment of alternative scenarios;(iv) Report:analysis and report preparation and review; (v) Decision: consultation and decision making; (vi) Monitoring: measure,report,monitoring and follow-up. The first step is to determine if a SEA is actually needed.The entity responsible for developing the plan or programme (promoter) consults the authorities,with specific environmental responsibilities,to confirm if the plan or programme needs a SEA procedure. This is followed by a scoping process, which consists of identifying the issues to be addressed and the alternatives to be considered. Then, for each alternative under consideration, the expected impacts are predicted and the impact significance is identified. A report is then prepared.The choice of a preferred plan option in decision making then takes into account the findings and suggestions of the SEA report.This process is accompanied by consultations with the authorities and public participation.Once approved,a monitoring process is put in place. Thereportnormallyincludes:a)goalsandobjectives of the plan or programme; b) a description of the environmental characteristics of the affected zones, including an assessment of an alternative for the non- implementationoftheplan;c)adescriptionofthemajor environmental impacts caused by the implementation of the plan or programme, including secondary, cumulativeandsynergeticimpactsintheshort,medium and long term; d) a description of short, medium and long-term scenarios for the region, including projects account the various economic and social needs associated with location processes. These problems are further increased by the difficulty of rendering energy development requirements complementary to and not in conflict with the requests for greater environmental protection. Hence, within this context, SEA is a planning instrument that deals with questions involved in establishing sustainability and the problem of environmental protection. A number of common misunderstandings have arisen between the objectives and main procedures of EIA and SEA. One possible reason for this is that SEA shares its origins and common principles with EIA. However, there are certain aspects that provide significant differences between these two environmental planning instruments.The fundamental difference between EIA and SEA can be described as follows [5]: whilst EIA focuses on the effect of developmentontheenvironment,SEAaimstointegrate the concept of sustainability into the formulation of plans and programmes. Table 1 presents the differences between EIA and SEA in South Africa [6]. As well as the above-mentioned differences between SEA and EIA,there are also two fundamentally different ways to approach SEA. One is the EIA-based approach, which involves applying the same kind of assessment procedures as in a traditional EIA,except on a broader scope.The second is the sustainability-based SEA,in which an attempt is made to study the carrying capacities of the environment and the collective desire of the stakeholders for a preferred level and type of regional development. Development plans are only produced after considering a range of development options that may fit the limits imposed by the environment and the collective will of the stakeholders. 3.0 SEA GENERAL STRUCTURE The SEA legislation developed in 1969 in the US (with NEPA) stated the necessity to provide analyses of programmes, activities and regulations brought in by federal,state and local governments with reference to the effects these activities may have on the environment and the conservation and use of natural resources. InEurope,eachcountry,withintheEU,hasenactedor legislated its own version of the SEA Directive 2001/42/ CE. Each country has also created regulations and guidelinesastohowtheassessmentwillbeadministered, and how often it will be revised. Each country has also enacted regulations for its enforcement. The SEA Directive 2001/42/CE determined that State-Members
  12. 12. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 2322 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA Brazilian Experience on Long Distance Transmission Systems and Future Trends/Challenges SUMMARY - This presentation is basically divided in two parts: the first one shows the Brazilian knowledge and experience on dealing with long distance transmission systems (800 kVAC and ±600 kVDC), describing the historical reasons for that, faced problems/challenges and some aspects of the technical solutions to overcome those problems/ challenges, from planning and operating experience points of view. In the second part, it will be given an updated summary of the Brazilian future trends and technical challenges, regarding the potential use/ need of UHV transmission system technologies, as for the transmission solution associated to the foreseen plannedmajorhydropowerplantsintheAmazonregion, that is,the transfer of high amounts of power (between 6,000 and 10,000 MW) across long distances (of about 3,000 km).The consequent impacts on existing network (brazilian national interconnected powergrid) are also considered,by pointing out the needs of:(a) reinforcing the receiving points of the powergrid to cope with the integration of huge amounts of new generation from far away sites in the Amazon region, as well as (b) the need of investigating procedures for limitation of short-circuit current levels exceeding existing equipment withstand ratings.Also,the new challenges may demand IEC standards deep and general review, due to the possible special equipment withstand requirements for higher voltage levels above 800 kV (UHV). Regarding the 800 kV level for AC transmission, which has been used for over 40 years worldwide, the equipment technical specifications were based mainly on equipment withstand requirements using extrapolation from 420 and 550 kV levels. For UHV, the new specifications are pretty much based on modern system analysis techniques,resulting in recommended insulation levels for UHV equipment not far above those for 800 kV. For new long distance transmission systems,some important features and concerns related to equipment withstand requirements should also be deeply investigated as well. KEYWORDS - UHV long distance transmission, planning, engineering, construction, operating experience, equipment, specification, tests, erection on site,future trends. 1.0 INTRODUCTION The Brazilian Electric Power System has some particular features that should be highlighted: the bulk supplyistypicallyprovidedbylongEHVtransmissionlines belonging to the national interconnected powergrid,not onlytoconnectfarhydroelectricpowerplantstothemain load centers, but also to interconnect power systems of different regions and from distinct geographical areas. Due to the long distances between main load centers and major generation plants, several transmission lines and substations of 550kV up to 800 kV had to be built in the country,soon after these voltage levels started to be used by utilities in other parts of the world. Considering such a frame as above described, one of the most important powerplant integrations into the brazilian national interconnected powergrid refers to Itaipu hydroelectric powerplant. It is located on Paraná River,at the border between Brazil and Paraguay and belongs to a company of the same name of the powerplant: Itaipu Binacional. It is a power generation utility, owned by both governments, of Brazil and Paraguay,in equal shares.Itaipu powerplant has now-a- days 20 generating units of 700 MW each, resulting in a 14,000 MW installed rated power capacity enterprise, enable to produce alone around 100 TWh of energy per year,at the present the highest in the world. Taking into account peculiarities of the brazilian power system at late 70’ and early 80’, it is shown the context in which the Itaipu transmission system was conceiveddesigned, in order to integrate into the Brazilian interconnected transmission grid the power and energy that were to be generated by the Itaipu powerplant,foreseen to happen in the middle of the 80’. As in Brazil and Paraguay the nominal power frequencies are different from each other, the rated frequency of half of the generating units (10x700MW), belonging to Brazil, is 60Hz, while the other half (10x700MW), belonging to Paraguay, has a rated frequency of 50Hz. This has been established as a consequence of an international treaty celebrated between both countries. However, Brazil has agreed, by contract, to buy the whole of 50Hz energy, except that consumed by Paraguay, which means that 80% to J. AMON FILHO Furnas l P . C. FERNANDEZ Eletrobras have been proposed for SEA in the power sector: (i) It is imperative to conduct a SEA for Plans and Programmes; (ii) In all cases, SEAs should be strategic and comprehensive studies; (iii) SEA should be included in national and regional long-term plans both for generation and transmission; (iv) Define specific objectives and the scope of the study on which the assessment will be based and chose an appropriate method of measurement in accordance with the environmental authorities; (v) Identify different alternatives and analyze their effects; (vi) Include analysis of environmental,social and economic aspects; (vii) Identify the stakeholders in the earlier stages of the process;(viii)Take into account the results of public consultation; (ix) SEA studies should result in meaningful deliverables, including proposals for mitigation, compensation and monitoring measures; (x)Make the results of the study and public consultation available in a Final Report; (xi) Conduct a monitoring phase to provide feedback and to identify the value of lessons learned for the next SEA process. The WG C3-06 has also made the following recommendations: (i) an appropriate communication plan should be established; (ii) modelling tools should be developed to support the analysis of policies and plans, as well as decision making; (iii) geographical Information Systems (GIS) should be used, particularly to analyze the cumulative and synergetic effects of the plan or programme; (iv) build capacity and training on the SEA skills,which should be implemented. 5.0 BIBLIOGRAPHY [1] Working Group SC C3-06 CIGRÉ.“Strategic Environ- mental Assessment for Power Developments”.CIGRÉ Brochure (forthcoming),Paris,France. [2] Partidário, M.R. (2007). “Guia de boas práticas para Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica – orientações metodológicas”. Agência Portuguesa do Ambiente. Lisbon,Portugal. [3] Thérivel, R., P. Caratti, M.R. Partidário, A. H. Theodórs- dóttir and D.Tyldesley (2004). “SEA guidance – Writ- ing strategic environmental assessment guidance”. In:Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal,volume 22,number 4,December 2004,pages 259-270,Guild- ford,Surrey:Beech Tree Publishing,UK. [4] Sadler,B.(ed.)(2005).‘Strategic Environmental Assess- ment at the Policy Level: Recent Progress, Current Status and Future Prospects”. Regional Environment Centre for Central and Eastern Europe on behalf of the Czech Ministry of Environment. Prague, Czech Republic. [5] CSIR (1996).South African approaches on Strategic Environmental Assessment. South Africa. [6] DEAT (2007). “Strategic Environmental Assessment Guideline”. Integrated Environmental Guideline, In- formation series 4,Department of Environmental Af- fairs and Tourism (DEAT),Pretoria,South Africa. [7] Furtado, R.C., R.C. Cavalcanti, C.F. Menezes, M.R. Nuti, P.N.Teixeira,E.Breyer and F.Serran (2008).“Methodol- ogy for Integrated Environmental Assessment of Hy- drographic Basins”. Proceedings of 2008 CIGRÉ Ses- sion,pp.C3-210 - C3-222. Paris,France.
  13. 13. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 2524 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA The 800 kV AC transmission system interconnects Foz do Iguaçu substation (close to Itaipu power plant) to Tijuco Preto substation in São Paulo area (close to São Paulo metropolitan region), one of the main load centers of the Brazilian electrical network.Foz do Iguaçu substation contains both the UHV 800kVAC switchyard and the ± 600kVDC converter substation (rectifier side). Together they form one of the biggest substations in operation worldwide, in terms of power and size. The three circuits of 800 KVAC, each one of about 895 km long,are able to transmit to the Brazilian interconnected network the generated power from the generating units operating with the nominal frequency of 60 Hz, and also to interchange energy between the southern and southeastern geographic regions of the Brazilian interconnected network as well. Before the existence of the Itaipu transmission system, these two regional transmission grids were weakly interconnected, since they had only few tie-lines using voltage levels of 88kV, 138 kVand 230 kVin the border between the state of São Paulo (south border of southeastern regional grid) and the state of Paraná (north border of southern regional grid). The electrical requirement for the 800 kVAC equipment has been defined in the late 70s and early 80s. At that time, the Brazilian network consisted of several sub-networks weakly connected to each other. Although each sub-network could be considered as solidly grounded, the network as a whole could not. Besides, the 800 kV Brazilian network would not be a meshed network but a radial one consisting of 3 parallel circuits.Thus,theplanningengineersatthattimedecided to adopt conservative requirements for the equipment of such a new and unknown high voltage level in Brazil, derived from system simulations under severe operation and emergency conditions. Figure 1: Transmission system for Itaipu powerplant integration into the Brazilian powergrid In the middle of the 80s the full power of Itaipu power plant corresponded to more than 35% of the whole installed power in the Brazilian power network (now-a-days it corresponds to less than 14%, even over 90% of the 50Hz produced energy,in average,was imported by Brazil during the powerplant operation period. The building up of the Brazilian knowledge and experience on dealing with the EHV highest voltage levels transmission systems have started with the initial investigation studies, carried out considering the first engineering alternative for the transmission system associated with Itaipu power plant, which consisted of a 800 kVAC five line-transmission-corridor. After the decision of the government of Paraguay to keep its electrical network nominal frequency in 50 Hertz, instead of accepting the Brazilian offer to convert the whole country electrical network into 60Hz, it became necessary to review those first investigation studies, in order to define a transmission system solution of 3 parallel 800kVAC transmission lines and one HVDC system formed by 2 bipoles of ± 600kVDC.This hybrid- AC/DC transmission system planned, shown in Figure 1,is one of the most important in the occidental world, due to its nominal voltage levels,rated power capacity and importance for the Brazilian electric industry. Its importance is not only due to the usage of some of the highest voltage levels in commercial operation worldwide, but also because of the high capacity of the transmitted power (rated to 12.600 MW) for a long distance (about 1,000 km). Eletrobras-FURNAS, as a power generation bulk transmission utility, owned by the Brazilian Federal Government, was responsible for developing the transmission solution in order to integrate Itaipu power plant generation into the Brazilian national transmission network, performing the planning studies, equipment specification, factory and laboratory tests, erection on site,commissioningtests(factoryandon-siteacceptance tests), amongst other tasks. Eletrobras-FURNAS was createdin1957andstartedtheoperationofthe800kVAC and ± 600kVDC systems in 1982 and 1984, respectively, integrating the Itaipu power plant generation into the ‘Brazilian National Transmission Network’, and then, being the utility detainer of the Brazilian know-how on transmission issues of such voltage levels[1]. In this sense, the 800kV transmission system, was conceived for transporting the power of 6.300 MW in 60 Hz and the +/-600kVHVDC transmission system,was conceived for transporting 6.300 MW in 50 Hz,giving a total figure of 12,600 MW. 2.0 FIRST PART 2.1. 800 kV AC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM - REMARKABLE ASPECTS 2.2. 600 kV HVDC TRANSMISSION SYSTEM - REMARKABLE ASPECTS The ±600 kV HVDC transmission system is rated to transmit 6.300 MWfrom the generated power produced by the 10 generating units of 50 Hz owned by the Paraguayan side of the bi-national Itaipu power plant. In order to build up the Brazilian know-how on HVDC transmission,being used for the first time in the country, the following constrains have been established:services, equipment and products should be nationalized; Brazilian enterprises/engineers should take part on the planning studies, designing, building and operation of the HVDC transmission system; technology transfer “on the job training”should be practiced. The UHV ± 600 kV DC transmission system main characteristics are as follows: • Two substations (Foz do Iguaçu the rectifier side and Ibiúna,the Inverter side); • Nominal Power:6,300 MW; • Nominal Voltage:± 600 kV(DC); • Nominal Current:2,625 A(DC); • Two Bipoles (± 600 kV); • Each Bipole composed by two poles; • Each Pole composed by two 300 kV series-con- nected convertors. BothAC/DCrectifyingandDC/ACinvertingprocesses require great amounts of reactive power and produce harmonic currents that are not allowed to be injected into the related AC network.At Foz do Iguaçu substation AC filters totalizing 1,540 Mvar have been installed. Because of its vicinities to Itaipu power plant,the needed reactive power has been mostly supplied by the power plant itself, performing the filters just the role of not allowingtheharmoniccurrentsflowintotheACnetwork. At Ibiúna substation, besides AC filters totalizing 2,480 Mvar have been installed, shunt capacitors, totalizing 590 Mvar and 4 synchronous compensators of 300 Mvar each were defined to supply the needed reactive power and proper short circuit level.It is important to point out that there were no existing IEC Standards [2] at that time for such a huge HVDC transmission system.In this sense, some aspects and faced problems, from planning and operating experience points of view, concerning the UHVAC and UHVDC features and equipment,had to be deeply investigated since the beginning,such as: a - comparison between ‘equivalent’ solutions of HVAC and HVDC systems and between ‘equivalent’ GIS and AIS equipment, in terms of engineering and economics issues (considering environmental and regulatory issues); b - characteristics of HVDC system facilities, such as the so-called‘Dynamic Performance feature’(concerning considering the expansion of the Itaipu power plant). In the beginning of the Itaipu power plant operation, during the light load period in the late 80’,the generated power of Itaipu station corresponded to more than 50% of the dispatched power in the Brazilian interconnected network. Therefore, the Itaipu transmission system, in this context, was of major importance to the Brazilian electric bulk network.It had to be designed considering, on one hand, the use, for the first time in the country, of such high voltage levels, equipment rated power and all the related technological aspects and, on the other hand, it was absolutely necessary to assure that the equipment withstand levels would cope with the system requirements,as reliably as possible. These system requirements should consider for instance, for equipment designing purposes, the worst conditions regarding switching transients.Also FURNAS did not apply single phase reclosing on its 800 kV lines since they comprise the 800 kV AC transmission system of Itaipu power plant,composed by three parallel radial circuits with four 800 kV substations (one sending end, one receiving end and two intermediate) distant 300 km to each other, approximately. Despite secondary arc extinction is the most important concern on single- phase auto-reclosing, due to its complex behavior characteristics, it is quite often analyzed by extremely generalized criteria or simplified methods, that lead to mistaken conclusions or not optimized solutions for single-phase reclosing implementation. Following this idea of adopting conservative criteria for defining the equipment withstand requirements (for such a new and unknown high voltage level in Brazil at that time), derived from system simulations under severe operation and emergency conditions, it was also found necessary to define other requirements based on rigid premises, such as the maximum overspeed during total load rejection in the 800 kVAC system as 1.1 of nominal frequency (66 Hz), instead of adopting the standard value of 1.05fn (63 Hz).This rigid overspeed criteria was used to verify the possibilities of self-excitation regarding the Itaipu generators, and also to define the withstand requirements of switching equipment due to overvoltage transients caused by full load rejection.Finally,as other example,the value of 800 kVwas defined as the‘maximum operating voltage’, which means only 1.045pu of the nominal operating voltage (765 kV). In all other Brazilian voltage levels the maximum operating voltage (non-continuous operating voltage limit, for emergency operating conditions) is 1.10 pu of the rated or nominal voltage value (138kV/152kV; 230kV/253kV; 345kV/380kV; 440kV/484kV;500kV/550kV).
  14. 14. ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 2726 ELETROEVOLUÇÃO março 2012 SyMPOSIUM BOLOGNASyMPOSIUM BOLOGNA impacts caused to the AC systems connected to the converter substations, both ‘rectifier’ and ‘inverter’ HVDC system sides, in terms of mitigation/elimination of dynamic electromechanical transients/oscillations); HVDC transmission system ‘Forced Isolation protection scheme’ (implemented to give protection against electrical transients derived from partial or total load shedding); ‘High MVAr consumption’ operating mode; ‘automatic fast switching’ from one faulted DC line to another one under unrecoverable short-circuit conditions in the first line; c - HVDC reliability features specification (ability of the system to transmit the rated power under con- tingency conditions and outages), such as: operation modes (bipolar/monopolar) and related engineering/ environmental issues; temporary overloading/overcur- rent capacity;AC System Faults/configurations that may create commutation failures mainly in the inverter sta- tion; d - importance/advantages of analogue/digital sim- ulation facilities for HVDC/HVAC transmission systems (necessity/usefulness of simulation tools for HVDC trans- mission systems in terms of planning/specification/op- erational optimization and economics); e - DC switchyard bushing isolation problems and the implemented mitigation solutions; f - issues related to filtering requirements (short cir- cuit level criteria, filter overloading,“active filters” usage since they are not a sink for harmonics other than their own,which can be decisive in filtering performance,etc); g - HVAC shunt and series compensation devices (and the related inherent aspects in terms of voltage profile control,overvoltage transients and protection is- sues); h - importance of equipment withstanding require- ments definition in the planning phase, taking into ac- count the possible/foreseen evolution/expansion of the AC grid/network (up-grading in short-circuit level requirements); i - enterprise staging definition, i.e., intermediate stages of transmitting power capacity, considering cost constraints,needs of scaling the power transmis- sion,time interval between stages,etc (series connec- tion of converter groups per pole easily allows the staging of 25%,50%,75%,and 100% of the total rated power); j- oil chemistry issues of HVDC converter transformers; k - possibilities of controlled switching usage. As the IEC standards at that time did not cover the requirements for such a bulk transmission system,many of the equipment requirements had to be considered as special ones in the equipment specifications. 3.0 SECOND PART:FUTURE TRENDS/CHALLENGES REGARDING UHVTRANSMISSION IN BRAZIL Stepping into the future and trying to foresee possible needs, trends and challenges, regarding the use of UHV transmission in Brazil [3], we have on one hand, around 150 GW corresponding to the remaining Brazilian hydroelectric potential still not used. A high percentage of it (around 55%) is located in the Amazon region (see Figure 2),according to the official estimates. On the other hand, the consumption of energy is spread all over the country according to the following geographical distribution: • Isolated Systems in Amazon Region (2% of total country’s load consumption). In 2009 a considerable amount of load demand and area covered by isolated systems in the Amazon region were integrated into the national powergrid. And it is foreseen to 2013 the integration of the major part of the load consumption in the remaining isolated systems in Amazon area, by means of a transmission system under construction of almost 2,000km long.Such transmission corridor will use voltage levels of 500kV and 230kV, in double circuit of very tall tower structures, above the Amazon rainforest tree tops (in order to avoid suppression of the vegetation along the OH line right-of-way).After it starts operating, the remaining load consumption in isolated systems in Brazil will be less than 0.5%of the total. • Interconnected System in North/Northeast (19% of consumption). •InterconnectedSysteminSouth/Southeast/Central- West (79%of consumption). Figure 2:Hydropower potential in Brazil. In Brazil,in a more or less similar way as it happens in China,thepotentialsforPowergenerationtobeexploited are distributed in an unbalanced way throughout the Brazilian territory. In the Amazon region, northern and north-western regions of the country, there are the main left hydro potentials (refer to Figure 2), while the main load centres are located along or near the coast. The necessity of high growth rates for electricity supply is another similarity between Brazil and China.Although the high average grow rate of electricity consumption in Brazil during the last decades, the average per-capta consumption is still very low,e.g.,less than half of average per-capta consumption in countries like Portugal,Spain and Italy. For many reasons, since costs, expertise in design, erection, operation and maintenance, until the international commitments for climate change mitigation, the main supply expansion of power for electricity industry in Brazil for the decade until 2019 will bethehydropotentialinthecountry(mainlytheexisting one in the Amazon region),keeping roughly the existing shares of today among the main primary sources. In Brazil,around 2030,due to the still expected high average grow rate of the electricity consumption in the country (sic), it is foreseen to be left no appreciable amount of the hydro potential in all country areas, including the Amazon region. For the time being, and for the next decade,the hydro potential in the Amazon region is the most interesting option to be used to cope with future demand needs (in terms of costs,technology know-how, accessible means for environmental and social mitigation measures, etc). Therefore, after 2030 one feasible alternative of high interest for forthcoming generation expansion is the nuclear option. It is foreseen that the supply of electricity with hydro primary source will be expanded in more than 60GW for the next decade, while the other primary sources for electricity supply will experience a lower growth increase rate (nuclear included). The Amazon region has a lot of water resources on a quite plain geographic area,that is,without water falls, and the rivers having huge and sustained water flows. Thus, generation of electricity can be obtained taking advantage of the water flow rather than by using the potential energy (difference in water level provided by dams). In order to minimize environmental and social impacts, preliminary prospective studies of the region suggest,as the more suitable solution,the construction of hydro powerplant dams with very low height and the intensive use of“bulb-type”turbines. Therefore, in terms of the Brazilian power system growth, it is reasonable to say that it will be necessary to transport huge amounts of energy,produced mainly in the Amazon region, to the main load centers of the country, covering distances of more than 2,000 kilometers. Consideringsuchaframe,theuseofUHVtransmission systems (AC overhead lines and/or DC links) seems to be quite competitive and suitable alternatives, in both economic and environmental views/aspects.Such non- conventional technology for transmission (UHV for AC – higher than 1,000kV or for DC – 800kV or higher) has a significantly higher capacity for transporting bulk energy, covering long distances compared to the conventional transmission technologies available,i.e.,up to the 800kV level fo AC or 600kVfor DC.The use of UHVtechnology is interestingundertheeconomicandenvironmentalview points (for instance,the suppression of vegetation along the right-of-way is significantly lower compared to the conventionaltransmissionTechnologies,consideringthe transport of the same big amount of energy and Power. In this case,it is not necessary to change the frequency from the rectifier AC side to the inverter AC side, since it is just a matter of a set of issues such as: stability, loss reduction, compactness, environmental friendlyness and costs to connect the far amazonic future hydro powerplants to the main load centers. It is possible to consider still the HVDC multi-terminal technology for integrating the Amazon hydro potential into the national powergrid. This multi-terminal HVDC transmission system is considered non-conventional as well, and much more complex from the technological view-point when compared to the point-to-point HVDC conventional technology. Other transmissionTechnologies under consideration, with their technological challenges of today and advan- tages/disadvantages of each one,are: a - Half-wave plus: transmission line in alternate current with about 2,500km point-to-point, which is impossible to obtain using the conventional AC trans- mission Technologies,or even using UHV AC systems; b - HVDC system using the non-conventional technology VSC (Voltage Source Converter):This tech- nology is already available in the market worldwide, but still has higher costs and higher Joule losses com- pared to the conventional HVDC technology using thyristors; c - Segmented AC transmission tehcnology: AC lines segmented by Power electronic devices (FACTS - Flexible AC Transmission Systems).The concern with the use of such technology is regarding costs and reli- ability. The first new large hydropower project in the Amazon region,already under construction,is known as ‘Madeirariverproject’.Itconsistsofanenterprisecomplex including two hydroelectric power plants situated on Madeira river:one is‘Santo Antonio’,near PortoVelho city, the capital of the state of Rondônia and the other one is ‘Jirau’, near the border between Brazil and Bolivia, both enterprises totalizing an installed power of 6,450 MW. The complexity inherent to the project has required a lot of efforts from the federal government in order to obtain the environment licenses needed to start the process

×