1 molecules of life


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1 molecules of life

  1. 1. Molecules of Life<br />Macromolecules<br />
  2. 2. Biochemistry Terms<br />Biomolecule: contain carbon, produced by living things.<br />Organic Compounds – Carbon containing compounds produced by living organisms.<br />Macromolecule– when smaller molecules join together to form a larger more complex molecule.<br />
  3. 3. 4. Important Macromolecules<br />Carbohydrates<br />Lipids<br />Proteins<br />Nucleic Acids<br />
  4. 4. Carbohydrates<br />
  5. 5. Carbohydrates<br />5. Organic macromolecules composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1C:2H:1O (i.e. CH2O, C6H12O6, etc.) <br /> Source of relatively “quick” energy because bonds store lots of energy.<br />CHO<br />
  6. 6. 6. Simple Carbohydrates<br />A. Simple = Monosaccharides (C6H12O6)<br />Glucosefrom a plant <br />Fructosefrom fruits on a plant<br />Galactosefrom milk<br />GlucoseFructose<br />
  7. 7. 7. Complex Carbohydrates<br />A. Complex = Disaccharides(C12H24O12) -- two<br />Sucrose= glucose & fructose<br />Lactose= glucose & galactose<br />Maltose= glucose & glucose <br />Lactose<br />Sucrose<br />
  8. 8. 8. Very Complex Carbohydrates<br />A. Very Complex =Polysaccharides(CxHyOz) -- many<br />Starchis stored in parts of plants like grains & potatoes<br />Celluloseis found in plant cell walls & wood<br />Glycogenis stored in animal livers & muscles<br />Cellulose<br />
  9. 9. 9. Interesting Facts about Carbs:<br />Celluloseis made of many glucose subunits.<br />When humans eat cellulose it passes through our body undigested (this is good for dietary fiber).<br />
  10. 10. C. cows & horses have very tiny microorganisms in their stomachs which can breakdown cellulose. They can digest cellulose and receive its stored energy.<br />
  11. 11. Lipids<br />
  12. 12. Lipids<br />CHO<br />10. Organic macromolecules that are not soluble (do not dissolve) in water and are useful for storing energy.<br /> A. Composed of C, O, H<br /> B. Betterfor storing energy because they have more bondsthan carbohydrates.<br />
  13. 13. Lipid Types<br />13. There are three basic types of lipids: <br />A. Fats = energy storage <br />B. Steroids = hormones & cholesterol<br />C. Waxes = protective coatings<br />
  14. 14. 14. Two Types of Fats<br />Saturated – most carbon atoms are bonded to two hydrogen atoms. <br />i. Mostly solids like butter, lard, grease<br />ii. Can lead to heart disease<br />
  15. 15. 14. Two Types of Fats<br />Unsaturated – most carbon atoms are <br /> bonded to one hydrogen atom.<br />i. Mostly liquids like corn oil, olive oil, fish oil<br />ii. Usually a healthier alternative<br />
  16. 16. 15. Steroids<br />Organic macromolecules composed of four carbon rings.<br />Found in hormones (increase cell growth), nerve tissues, and plant poisons.<br />
  17. 17. 16. Waxes<br />Organic macromolecules that serves as a protective coating and is waterproof.<br />Plants have a thin layer on their leaves<br />Animals produce earwax <br />
  18. 18. Proteins<br />
  19. 19. Proteins<br />CHON<br />Organic macromolecules that are the building blocks of cells (muscles, skin, blood, etc.) and enzymes.<br />Contain C, H, O, N atoms<br />Our bodies contain thousands of different proteins. <br />Proteins are made of very long chains of amino acids put together like beads on a necklace.<br />
  20. 20. 18. Amino Acids (AA)<br />20different types of amino acids<br />Can form new proteins based upon their order and the number of them present in a protein chain.<br />Generalized Amino Acid<br />
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  22. 22. 19. Enzymes<br />Special proteins that help control chemical reactions by acting as catalysts.<br />Catalysts can speed up some reactions by more than a billion fold!<br />
  23. 23. 19. Enzymes<br />c. Enzymes work by a “lock and key” mechanism between the enzyme and the substrate.<br />d. When connected the enzyme lowers the activation energy needed for the chemical reaction.<br />
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  27. 27. Nucleic Acids<br />
  28. 28. 20. Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA<br />CHONP<br />Organic macromolecules used to control an organisms genetic or heredity information.<br />Composed of C, H, O, N, P<br />Made up of very long chains of nucleotides.<br />
  29. 29. 21. Types of Nucleic Acids<br />DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)<br />directs all cell activities and codes for genes<br />RNA (ribonucleic acid)<br />directs proteins creation and transfers information<br />