Successfully reported this slideshow.
MALE AND FEMALE DISPARITIES IN TANZANIA Young girls in Arusha market Young boys in Arusha market
There are many disparities between men and women in Tanzania. <ul><li>In general it can be said that women are not given t...
It starts as a child… <ul><li>Expectations for a  </li></ul><ul><li>young boy…. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as a valuable ...
But for girls it is different… <ul><li>Expectations for a  </li></ul><ul><li>young girl…. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as a...
EDUCATION: PRIMARY <ul><li>Since 2002 the Tanzanian government has made primary school free (it was equivalent to NZ$10 pe...
EDUCATION: SECONDARY <ul><li>Things  change dramatically  at Secondary School. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Secondary School ...
EDUCATION: UNIVERSITY <ul><li>Of all students studying at University only 17% are women. </li></ul><ul><li>(note that only...
MARRIAGE <ul><li>Many women are involved in  </li></ul><ul><li>polygamous marriages – more than  </li></ul><ul><li>one wif...
HEALTH <ul><li>There are disparities in health... </li></ul><ul><li>Men more likely to get modern  </li></ul><ul><li>medic...
ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>Types of work have  </li></ul><ul><li>been stereotyped </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. ...
LAND OWNERSHIP <ul><li>Before 1999 women were not legally able to inherit or own land.  If the husband died the land would...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>MALES </li></ul><ul><li>Have higher literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li>More given access to higher educat...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

tanzaniamanvswomen

899 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

tanzaniamanvswomen

  1. 1. MALE AND FEMALE DISPARITIES IN TANZANIA Young girls in Arusha market Young boys in Arusha market
  2. 2. There are many disparities between men and women in Tanzania. <ul><li>In general it can be said that women are not given the same rights and access to resources as men… </li></ul>A poster at a dispensary showing the work load of many women.
  3. 3. It starts as a child… <ul><li>Expectations for a </li></ul><ul><li>young boy…. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as a valuable resource for earning income. </li></ul><ul><li>Given less chores (e.g. Boys rarely collect water). </li></ul><ul><li>First to eat in the home </li></ul><ul><li>First to be treated if sick. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys made to feel more valued than their sisters. </li></ul>Boys playing outside TV house. Boys ‘need’ education to get a good job and support the family .
  4. 4. But for girls it is different… <ul><li>Expectations for a </li></ul><ul><li>young girl…. </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived as a valuable resource for taking care of the family. </li></ul><ul><li>Given most chores </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. cleaning, water collection, baby sitting, collecting firewood). </li></ul><ul><li>Last to eat – often have left overs. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many girl children can upset a father. </li></ul><ul><li>Taught to obey men and must take a husband. </li></ul><ul><li>Role = childbearing. </li></ul>Girls collect the water The girl child looks after the younger siblings
  5. 5. EDUCATION: PRIMARY <ul><li>Since 2002 the Tanzanian government has made primary school free (it was equivalent to NZ$10 per year to attend. This has led to a significant increase in attendance. </li></ul><ul><li>Attendance of boys and girls is very similar. </li></ul>Students outside Bubungo Primary School – Shule = School in Swahili. <ul><li>Attendance for girls in 1980 was 52% </li></ul><ul><li>Today it is closer to 85% </li></ul><ul><li>However, only 20% finish primary school with a pass grade, a large % of these are boys. </li></ul>
  6. 6. EDUCATION: SECONDARY <ul><li>Things change dramatically at Secondary School. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Secondary School starts at $NZ 100 per year. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore families struggle to send just one child to school – the oldest male child. </li></ul><ul><li>Male attendance = 8% </li></ul><ul><li>Female attendance = 3% </li></ul>Female students at Kigoma Secondary School Outside classes for these boys at Pugu Boys Secondary School in Dar Es Salaam
  7. 7. EDUCATION: UNIVERSITY <ul><li>Of all students studying at University only 17% are women. </li></ul><ul><li>(note that only 1% go on to University) </li></ul>Disparity in literacy rates between male and female: Overall = 67% Male = 80% Female = 57% Students at Dar Es Salaam University – learning Meteorology. Source: www.fi.uib.no So the key point is…
  8. 8. MARRIAGE <ul><li>Many women are involved in </li></ul><ul><li>polygamous marriages – more than </li></ul><ul><li>one wife. </li></ul><ul><li>Dowry or bride price (up to 40 cattle) </li></ul><ul><li>means women are seen as a </li></ul><ul><li>purchase or property. </li></ul><ul><li>Women have no/little say in family affairs, including family planning – many women must produce a large family (with large # of boys) to please husband. </li></ul><ul><li>Women not encouraged to seek paid employment. </li></ul><ul><li>Men do not help with the household chores or cooking – workload of women is twice as much as men. </li></ul><ul><li>Most women accept their disadvantaged position in society. </li></ul>
  9. 9. HEALTH <ul><li>There are disparities in health... </li></ul><ul><li>Men more likely to get modern </li></ul><ul><li>medicines when required. </li></ul><ul><li>Males tend to eat better quality </li></ul><ul><li>and higher quantity of food. </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal mortality rate = 11 per 1000 births. </li></ul><ul><li>Female circumcision (FGM), illegal under the age of 18, is still carried out. Up to 50% in some rural areas, but numbers declining. Death can occur (1%) due to procedure. Girls have no choice. Male circumcision does not have the same health problems. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it should be noted that women live on average 2 years longer! </li></ul>Arusha hospital
  10. 10. ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES <ul><li>Types of work have </li></ul><ul><li>been stereotyped </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. domestic work). </li></ul><ul><li>Women provide 80% of </li></ul><ul><li>labour force in rural </li></ul><ul><li>areas and grow 60% </li></ul><ul><li>of the food. </li></ul><ul><li>Forced into unskilled or </li></ul><ul><li>undervalued jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT THINGS ARE CHANGING… </li></ul><ul><li>Women are at the forefront of small scale enterprises (businesses). For example – sewing business, arts and craft businesses for tourist activities. </li></ul>Young Women at Chankele Village
  11. 11. LAND OWNERSHIP <ul><li>Before 1999 women were not legally able to inherit or own land. If the husband died the land would go to the eldest son or in-laws. Women could be evicted by their sons. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999 the Land Law Act gave women more legal rights and they can now own land. </li></ul>Source: peacecorpsonline.org
  12. 12. CONCLUSION <ul><li>MALES </li></ul><ul><li>Have higher literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li>More given access to higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Have more control on family and village matters </li></ul><ul><li>Do half the work but have more employment opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Have less health concerns </li></ul><ul><li>(but don’t live as long) </li></ul><ul><li>FEMALES </li></ul><ul><li>Have lower literacy rates </li></ul><ul><li>Few have higher education opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>No control in family/village matters </li></ul><ul><li>Must share husband </li></ul><ul><li>Do all housework and most food production </li></ul><ul><li>Have more health concerns </li></ul><ul><li>(but live slightly longer) </li></ul>

×