The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines

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Why is clean oil so important in a wind turbine gearbox? Discover the benefits of controlling contamination in gear oil for enhancing reliability and extending life of gearboxes and their lifeblood, the lubricating oil. See how other owners and operators have slashed operations and maintenance costs.

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  • Thank NREL and DOE. Shawn and Beverly.
  • We are in the business of clean = minimize costs‘Run Cheaper and Faster’AWEA, CANWEA, EWEAOur own NM900
  • 40 Years of Knowledge
  • Errichelo: Clean throughout the life cycle including infancy
  • 21 MicronPEAK 1 = Retrofit May 2008PEAK 3 = Turned On Oct 2008PEAK 4 = Abnormal Dec 2008PEAK 5 = Customer Informed Feb 2009PEAK 6 = Made Use of Data Feb 2009
  • Avoided a catastrophic failure80k Savings
  • PEAK 1 = Retrofit July 2009After 3 months , big improvement. Does this mean less wear?
  • Retrofit in 2006Filter Insert removed in 2009Turbine had a 10 micron inline an 3 micron bypass filter
  • 21 Micron ChannelPEAK 1 = Offline filter replaced & oil change Oct 2008PEAKS 1= Service including inline filter replacedPEAKS 2 = Offline filter insert removed Oct 2009
  • Steady upward trend observed after offline filter insert removed
  • Test Bench at HQ in DenmarkObservation: No difficulty in removing 4, 6 and 14 micron particles
  • Each Peak represents particles released by inline filterAt PEAK 6 only releases half of first peak (exponential ISO 25 > 24)PLAY VIDEO
  • Distinction between offline and inline filters
  • 4 MicronCooler startedTemp dropsISO Code increasesCooler stoppedISO Code decreasesBypass?
  • In R&D we have found that the darkness of the gear oil is not caused solely by oxidation. Submicron particles in the size range of 0.1 to 0.9 micron also contribute.Iron acts as a catalyst, breaking down the oil and also causing wear (Break Bread Illustration). Particles will wear down to the size of the lubrication film. SEM images of submicron particles in gear oil appear as round spheres. Like rocks on a beach, they have been worn round by countless passes through the gears. Is this problem overlooked?Use of scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS).
  • In 265 gal (1000 L) we found approximately 2/3 lb (300 grams) of submicron Iron (Fe) particles. More than 99.9% of these can be removed with the right filter scheme.Iron content: Oil clean 14/12/9 yet Iron Concentration increases slowly.Very fine iron (0.2 Micron)PLAY VIDEOTwo patches (0.2 Micron membranes) Before & AfterBoth magnetic but before is lifted only
  • Fluiteci-LAB 475 handheld spectrophotometer:The Membrane Patch Colorimetry (MPC) Test is developed for measurement of lubricantgeneratedinsolublecolorbodiesin in-service lubricants.TheMembranePatchColorimetry Testisasurfaceanalyzermethoddevelopedto measurethe color and calculate the delta-energy (∆E) difference between a new (clean) patch and a patchafteroil filtration.
  • scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS)
  • The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines

    1. 1. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 1 2011 Wind Turbine Condition Monitoring Workshop The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Justin Stover C.C. Jensen
    2. 2. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 2 Wind Turbine Manufacturer Collaborating Partners (Design Offices) Gearbox Manufacturers / Lubrication Systems Our Experience… >70,000 Wind Turbines
    3. 3. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 3 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 10 20 30 40 10 6 rotations MacPherson Graph 1 Level of Filtration in Microns The graph is based on a test with 10 bearings. The lubricant was contaminated by wear from gearboxes. The Importance of Clean Oil Life Extension!
    4. 4. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 4 The Importance of Clean Oil Concluding Remarks from Bo O. Jacobson in his book Rheology and Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication 2
    5. 5. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 5 Gearbox Flushing and Condition Monitoring Filter System with Built In Particle Counter Filter system validates that oil is clean during run-in and factory tests3
    6. 6. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring 2/3 load TIME (Minutes) Static Dynamic 1/3 load 100% load TIME (Minutes) Page 6 ISOCODE (OilCleanliness) Target : ISO Code ≤ 17 / 15 / 11
    7. 7. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 7 What Happens Before a Breakdown?
    8. 8. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 8 What Initiated the Breakdown? December 25th - 26th Wear particles increase from 1,000 to more than 18,000 particles/ml (21 µm) at Start Up (Full Load & Low Temperature)
    9. 9. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 9 Wear Particles Found During Service Stop Micropitting and Macropitting Observed On Gears
    10. 10. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 10 Many wear particles found on the filter’s surface Magnification shows metal wear particles (70% of filter’s surface covered)
    11. 11. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 11 Offline Filter w/ Particle Counter Retrofit 2.0 MW Turbine
    12. 12. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 12 What Happens If The Offline Filter Insert Is Removed? 1.5 MW Turbine with Offline Filter and Particle Counter Installed 2006 Offline Filter Insert Removed 2009 Turbine Originally Equipped with a 10 Micron Inline Filter and 3 Micron Bypass Filter
    13. 13. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 13 Overview: Offline Filter Insert Removed
    14. 14. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 14 Offline Filter Insert Removed 4 Micron Particles
    15. 15. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 15 Test Bench: 10 Micron Fiberglass Inline Filter
    16. 16. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page ‹#›
    17. 17. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 17 What Happens to the Particles Released by the Inline Filter? Red Particles Released By Inline Filter Captured by Offline Filter
    18. 18. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 18 What Happens to Inline Filter Performance when the Oil is Suddenly Cooled?
    19. 19. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 19 Nano-Filtration Is It Important To Remove Submicron Particles? Particle Size Distribution 12, 10, 5, 3, 2, 1, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2 Micron Top Row: Red Iron Oxide Test Dust Bottom Row: Actual Particles From Used Gear Oil
    20. 20. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page ‹#›
    21. 21. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 21 Removal of Submicron Particles 2.0 MW Turbines Retrofitted with Offline Filter
    22. 22. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 22 Removal of Submicron Particles 1.5 MW Turbines Retrofitted with Offline Filter May (Retrofit) MPC 39 July (3 Months) 29 MPC
    23. 23. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring Page 23 1. The importance of clean oil in gearboxes and bearings has been well documented for decades 2. Clean oil must be a focus throughout the lifecycle of a gearbox – from the cradle to the grave 3. Condition Monitoring validates that a filtration scheme that includes Inline and Offline Filters keeps the dirt content as low as possible and this ‘always pays’ off in less wear and tear, greater reliability and longer lifetime 4. Condition Monitoring proves that when an offline filter is removed the oil gets dirtier 5. Condition Monitoring confirms that Inline Filters release particles during cold starts and their inability to maintain cleanliness as the temperature decreases 6. Submicron particles must also be controlled with nano-filtration and monitored with analyses such as SEM-EDS and MPC . CONCLUSIONS
    24. 24. CLEANOIL BRIGHT IDEAS The Road Map to Effective Contamination Control in Wind Turbines: Lessons From Condition Monitoring 1. Sayles, R. and Macpherson, P. (1982). Influence of Wear Debris on Rolling Contact Fatigue. Rolling Contact Fatigue of Bearing Steels. ASTM STP 771. pp. 255-274. 2. Jacobson, Bo O. (1991). Rheology and Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd p. 351 3. Errichello, R. and Muller, J. (2002). Oil Cleanliness in Wind Turbine Gearboxes. Machinery Lubrication, July/August, 2002, pp. 34-40. Page 24 REFERENCES

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