genetics

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genetics

  1. 1. Intro to Genetics By Justin Ehrenpreis
  2. 2. Genetics <ul><li>The Branch of Biology that deals with patterns of inheritance </li></ul>
  3. 3. Heredity <ul><li>Parents genetic information to offspring through gametes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Gregor Mendel <ul><li>Austrian monk </li></ul><ul><li>Started science of genetics </li></ul><ul><li>Experimenting with pea plants </li></ul>
  5. 5. Mendel came up with…. <ul><li>Principles of Dominance, </li></ul><ul><li>Segregation </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Assortment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Traits are…. <ul><li>inherited </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mendel’s hereditary factors called…… <ul><li>genes </li></ul>
  8. 8. Location……… <ul><li>locus </li></ul>
  9. 9. Gene is….. <ul><li>A hereditary unit consisting of a sequence of DNA that tells specific location </li></ul>
  10. 10. T.H. Morgan <ul><li>Carried out breeding experiments (crosses) </li></ul><ul><li>With fruit flies (Drosophila) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Two alternate genes…… <ul><li>Control each trait is called…. </li></ul><ul><li>alleles </li></ul>
  12. 12. Homologous chromosomes <ul><li>Matching chromosomes </li></ul>
  13. 13. Genotype <ul><li>Genes presented in DNA of an organism </li></ul><ul><li>SHOWS </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pairs of letters <ul><li>Genotypes </li></ul>
  15. 15. 2 letters <ul><li>genotype </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phenotype <ul><li>Trait physically shows up in the organism </li></ul><ul><li>MADE </li></ul>
  17. 17. TT= <ul><li>HOMOZYGOUS </li></ul><ul><li>=PURE </li></ul>
  18. 18. Tt = <ul><li>Heterozygous </li></ul><ul><li>=hybrid </li></ul>
  19. 19. tt= <ul><li>Homozygous </li></ul><ul><li>=Pure </li></ul>
  20. 20. Test cross <ul><li>Introduced by Mendel in order to determine if an individual exhibit dominant trait </li></ul>
  21. 21. He crossed a homozygous recessive…. <ul><li>Recessive means lowercase </li></ul>
  22. 22. contrasting <ul><li>different </li></ul>
  23. 23. Hybrid for trait has only…. <ul><li>Dominant trait in the phenotype </li></ul>
  24. 24. TT <ul><li>Homozygous DOMINANT </li></ul><ul><li>Or pure tall </li></ul>
  25. 25. Tt <ul><li>Heterozygous or hybrid = TALL </li></ul>
  26. 26. tt <ul><li>Homozygous RECESSIVE or pure short </li></ul>
  27. 27. Two alleles responsible for <ul><li>Trait separate from each other. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Alleles recombined at….. <ul><li>FERTILIZATION </li></ul>
  29. 29. Producing genotype for traits of offspring
  30. 30. Hybrid tall is <ul><li>Tt </li></ul>
  31. 31. 25% Tall 25% small 50% tall
  32. 32. Shape, hair, and color has no impact on one another
  33. 33. Incomplete dominance <ul><li>BLENDING </li></ul>
  34. 34. codominance <ul><li>Together </li></ul><ul><li>2 </li></ul>

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