Ancient Civilizations


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Ancient Civilizations

  1. 1. Economic Systems Review<br />By Justin Scott Ehrenpreis<br />
  2. 2. Traditional<br />Based on agriculture<br />Limited barter trade<br />Neolithic Civilizations<br />Early River Valley Civilizations<br />
  3. 3. Market<br />Based upon supply and demand<br />Usually focuses on consumer goods<br />Little government control<br />
  4. 4. Command<br />Controlled by a strong, centralized government<br />Usually focuses on industrial goods<br />Little attention paid to agriculture and consumer goods<br />
  5. 5. Mixed Economy<br />Combination of Market and Command Economic systems<br />Market forces control most consumer goods<br />Government directs industry in need areas<br />
  6. 6. Cash Crop Economies<br />An economic system based on the exporting of certain crops such as coffee, sugar, cotton, tobacco<br />
  7. 7. Capitalism<br />An economic system based on the private ownership of the means of production and distribution of goods. Also promotes a free market regulated by supply and demand.<br />
  8. 8. Put Out System<br />Manufacturing system where work was distributed and retrieved from individuals in their homes<br />
  9. 9. Mercantilism<br />Country’s wealth based on exporting more than it imports<br />Strict government control <br />Uses colonies as source of raw materials and exclusive markets for selling goods<br />
  10. 10. Laissez-Faire<br />Developed by Adam Smith in his book, Wealth of Nations<br />No government interference <br />Capitalist/Market Economy<br />
  11. 11. Feudalism and Manoralism<br />Feudalism was a social, political, and economic system that dominated all aspects of medieval European life<br />Manorialism was the economic portion of feudalism where all aspects of life were centered on the lord’s manor including peasant villages, a church, farm land, a mill, and the lords castle or manor house<br />
  12. 12. Manorialism<br />Manors were self- sufficient, all economic activities took place on the manor<br />Most peasants working at the manor were serfs<br /> Serfs were farmers who were ties to the land during European feudalism. They were not slaves because they could not be brought or sold, but they could not readily leave the manor either. Serfs were given land to farm in exchange for service to their lord. This service usually involved working the lord’s fields, maintaining roads and the manor, and providing military service in times of war. Serfs paid taxes to their lord in the form of cash crops. This is also how they paid the fee to use the manor's mill or other services<br />
  13. 13. The Feudal System<br />Kings- gives large land grants to Upper Lords called fiefs, give protection, receives money, military service, and advice.<br />Upper Lords- Gives land grants to Lesser Lords, gives protection, receives money, military service.<br />Knights- give land to peasants/ serfs, receives crops, labor.<br />Peasants/ Serfs- Receives land to farm, pays with labor, crop.<br />
  14. 14. Crusades<br />The Crusades resulted in an increase in trade between the Middle East/ Asia and Western Europe<br />Merchant- a person who sells goods or services. A member of the middle class in most societies<br />Merchants from Florence and Venice in Italy dominated European trade<br />
  15. 15. Modern World<br />The Great Depression that ultimately led to fascism in Germany and Italy had a huge global impact.<br />
  16. 16. The Great Depression<br />
  17. 17. Stock Market Crash<br />Financial panic became widespread as stock brokers called in the loans they had made to stock investors. This caused stock prices to fall, and many people lost their entire life savings as many financial institutions went bankrupt<br />
  18. 18. Raw Materials<br />During WW1, industrialized countries imported large amounts of raw materials from Africa, Asia, and Latin America. After the war, production fell and many of these areas faced severe economic difficulty.<br />
  19. 19. Overproduction<br />Industrialized nations increased their levels of production to great levels during the war. At the war’s end, industrialists continued this high production rate at a time when many consumers could not afford their products<br />
  20. 20. Result<br />Millions of people lost their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat.<br />World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies. This resulted in conditions worsening.<br />
  21. 21. Diversity<br />
  22. 22. Geographic Regions<br />Empires<br />Religions and philosophies<br />Role of women<br />
  23. 23. Europe Geographic Diversity<br />Geographic location is important and can lead to violent conflict and war<br />Mediterranean Sea has the biggest geographic impact in Europe<br />The beginnings of European civilizations were primarily centered around the Mediterranean. (Greece, Rome, Hellenistic Empire)<br />The island of England protected it from invasion over the centuries (Spanish Armada, Hitler)<br />Russia had to fight wars to obtain a warm water port<br />
  24. 24. Asian Geographic Diversity<br />India- subcontinent<br />Japan- Island archipelago<br />Himalayan Mountain range separates China and India<br />Gobi Desert- separates China and Russia<br />
  25. 25. African Geographic Diversity<br />Regular coastline of Africa<br />Sahara Desert<br />Nile River<br />
  26. 26. Latin American Geographic Diversity<br />Andes Mountains <br />Amazon River/ Amazon Rainforest<br />Caribbean Islands<br />Pampas- Argentina<br />
  27. 27. Diversity of Empires <br />Egypt<br />Mesopotamia<br />Harappa<br />Shang Dynasty<br />Roman Empire<br />Athens, Greece<br />Persian Empire<br />Han Dynasty<br />Mongol Horde<br />Ghana<br />Mali<br />Songhai<br />Islamic<br />Maya<br />Aztec<br />Inca<br />
  28. 28. Role of Women<br />Queen Elizabeth 1- England<br />Catherine the Great- Russia<br />Wu Zhao- China- Empress during the Tang Dynasty <br />
  29. 29. Woman and Islam<br />According to the Quran woman are considered equal<br />Woman today have less freedom then in earlier times<br />The Taliban in Afghanistan made life even more difficult by forcing woman to wear burkas and not allowing them to work outside of the house<br />
  30. 30. Woman in Asia<br />Food binding<br />Infanticide<br />One Child policy<br />Matriarchal<br />
  31. 31. Women in Europe<br />Not allowed in the “public sphere” until the Industrial Revolution<br />Earnings have always been unequal to the men’s <br />Woman worked during WW2, and their change in status after the war, led to activism and the feminist movement<br />
  32. 32. Golden Ages in History<br />
  33. 33. Golden Ages<br />China<br />Athenian/Hellenistic<br />PaxRomana- Rome<br />Gupta- India<br />Islam<br />Mesoamerica<br />Africa<br />Japan<br />
  34. 34. Dynastic China<br />Shang Dynasty 1650-1027 BCE: Earliest dynasty in China along the Yellow River<br />Used pictographs<br />Used Oracle Bones<br />Zhou Dynasty 1027-256 BCE:<br />Created Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic Cycle<br />Started making silk<br />Began making books<br />
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Dynastic China<br />Han Dynasty 206 BCE- 220 CE<br />Opened the Silk Road <br />Confucianism became the standard philosophy<br />Many inventions including the wheel barrow, acupuncture, etc.<br />Tang Dynasty 618-907<br />Unified the government<br />Developed strict social structure <br />Invented gunpowder<br />Developed block printing <br />
  37. 37. Gentry- wealthy landowners, studied Confucian ideas, civil service<br />Peasants- Most Chinese are peasants, farmers work the land, live in small villages<br />Merchants- some became very rich, lower status then peasants because riches come from others work, some buy land, educate sons to become gentry<br />
  38. 38. Dynastic China<br />Song Dynasty 960-1279<br />Began rice cultivation<br />Developed fine porcelain<br />Developed calligraphy<br />Moveable type printing press invented<br />Ming Dynasty 1368 ACE- 1644<br />Increased trade with porcelain, paper and tools<br />Started explorations of the world<br />
  39. 39. Voyages of Zheng He1405-1433<br />Zheng He sailed along the coasts of India, Southeast Asia, and Africa.<br />The Chinese were trading and spreading their culture west.<br />When Zheng He died, The Ming Emperors did not continue trade or exploration<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. Athenian Golden Age<br />Ancient Greek Golden Age occurred under leadership Pericles<br />Pericles- Athenian statesman, he was the central ruler of Athens during its golden age. He was the central patron behind many of their achievements. He was also a very skilled speaker. Athens City- State of Ancient Greece and center of Greek golden ages that occurred in the 5th century BCE<br />
  42. 42. Athens<br />Government- first democracy- direct democracy giving every citizen male a vote. Woman and slaves could not vote.<br />Philosophers- (lovers of wisdom) used observation and reason to observe the world around them . Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.<br />Literature- Tragedies and Comedies<br />Art and Architecture- Columns, Parthenon in Athens<br />Math and Science- Pythagoras, Euclid<br />Medicine- Hippocrates<br />
  43. 43.
  44. 44. Hellenistic Age<br />Alexander the Great (356 BCE-323 BCE) <br />He conquered most of the ancient world from Asia Minor to Egypt and India, which began of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian influences<br />
  45. 45. PaxRomana<br />Roman Republic: Senators- Patricians, Plebeians- Artisans, Merchants, Farmers<br />The end of the republic occurred when Julius Caesar took power<br />Augustus came to power and this started the golden age of Rome (PaxRomana)<br />
  46. 46. PaxRomana<br />Roman Law: The Law of the Twelve Tables- code of laws<br />Art and Architecture: Arch, Dome, realistic statues and portraits, Pantheon, Coliseum <br />Engineering: Aqueducts, Roads, Harbors, Bridges<br />Science and Medicine: Ptolemy, Cpernicus<br />
  47. 47. Gupta Empire<br />Golden Age of India<br />Strong, central government<br />Established the caste system<br />Math: Developed decimal system and Arabic numbers system<br />Arts and Literature: Stupas (Buddhist temples), Alie Baba and the 40 Thieves<br />
  48. 48. Golden Age of Islam<br />The religion of Islam and its empire spread into Spain, Sicily, India, and Southwest Asia<br />It spread because of common language and fair treatment of conquered peoples<br />Military tactics were advanced with horse and camel cavalry <br /> Golden Age occurred under the Abbasid Dynasty, culture blended Arab, Persian, European, and Egyptian traditions<br />
  49. 49. Golden Age of Islam<br />Arts and Literature- forbidden to use human figures in art- developed geometric shapes and patterns. Calligraphy. Domes. Arches. Mosques<br />
  50. 50. Golden Age of Islam<br />Math and Science- Measured the circumference of the earth <br />Medicine- Hospitals, Emergency Rooms, treated cataracts on the eyes, sweet tasting syrups with medicine<br />Economic Achievements- Credit, banks, partnerships<br />Laws- Developed Shania, law based upon Quran<br />
  51. 51. Golden Age of Mesoamerica<br />Four main cultures in Mesoamerica<br />Olmecs, Mayas, Incas, Aztecs<br />Olmecs- First major civilization. Developed pyramid- shape temples, a system of writing, devotion to religion <br />
  52. 52. Mayans<br />Lived in city-states on the Yucatan Peninsula and Central America<br />Arts and Architecture- Large elaborate palaces, pyramid-shaped temples, paintings, carvings<br />Agriculture- Irrigation, crops of corn, beans, squash, trade<br />Education and Science- Hieroglyphics writing system, 365 day calendar, concept of zero<br />
  53. 53. Aztecs<br />Established an empire throughout Mexico<br />Strong central government, tribute payments<br />Deeply religious utilizing human sacrifices on large pyramid shaped temples<br />Achievements- Calendar, able to set broken bones, aqueducts, capital city of Tenochtitlan (Mexico), large stone carvings and paintings <br />
  54. 54. Incas<br />Established an empire along the Pacific Coast of South America<br />Engineering- Elaborate road system over 12,000 miles of read <br />Terrace farming- (the cutting out of flat areas (terraces) into near vertical slopes to allow farming. Terrace farms appears as steps cut into a mountainside. This adaptation allowed both the early Chinese and the Inca of Mesoamerica to grow enough food for their large populations).<br />Science and Medicine- Able to treat illnesses, surgery, counting system with Quipas, a knotted string<br />
  55. 55. Africa<br />Three main cultures- Songhai, Mali, Ghana<br />Vast Trading Network<br />Gold was the main export<br />Islamic Influence- kings of Ghana had Islamic advisers, Mali and Songhai established Islamic Empires, Mansa Musa of Mali made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca<br />
  56. 56. Africa<br />Arts and Literature- often religious, statues, and masks made of ivory, wood, or bronze. Oral and written traditions <br />Education- Timbuktu became a center of learning under Mansa Musa<br />Commerce- Established trade routes, besides gold, agricultural products, salt were traded. Started the slave trade<br />
  57. 57. Japan<br />Heavily influenced by Korean and Chinese cultures<br />Korea acted as a bridge between Japan and China<br />Japan began direct contact with China during the Tang Dynasty<br />Adopted Chinese calligraphy, Buddhism, Confucianism, adapted into Zen Buddhism<br />
  58. 58. Japan<br />Feudalism- A social, political, and economic system that dominated all the aspects of medieval European life, was also a part of the Japanese society<br />Different classes with Emperor at the top, with most power held by the Shogun, the military ruler of Japan<br />Tokugawa Shogunate- Feudal Warlord rulers of Japan. Responsible for closing Japan off from the rest of the world. Overthrown during the Mejia Restoration. Under the Tokugawa shoguns Japan was very peaceful.<br />Arts and Literature- Kabuki theater, Haiku poems, landscape paintings, wood block printing<br />
  59. 59. Human and Physical Goography<br />
  60. 60.
  61. 61. Climate Zones<br />