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  1. Comparative Linguistics and Language JUSTIN A. SANCHEZ Dr. Maria Martha Manette Madrid
  2. the medium of oral expression a system of communication that is primarily verbal, symbolic, dually-patterned, and arbitrary Language
  3. Language family is a term coined by linguists so that they can group languages with similar history in the same category.
  4. Background Indonesia and the Philippines are both archipelagic countries. The historical links between ancient Indonesia and Philippines have commenced since around the 9th century.
  5. The writing system used is the Kawi Script, while the language is a variety of Old Malay. The Philippines has approximately 100+ languages, Indonesia’s got about 700+ Bahasa Indonesia is the official language of Indonesia. Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world
  6. According to Ethnologue, Indonesian is classified in the following way: Austronesian Malayo- Polynesian Western Sundic Malaic Malayan Local Malay Indonesian
  7. One can find a lot of cognates between Indonesian or Bahasa Indonesia and Filipino. Linguistic evidence connects Tagalog with Bahasa Indonesia as having common roots, so the main root of the modern Filipino languages probably came with these people
  8. According to the Ethnologue, Indonesian is modeled after the Riau Malay spoken in northeast Sumatra. Classification Indonesian is the official language of Indonesia. Official language status
  9. Sounds Indonesian also has the diphthongs /ai/, /au/, and /oi/.
  10. Sounds
  11. Grammar (Affix)  memakan means to eat something  dimakan means being eaten  termakan means accidentally being eaten duduk means to sit down  mendudukkan means to bring someone to sit down, menduduki means to sit on something  didudukkan means a person is being sat down  diduduki means something being sat down, 1 affix 2 affixes
  12. Grammar (Grammatical gender) Adik can both refer to a younger sibling of either gender. Adik laki-laki corresponds to "brother" but really means "male younger sibling".
  13. Grammar (Pluralization) Person is orang People is orang-orang One thousand people is seribu orang hati means "heart" or "liver“ hati-hati means "to be careful"
  14. Grammar (Negation) saya tidak tahu" means I do not know "Itu bukan seekor anjing" means that is not a dog. negation of a verb negation of a NOUN
  15. Grammar (Pronouns) Kami Kita person(s) is not included includes the opposite party
  16. Grammar (Verbs) Verbs are not inflected for person or number, and they are not marked for tense. Tense is instead denoted by time adverbs or by other tense indicators.
  17. Grammar (Word order) Subject Verb Object •Saya akan makan nasi •I will eat rice. •Saya sedang makan nasi •I am eating rice. •Saya makan nasi kemarin •I ate rice yesterday. •Kemarin, saya makan nasi •Yesterday, I ate rice. •Saya makan nasi •I eat rice. •Saya telah makan nasi •I ate or have eaten rice. •Saya sudah makan nasi •I ate or have eaten rice.
  18. Vocabulary Some 750 Sanskrit loanwords in modern Indonesian 1,000 Arabic loans 125 Portuguese Some 10,000 loanwords from Dutch
  19. Although there are more than 5000 Tagalog words of Spanish origin, there are more than 3000 words of Malay or Indonesian origin.
  20. Here are some words both found in Tagalog and Malay that mean the same thing. Word English Anak Child Balik to return Gunting scissors Kami we (excludes 2nd person) kambing Goat Kanan Right Langit Sky Lima Five Mahal expensive Mata Eye Sakit Sick
  21. If the Malay/Indonesian word has a ~u, replace it with an ~o in Tagalog. Tagalog Malay/Indonesian English Ako Aku I (informal in Malay) Abo Abu Ash Bato Batu Stone Payong Payung Umbrella Pinto Pintu Door Takot Takut Fear
  22. If the Malay/Indonesian word ends with ~i, replace it with ~oy or ~ay in Tagalog. Tagalog Malay/Indonesian English Apoy Api fire baboy Babi pig matay Mati to die
  23. If the Malay/Indonesian word has a ~e, replace it with a ~a in Tagalog. Tagalog Malay/Indonesian English Katok Ketuk to knock (ma)lambot Lembut soft Pandak Pendek small Sarap Sedap delicious
  24. If the Malay/Indonesian word has a ~r, replace it with a ~l in Tagalog. Tagalog Malay/Indonesian English Balita Berita news Kulang Kurang less Libo Ribu thousand Sulat Surat letter
  25. Here are some false friends between Malay/ Indonesian and Tagalog. Tagalog Meaning Malay/Indonesian Meaning Bawang Garlic Bawang onion Dapat to have to do Dapat to manage to do Gulay Vegetables Gulai curry Hari King Hari day Ito This Itu that Lagi Always Lagi again Salamat thank you Selamat safe sama-sama Together sama-sama you’re welcome Sandok Ladle Senduk spoon Saya happy, skirt Saya I (formal) Suka Vinegar Suka to like Suso Breast Susu milk
  26. Here are other words in Tagalog that are similar to Malay and/or Indonesian that mean the same thing. Tagalog Malay/Indonesian English Basa Baca to read Bili Beli to buy Buwaya Buaya crocodile Hangin Angin wind Itim Hitam black Pasok Masuk to enter Pulo Pulau island Puti Putih white Suka Cuka vinegar Tanghali tengah (half) hari (day) noon Taon Tahun year
  27. Here are other words in Tagalog of Malay and/or Indonesian origin that mean something different. Tagalog Malay/Indonesian English Dalamhati dalam (inside) hati (liver) grief Luwalhati luar(outside) hati (liver) glory
  28. Additionally, Filipino has the highest amount of words that sound and have almost the same meaning between the two languages.
  29. Moreover, there is also a language called Bahasa Suluk or Tausug, a language born out of continuum between the three nations.
  30. According to Simon Rafael Pecho, as much as vocabulary is concerned, he considers Kapampangan, a language from Central Luzon, to be the language closest to Malay.
  31. Some of the words listed below may be found only in Kapampangan and not from other languages in the Philippines. Kapampangan Malay English malambat lambat slow matas atas tall maparas pedas spicy lande lantai floor mandilu mandi to bathe buldit burit posterior
  32. With Ilocano, a language from Northern Luzon, Ilocano word for new (baro) and the Malay word for new (baru) use the same r sound. Both languages contain a schwa- like sound, e.
  33. Languages from Western Visayas like Hiligaynon and Kinaray-a use some Malay loanwords that other languages don’t use. Hiligaynon/Kinaray-a Malay English nagalumpat - melompat to jump
  34. These two languages may be similar and different; however, these are considered unique in many other ways. Unique in a way that it tells the whole wide world the identity of an Indonesian and a Filipino. An identity that would distinguish an individual to another individual. Conclusion:
  35. REFERENCES filipino-tagalog-come-in-handy-in-batam/ Indonesia the-philippines Pengucapan)&text=The%20vowels%20e%20and%20o,and%20%5Ba.u%5D%2C%20elsewhere. 7Ye7x83ny3OOxGg1cIVWsPwzXih6VfFigFdoi1UR0RlCGfgdB9CJ7d8s