PANCHO VILLAJosé Doroteo Arango Arámbula (5 June 1878 –20 July 1923), better known by his pseudonymFrancisco Villa or its hypocorism Pancho Villa,was one of the most prominent MexicanRevolutionary generals. As commander theDivisión del Norte (Division of the North), hewas the veritable caudillo of the NorthernMexican state of Chihuahua which, given itssize, mineral wealth, and proximity to theUnited States of America, provided him withextensive resources. Villa was also provisionalGovernor of Chihuahua in 1913 and 1914.Although he was prevented from beingaccepted into the "panteón" of national heroesuntil some 20 years after his death, today hismemory is honored by Mexicans, Americans,and many people around the world.
FRANZ FERDINAND Franz Ferdinand (18 December 1863–28 June 1914) was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro- Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia, and from 1889 until his death, heir presumptive to the Austro- Hungarian throne. His assassination in Sarajevo precipitated Austria-Hungarys declaration of war against Serbia. This caused Germany and Austria- Hungary, and countries allied with Serbia (the Triple Alliance Powers) to declare war on each other, starting World War I.
ALLIES OF WORLD WAR 1 Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The key members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire. These other countries were also drawn into a war, with some country in the Central Powers, and were allied with a member of the Entente: Belgium, Serbia, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania
CENTRAL POWERS The Central Powers was one of the two sides that participated in World War I and was also known as the Triple Alliance, the other being the Triple Entente (Allied Powers). It was made up of the German Empire, the Austro- Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria.
SUSSEX PLEDGE The Sussex pledge was a promise made in 1916 during World War I by Germany to the United States prior to the latters entry into the war. Early in 1916, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships – but not passenger ships – to be torpedoed without warning.
ZIMMERMANn TELLEGRAMThe Zimmermann Telegram (orZimmermann Note) was a 1917diplomatic proposal from theGerman Empire to Mexico to makewar against the United States. Theproposal was declined by Mexico, butangered Americans and led in part toa U.S. declaration of war in April.
WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD The War Industries Board (WIB) was a United States government agency established on July 28, 1917, during World War I, to coordinate the purchase of war supplies. The organization encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques to increase efﬁciency and urged them to eliminate waste by standardizing products. The board set production quotas and allocated raw materials. It also conducted psychological testing to help people ﬁnd the right jobs.
Bernard Bernard Mannes Baruch (August 19, 1870 – June 20, 1965) was an American ﬁnancier, stock-market speculator, statesman, and political consultant. After his success in business, he devoted his time toward advising U.S. Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt on economic matters.
LIBERTY BONDA Liberty Bond was a war bondthat was sold in the United Statesto support the allied cause in WorldWar I. Subscribing to the bondsbecame a symbol of patriotic dutyin the United States and introducedthe idea of ﬁnancial securities tomany citizens for the ﬁrst time.The Act of Congress whichauthorized the Liberty Bonds isstill used today as the authorityunder which all U.S. Treasurybonds are issued.
Victory War bonds are debt securities issued by a government for the purpose of ﬁnancing military operations during times of war. War bonds generate capital for the government and make civilians feel involved in their national militaries. This system is also useful as a means of controlling inﬂation in such an overstimulated economy by removing money from circulation until hopefully after the war is concluded. At that point, the funds could be liquidated and serve as an stimulus to encourage consumer spending for the economy transitioning to peacetime activity. Exhortations to buy war bonds are often accompanied with appeals to patriotism and conscience. Government-issued war bonds tend to have a yield which is below market value and are often made available in a wide range of denominations to make them affordable to all citizens.
COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC COMMUNICATIONThe Committee on PublicInformation, also known as the CPIor the Creel Committee, was anindependent agency of thegovernment of the United Statescreated to inﬂuence U.S. publicopinion regarding Americanparticipation in World War I. Overjust 28 months, from April 13,1917, to August 21, 1919, it usedevery medium available to createenthusiasm for the war effort andenlist public support against foreignattempts to undercut Americas waraims
Vladimir LeninVladimir Ilyich Lenin (22 April1870 – 21 January 1924), bornVladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, was aRussian Marxist revolutionaryand communist politician wholed the October Revolution of1917. As leader of theBolsheviks, he headed the Sovietstate during its initial years(1917–1924), leading thecountry through the RussianCivil War, and worked to createa socialist economic system.
Treaty of Brest-The Treaty of Brest-LitovskLitovsk was a peacetreaty signed onMarch 3, 1918, atBrest-Litovsk (nowBrest, Belarus)between Russia (theRussian SovietFederated SocialistRepublic) and theCentral Powers,headed by Germany,marking Russias exitfrom World War I.
Fourteen The Fourteen Points was a speech delivered by United States President Woodrow Wilson to a joint session of Congress on January 8, 1918. The address was intended to assure the country that the Great War was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. People in Europe generally welcomed Wilsons intervention, but his Allied colleagues (Georges Clemenceau, David Lloyd George and Vittorio Emanuele Orlando) were skeptical of the applicability of Wilsonian idealism.
THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS The League of Nations (LON) was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference, and the precursor to the United Nations. At its greatest extent from 28 September 1934 to 23 February 1935, it had 58 members. The Leagues primary goals, as stated in its Covenant, included preventing war through collective security, disarmament, and settling international disputes through negotiation and arbitration. Other goals in this and related treaties included labour conditions, just treatment of native inhabitants, trafﬁcking in persons and drugs, arms trade, global health, prisoners of war, and protection of minorities in Europe.
Treaty of VersaillesThe Treaty of Versailles was one of the peacetreaties at the end of World War I. It endedthe state of war between Germany and theAllied Powers. It was signed on 28 June1919, exactly ﬁve years after theassassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand.The other Central Powers on the Germanside of World War I were dealt with inseparate treaties. Although the armisticesigned on 11 November 1918 ended theactual ﬁghting, it took six months ofnegotiations at the Paris Peace Conferenceto conclude the peace treaty. The treaty wasregistered by the Secretariat of the Leagueof Nations on October 21, 1919, and wasprinted in The League of Nations TreatySeries.
Red The term Red Scare denotes two distinct periods of strong Anti- Communism in the United States: the First Red Scare, from 1919 to 1920, and the Second Red Scare, from 1947 to 1957. The First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. The Second Red Scare was focused on (national and foreign) communists inﬂuencing society or inﬁltrating the federal government, or both.
ALEXANDER MITCHELL PALMERAlexander MitchellPalmer (May 4, 1872 –May 11, 1936) wasAttorney General of theUnited States from 1919to 1921. He wasnicknamed The FightingQuaker and he directedthe controversial PalmerRaids.
J. EdgarJohn Edgar Hoover (January 1, 1895– May 2, 1972) was the ﬁrst Directorof the Federal Bureau ofInvestigation (FBI) of the UnitedStates. Appointed director of theBureau of Investigation—predecessorto the FBI—in 1924, he wasinstrumental in founding the FBI in1935, where he remained directoruntil his death in 1972. Hoover iscredited with building the FBI into alarge and efﬁcient crime-ﬁghtingagency, and with instituting anumber of modern innovations topolice technology, such as acentralized ﬁngerprint ﬁle andforensic laboratories.
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