Becoming a Smart City


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Why Cities Choose Smart Parking Solutions from Streetline

This white paper examines the impact of parking on the transportation ecosystem as well as the quality of life in a city. Technological solutions are offered to address parking congestion, which is estimated at 30% of city traffic. Streetline's sensors and consumer & municipal applications provide the tools a city needs to implement smarter parking strategies.

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Becoming a Smart City

  1. 1. Becoming a Smart City Why cities choose Smart Parking solutions from Streetline
  2. 2. Contents Parking: One of the Great Unsolved City Problems .......................................................... 3 And, it’s Not Getting Better Any Time Soon ...................................................................... 3 Cities Want to Make Smarter Decisions ............................................................................ 4 Information Can Help .......................................................................................................... 6 There’s an Opportunity to Innovate ................................................................................... 6 Streetline: Providing New and Better Services to the Citizen .......................................... 6 A Reduction in Congestion Means Economic Growth ...................................................... 7 Using Parking Management to Revitalize Cities ................................................................ 7 Streetline: the Leader in Smart Parking............................................................................. 8 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 92
  3. 3. The global gridlock crisis will “stifle economic growth and our ability to deliver food and healthcare … [and] our quality of life will be significantly compromised.” 1 — Bill Ford Executive Chairman, Ford Motor CompanyParking: One of the Great Unsolved City Problems Today FutureThere is no such thing as free parking. According to Mark Global 6 billion 9 billion (2044)Delucchi of the University of California at Davis, Americans Populationspend as much to subsidize off-street parking as we do Passenger 800 million 2 — 3 billionon Medicare or national defense2. It’s estimated that Cars (2050)99% of parking in the United States is free, while the true City Dwellers 50% of population 60% of populationcosts of parking (i.e. construction, maintenance, etc.) are (3 billion) (5 billion in 2030)passed along to consumers, employees and taxpayers viaincreased higher prices for goods and services, reduced Today, cities consume over three-quarters of the world’swages and higher taxes.3 Moreover, the additional driving energy and produce about 80% of the world’s carbonencouraged by free parking increases traffic congestion, emissions.5 According to a 2011 report by Harvard Businessair pollution and accidents. To fuel this extra driving, we School (HBS), “Research has shown that reducingimport more oil, and pay for it with borrowed money. transportation congestion and improving the availability of water contribute to economic growth and improvedIn most cities, the demand for curbside parking far competitiveness. Despite these facts, city managersexceeds the supply. In cities like New York, this is recognize that the demand for services is increasing at aespecially the case with curbside parking that is free or faster rate than services can be delivered. Unless changespriced 10 to 15 times less than garage rates4. As a result of are made, the quality of life in cities will decline.”6this mismatch, bargain-seeking drivers waste an averageof 3 – 14 minutes looking for parking. Once they find these Ford Motor Company Executive Chairman Bill Ford agrees.coveted spaces, they do their best to stay put. Ford believes the answer to this crisis is not to build more roads, but to build a smarter transportation system thatThe saturation of cheap or free curbside parking causes makes use of real-time data and connected cars. Fordtraffic congestion, wasted gas and increased carbon predicts that the global gridlock crisis will “stifle economicemissions. Cheap street parking encourages people to growth and our ability to deliver food and healthcare …drive solo rather than carpool, walk, bike, or take public [and] our quality of life will be significantly compromised.”transportation which means more people on the roadsand more traffic looking for parking. These issues impact Some argue that additional parking will result in morenot only our environment, but also a city’s economy and traffic because more vehicles will travel into the city.quality of life for its residents. However, many transportation experts believe that the issue is not the availability of parking that causes gridlock,And, it’s Not Getting Better Any Time Soon but the availability of free or underpriced parking that isAs the global population continues to grow at a steady the problem. If drivers know there’s a chance they’ll findpace, more and more people are moving to cities at an that ever-elusive cheap metered space, versus a mucheven faster pace. As a result, the number of cars on the more expensive space in the garage, they’ll keep circlingroad is expected to grow exponentially. until they find it. Effective managed parking encourages transit use, carpooling, walking and cycling and thus2 Ostrow, Adam, CNN. March 3, 2011. “How we’ll beat traffic and find improved traffic flow.7parking spots in the future” CMAP 2040. Impacts of Parking Strategies. 5 Harvard Business School. Investing in Cities of the 21st Century: Urbanization, Infrastructure and Resources.3 Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking. APA Planners Press, 2005 6 HBS, ibid.4 2008. “Driven to Excess: What Under-priced Curbside Parking Coststhe Upper West Side.” New York: Transportation Alternatives. Available at 7 Tri State Transportation Campaign. Parking Management 3
  4. 4. Cities Want to Make Smarter Decisions Studies Show … A Siemens-commissioned study of more than 500 city There have been several studies that reveal managers, municipal employees and private company environmental and economic costs of inefficient executives around the world found that transportation parking policies. was rated the highest priority for investment, ahead of environmental protection and even education. From a 1) According to a study by UCLA Professor parking perspective, there’s a great deal of opportunity Donald Shoup, who synthesized 70 years of for improvement. Several urban planning experts argue research on the subject, between 8 and 74% of that cities that need to set a price for curbside parking traffic in congested downtown areas is caused by so that about 15 percent of spaces are vacant. Curbside people searching for parking. parking that is free or priced far below garage rates results in gridlock, reduced sales for merchants, and lost revenue 2) A recent study of New York traffic estimates for the city. If curbside parking is priced effectively, that 28% of drivers in Manhattan and 45% in people will consider alternative means of transportation Brooklyn were cruising for parking. or alternative times and thus there will be less of a need for drivers to cruise for parking.8 3) Studies in major cities (including San Francisco, Sydney, New York and London) Moreover, many cities need to be more efficient with their estimate that drivers spend 3.5 to 14 minutes enforcement of parking violations. For example, the San searching for a space each time they park. Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency had estimated that fewer than 5% of parking violations in the city were 4) In Los Angeles, a study of a 15-block area actually cited. Moreover, a Streetline study of 200 parking estimates that drivers circling for parking cause meters in San Francisco showed that 45% of the meters 950,000 excess vehicle miles per year. This were unpaid. As a result, in many cities, metered-space translates to 47,000 gallons in wasted gas and saturation can be 90% to nearly 100%, which results in a 730 tons of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas.2 great deal of congestion, driver frustration and lost sales for merchants. By improving compliance, parking enforcement 5) In New York, a similar study monitoring a productivity, and providing new payment options not only 15 block area in Manhattan found that drivers can cities increase revenue and reduce enforcement costs, cruise an average seven blocks (.37 miles) for 15 they can also reduce gridlock by ensuring sufficient space minutes to find a metered parking space. During turnover so that parking is available. peak periods, before lunch and from 6pm to 8pm, they’ll cruise an average of 14 blocks (.7 miles) before finding a parking spot. As a result, lack of available parking causes about 366,000 excess vehicle miles of travel, 325 tons of carbon dioxide greenhouse gas, $129,561 in fuel and 50,000 hours of wasted time annually. 2 Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking. APA Planners Press, 2005 8 Donald Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking. APA Planners Press, 20054
  5. 5. Smart Parking Ecosystem Smart Parking Ecosystem Consumers & Motorists Private Parking System Integrators Providers NEW SOURCES OF DATACity & Department of Merchants Transportation NEW INSIGHT FOR ACTION Sensors & Apps Meters & Smart Parking Revenue Management & Parking OperationsThe Smart Parking Ecosystem that connects the parking to the information they need to make their lives easierproviders, merchants, motorists, and technology will and more enjoyable. The systems in a Smart City — fromenable Smart Cities to speak to us by sensing and transportation to utilities — speak to one another, and mostdetecting parking activity in real time. Smart Cities close importantly to the people who live and work there. Theythe information gap that prevents us from measuring allow city managers, workers, and citizens the opportunityactivities and making informed decisions to improve to work collectively to improve urban life.operations. They connect residents and visitors 5
  6. 6. Information Can Help Sensing technology is more advanced than ever before — and when used as part of an ultra-low power wireless meshAt a recent Harvard Business School conference, experts network give us the ability to connect citizens and citiesconcurred “smart, connected communities are one way with the information to make people’s lives easier andto obtain efficiency gains and to improve the standard of more efficient. How do we make a city talk to us? And howliving. In many communities, the energy, transportation, do we leverage that information to make our cities moreand safety systems operate within silos with no efficient? Building and sustaining Smart Cities dependsconnectivity. When systems become interconnected in on two vital components:real time, however, efficiency gains are possible. Manycities are creating a meshed fabric of services related to 1) the ability to “sense” vehicle occupancy and drivertraffic, employment, and police services.”9 activities; and 2) software that collects this data and reports backAt a March 2011 TED conference, Bill Ford shared his to mobile devices and websites so that motoristsvision of a future where all cars are connected and can more easily find parking and city managersspeak to each other. He pictures a future where people can make quicker, better informed decisions.can reserve a parking spot at their destination and beautomatically directed to the quickest route based on Streetline: Providing New and Better Services toreal-time data being sent by the cars driving in front of the Citizenthem. “The solution will not be more cars, more roadsor a new rail system. It will be found in a global network Streetline provides cities real-timeof interconnected solutions. I know we can develop the status of every parking space — attechnology that will make this work. But we have to be curbside, in lots and in garages —willing to go out there and find the solutions.” allowing cities to optimize revenue, spend less time and moneyAt Streetline, we share that vision, beginning with parking. managing resources, improveWe are helping to build a Smart Parking Ecosystem productivity, and reduce congestionthat integrates all the key players in the system: from and emissions. Streetline helpsmotorists to parking lots and meters to the merchants remotely manage a city’s parkingand cities — even universities, airports, and shopping assets in real-time and greatlycenters — managing the true supply and demand of improves the efficiency ofparking will enable cities and motorists to make smart operations for the benefit of residents, visitors, parkingtransportation decisions. enforcers, merchants and management. Streetline can help you on your way to becoming a SmartThere’s an Opportunity to Innovate City in three fundamental ways.Parking is a $25 billion industry that’s seen little innovation 1) Mobile Motorist Guidance — Parker™in the last 75 years. While there has been a great deal of Streetline’s Parker app saves drivers the frustration ofinvestment in creating energy-efficient hybrid and electric circling the block by guiding them directly to availablevehicles, this still doesn’t solve the problem of global parking — even in congested neighborhoods and touristgridlock. A car is a car — even if electric — it still causes the destinations. The app will show how many spaces aresame burden on urban gridlock that gas-powered cars available on nearby blocks and direct them to the mostdo … and, the need to park still exists. likely block to find parking. Motorists can look at Parker even before they leave the house and based on availability decide what method to take to their destination — car,9 HBS, Ibid walk, public transport.6
  7. 7. Parker is currently available for select smart phones and A Reduction in Congestion Means Economic Growthcompatible tablets, and in the future via in-car navigationsystems. Streetline does not promote accessing any In congested cities, shops and restaurants lose out on asmart phone or its features or any other device while multitude of sales opportunities due to the lack of availablea vehicle is in motion and recommends the use of a parking. Their customer base is limited to mostly localhands-free dashboard cradle for all devices. residents who can walk to their location for people from outside the neighborhood don’t want to deal with the hassleIn addition to alerting drivers to available parking, Parker of looking for parking. As a result, urban merchants (manyalso allows users to: of whom are independent small businesses) lose business to large box stores in the suburbs who offer ample parking. • Pay directly from your phone in 84 U.S. cities today with more added all the time By increasing the available parking for visitors, local • Use convenient reminders — set a timer that alerts merchants can see a dramatic increase in their customer you when your meter is about to expire base. Instead of being just a neighborhood business, they • Find your car — drop Google Maps pins, take can become a destination shop or restaurant and realize pictures & add comments dramatic growth. • Save parking history for easy access later Streetline can help merchants make it easier for patrons to find parking with the help of our Parker app by showing2) Dynamic Parking Pricing & Parking Analytics available parking information on their websites. They canMany parking experts talk about the Goldilocks model of also receive daily or weekly web-based reports on parkingparking pricing management: it shouldn’t be so inexpensive turnover and occupancy.that too few spaces are available or too expensive thattoo many spaces are left open. With Streetline’s parking By optimizing curbside parking prices, cities can helpsensing technology, you can monitor and analyze your local merchants be more successful and see increasedcity’s neighborhood parking patterns to better support the revenue for the city. Not only will cities realize highervarying populations — consumers and merchants, residents parking revenue, they will also enjoy more sales taxand visitors — while improving congestion and convenience. revenue thanks to the increased economic development.By analyzing this information, you can make more informed With Streetline’s Enforcement Suite, cities can achievedecisions about what parking should cost at specific times this without increasing the number of officers. Withduring the day and have the tools to enforce it. these additional revenues, cities can invest back in the neighborhoods by repairing roads and sidewalks, planting3) Guided Parking Enforcement trees, removing graffiti, and more.Streetline’s Enforcement Suite helps cities betterunderstand the trends in parking violations with real-timeinformation and includes applications for those in city Using Parking Management to Revitalize Citiesoperations, as well as mobile apps for those in the field,This allows cities and parking personnel to spend their Cities understand that they are going to have to solve thetime far more efficiently and in some cases increase parking problem if they want to see economic growth.productivity and efficiency as much as 150 percent. An example of one city on the forefront of used parkingStreetline Enforcement Suite includes two applications: management to revitalize their downtown is Old PasadenaStreetline ME, a mobile application for Officers in the field, in Southern California back in 1993.10 Working with localand Streetline Enforcement Supervisor, a web-based merchants, the city added parking meters to a depressedapplication for managing the enforcement operation. area and used the revenues to purchase “street furniture and trees, more police patrols, better lighting, more street Douglas Kolozsvari & Donald Shoup. Access. Fall 2003. “Turning Small 10 Change Into Big Changes” 7
  8. 8. and sidewalk cleaning, pedestrian improvements, and Streetline: the Leader in Smart Parkingmarketing (including maps to show local attractions andparking facilities)”.11 As a result, the area was transformed Streetline collects and organizes live data from the realfrom “skid row” to a premier shopping destination where world to support sustainable development and transformlocal merchants saw a dramatic increase in safety and the way people live and work. With installations in selecttheir business. areas across California, District of Columbia, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Utah, we have theToday, several other cities are turning to the next generation experience and expertise to help cities use Smart Parkingof parking technology to achieve similar goals. Los Angeles and become a smarter one of the first major cities looking to increase theavailability of public parking spaces and decreasing traffic To make Smart Parking a reality, we bring together allcongestion and pollution through smart parking solutions. aspects of parking management technology in oneAccording to Los Angeles City Council President Eric integrated system — from street-level sensors to mobileGarcetti “sometimes it feels like more movie stars have apps, analytics and system management software — sobeen discovered in Hollywood than parking spaces,” and the that you can truly understand and manage your city’sCity is now turning to Streetline to help address this issue. parking to make changes for the better.After initial success with Streetline in the Hollywood area,the LA Department of Transportation is now making this We are the industry leader in parking analytics, consumerservice available to residents and visitors to Studio City and guidance and mobile enforcement that will benefitother parts of Los Angeles over the coming months.12 residents, visitors, local merchants and cities alike. Our solutions offer a substantial return-on-investment, usingOther cities large and small are turning to Streetline the additional revenue to fund essential city programssolutions to help alleviate traffic, increase city revenue, and services residents care most about.and improve the livability of the city — from sensors toanalytics to motorist guidance. To learn more about Streetline, please visit or contact us at to arrange for an account manager to call you.11 CMAP , Ibid. USA Today, 2/23,2011 “Streetline’s Parker iPhone app finds parking12spots”8
  9. 9. BibliographyCMAP 2040. Impacts of Parking Strategies., Bill. “A Future Beyond Traffic Gridlock.” 2011. Ted Talks. Business School. March 3-4, 2011. Business and Environment Initiative: Investing in Cities of the 21st Century:Urbanization, Infrastructure and Resources., Douglas & Donald Shoup. Access. Fall 2003. “Turning Small Change Into Big Changes” Todd. 2006. Parking Management: Strategies, Evaluation and Planning. Summary of ParkingManagement Best Practices. Chicago: APA Planners Press. Online:, Todd. 2008. Parking Pricing: Direct Charges for Using Parking Facilities. TDM Encylcopedia, VictoriaTransport Policy Institute., Accessed: 09/09/09.New York Transportation Alternatives. 2007. “No Vacancy: Park Slope’s Parking Problem and How to Fix It.” New York:Transportation Alternatives. Available at York: Transportation Alternatives. 2008. “Driven to Excess: What Under-priced Curbside Parking Costs the UpperWest Side.”, Adam, CNN. March 3, 2011. “How we’ll beat traffic and find parking spots in the future”, Bruce. 2006. “Curbing Cars: Shopping, Parking and Pedestrian Space in SoHo.” New York: TransportationAlternatives. Available at, Donald. 2005. “The High Cost of Free Parking”, Donald. The High Cost of Free Parking. APA Planners Press, 2005Tri State Transportation Campaign. Parking Management Report. Today, 2/23,2011 “Streetline’s Parker iPhone app finds parking spots” 9