Geschiedenis germany of adenauer

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Geschiedenis germany of adenauer

  1. 1. History of Germany Lecture: Adenauer Germany
  2. 2. Schedule <ul><li>The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>West integration and German unity </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Economic Miracle‘ </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of the past </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>The end of an era </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 5. Basics <ul><li>Basic Law </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights are part of constitution and bind both executive and legislative </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Constitutional Court checks laws and actions of government if they are compatible with constitution </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Structure: Bundesrat (federal council) part of legislative </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament (Bundestag): 50% of deputies elected in constituencies, 50% on party lists in lands, decisive for number of deputies is more or less relative share of national votes, a party has to have at least 5% of the votes or 1 (later 3) elected deputy(ies) in constituency </li></ul><ul><li>Weak Federal President, strong Federal Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Chancellor elected by parliament, can only be removed when parliament elects in the same procedure new chancellor </li></ul>
  4. 6. Election Campaign 1949 <ul><li>CDU </li></ul><ul><li>Social market economy </li></ul><ul><li>Close cooperation with Occupation powers </li></ul><ul><li>German unity (but priority given to Western integration) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-communism </li></ul><ul><li>Konrad Adenauer </li></ul><ul><li>SPD </li></ul><ul><li>Plan economy </li></ul><ul><li>A more independent policy </li></ul><ul><li>German unity (free and democratic, but neutral Germany acceptable) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-communism </li></ul><ul><li>Kurt Schumacher </li></ul>
  5. 7. Kurt Schumacher (1895-1952), the leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967), the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU)
  6. 9. 1949 Elections August 14, 1949 16 9,1% Sonstige 10 3,1% Zentrum 17 4,2% BP 17 4,0% DP 5 1,8% DRP 15 5,7% KPD/DKP 52 11,9% FDP 131 29,2% SPD 139 31,0% CDU/CSU       deputies % Party
  7. 10. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Minister of Economics Ludwig Erhard, President Theodor Heuss
  8. 12. Why were extremist parties not successfull <ul><li>Allied control: parties needed concession of High Commissioner </li></ul><ul><li>SRP forbidden 1951 by Federal Constitutional Court </li></ul><ul><li>KPD forbidden 1956 by Federal Constitutional Court </li></ul><ul><li>Right wing parties as Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteteten (BHE) absorbed by CDU/CSU </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist takeover of Liberal party (FDP) prevented by Allies (arrest of leaders) </li></ul><ul><li>Economic success story </li></ul>
  9. 13. 1957 1953
  10. 14. Schedule <ul><li>The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>West integration and German unity </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Economic Miracle‘ </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of the past </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>The end of an era </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  11. 15. Adenauer’s Strategy for West Germany <ul><li>International recognition by integration, Democratisation by Westernisation, reconciliation with France, close relationship with United States – essential for security in bipolar international system (Soviet Threat) </li></ul><ul><li>Western allies and Western European countries </li></ul><ul><li>Defeat German militarism and idea of revenge by integration </li></ul><ul><li>What helped? </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived Soviet Threat: especially after 1949 (Soviet Atomic Bomb): German participation needed, good bargaining position for Adenauer: concessions </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War 1950 - 1953 </li></ul>
  12. 16. Economic, political and military integration <ul><li>1951 Signing (in Paris) of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) </li></ul><ul><li>1952 Signing (in Paris) of the European Defense Community (EDC) </li></ul><ul><li>1954 Signing of the Paris Agreements. FRG/BRD is invited to join NATO permitting West German rearmament and Italy and the FRG/BRD accede to the Western European Union (WEU) </li></ul><ul><li>1957 The Treaty of Rome is signed establishing the European Economic Community </li></ul><ul><li>1963 French-German Friendship Treaty is signed in Paris </li></ul>
  13. 17. 1956 The fight for the rearmament of Germany
  14. 19. Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle, 1962 Reims
  15. 20. Germany <ul><li>1952 Stalin note: offer of neutral, unified Germany </li></ul><ul><li>1952 Signing (in Bonn) of FRG's &quot;Germany Treaty&quot; (which includes reunification as a political goal) </li></ul><ul><li>1953 (June 17): Riots in East Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>1955 Paris Treaty in force (establishing sovereignity for West Germany [FRG/BRD]) </li></ul><ul><li>1955 Chancellor Adenauer visits Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>1957 The Saar returns to Germany as a Land (to be followed in 3 years by economic reintegration) </li></ul><ul><li>1958 Chrushchev’s Berlin ultimatum </li></ul><ul><li>1961 Berlin Wall – cementing partition </li></ul>
  16. 21. <ul><li>Stalinnote of March 10, 1952 and April 9, 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>Offer: Unification of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Price: Neutralisation of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: To prevent integration of West Germany in Western military alliance system </li></ul><ul><li>Historiography : </li></ul><ul><li>Serious offer of Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Move in propaganda war </li></ul>
  17. 23. Schedule <ul><li>The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>West integration and German unity </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Economic Miracle‘ </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of the past </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>The end of an era </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  18. 24. Cologne 1945
  19. 25. Problems <ul><li>Limited souvereignity </li></ul><ul><li>Total government expenditures in 1950: 11.6 billion DM, 4.2 billion DM for occupation costs (36% of budget) </li></ul><ul><li>High unemployment (1950: 10%) </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 8 million displaced persons had to be integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Housing shortage </li></ul><ul><li>War destructions, war invalids </li></ul><ul><li>Reparation payments and demontage (until 1949 more than 3,4 billion $ (in prices of 1938) </li></ul>
  20. 26. Pluses <ul><li>Level of destruction not as high as expected </li></ul><ul><li>American aid (Marshal plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest of Western European countries and the United States in a prosperous German economy as precondition for the reconstruction of European economy </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workforce available </li></ul><ul><li>Successful currency reform in 1948 </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between Western Allies and Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Korean War </li></ul><ul><li>Long period of economic growth in most important capitalist countries </li></ul><ul><li>Ludwig Erhard and his Soziale Marktwirtschaft (social market economy) </li></ul><ul><li>Trade unions united under social democratic leadership, cooperative </li></ul><ul><li>Work as an compensation for refusal to confront with the German war crimes ? </li></ul>
  21. 27. Growth Rate Gross National Product <ul><li>1951: 10.9% </li></ul><ul><li>1952: 9.0 </li></ul><ul><li>1953: 7.9 </li></ul><ul><li>1954: 7.2 </li></ul><ul><li>1955: 12.0 </li></ul><ul><li>1956: 7.0 </li></ul><ul><li>1957: 5.8 </li></ul><ul><li>1958: 3.3 </li></ul><ul><li>1959: 6.9 </li></ul><ul><li>1960: 8.8 </li></ul><ul><li>1961: 4.3 </li></ul><ul><li>1962: 4.7 </li></ul><ul><li>1963: 2.8 </li></ul><ul><li>1950 983.7 Billion DM </li></ul><ul><li>1963 2003.0 Billion DM </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita </li></ul><ul><li>1950 2,100 DM </li></ul><ul><li>1963 6,700 DM </li></ul>
  22. 28. Successes <ul><li>Unemployment 1950: 2 Million 1960: a few ten thousand </li></ul><ul><li>Export surplus </li></ul><ul><li>Improved living standard (‘Fresswelle’) </li></ul><ul><li>Real wages 1965 twice as high as 1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility (social and other) </li></ul><ul><li>Social policy: Equalization of burden (Lastenausgleich) 1952, Progressive growth of pensions 1957 </li></ul>
  23. 29. The German actor Gert Fröbe in Berliner Ballad (1948) Gert Fröbe in the 1960‘s
  24. 30. Schedule <ul><li>The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>West integration and German unity </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Economic Miracle‘ </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of the past </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>The end of an era </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  25. 31. Nazi past <ul><li>Conscious effort to break with Nazi past, “inventing” a liberal, democratic, western Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Amnesty laws 1949 and 1950: people with ‘minor’ crimes, sentences amnestied </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation of the Wehrmacht </li></ul><ul><li>Integration of old elites – including leading members of Nazi party and organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizing effect: no strong nationalist (national socialist) opposition – potential absorbed by CDU and CSU </li></ul><ul><li>Costs: Ethical, have not to confront Nazi past and many thousands not punished for crimes </li></ul>
  26. 32. Nazi Past Hans Globke (1898-1973) Wrote in 1935 a commentary to the Nuremberg laws Director of the Federal Chancellery, 1953-1963 Theodor Oberländer (1905-1998) Advising officer of the Wehrmacht on minority questions (Eastern Front) Minister for Displaced Persons and Refugees (1953-1960)
  27. 33. But… <ul><li>1952 Signing of the Reconciliation Treaty between Israel and West Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Financial compensation for Jewish property </li></ul><ul><li>Since end of 1950’s: Trials against War Criminals and guards of Concentration Camps </li></ul><ul><li>Zentralstelle der Landesjustizverwaltung zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen 1958 (Ludwigsburger Zentralstelle) </li></ul><ul><li>Historians publish books on Holocaust </li></ul><ul><li>Critical novels, poems, theatre productions, films on Nazi past </li></ul>
  28. 34. Schedule <ul><li>The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>West integration and German unity </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Economic Miracle‘ </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of the past </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>The end of an era </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  29. 35. The Fifties <ul><li>Escapist Optimism: Dominance of Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Heimatfilms, Romances and “Sissi” (Austrian Empress Elisabeth) Films These films stressed a timeless world of unchanged social order and were kitschy </li></ul><ul><li>[Later, in the early 1960s some Westerns (Karl May Westerns), and Thrillers (Edgar Wallace, with Klaus Kinski).] </li></ul><ul><li>The Fifties were very successful at the Box office. </li></ul><ul><li>But also some films which did not fit in this picture: Die Suenderin (the sinner) with Hildegard Knef 1950, Der Untertan by Wolfgang Staudte 1951, Die Halbstarken (1957) with Horst Buchholz </li></ul>
  30. 36. 1951 1956 – 1958: 96 youth riots in major German cities 1956
  31. 37. German ‘schlager’ music <ul><li>80% of all sold copies: recordings of German ‘schlager’ </li></ul>Conny Froboess Freddy Quinn
  32. 38. 1956 Americanisation Peter Kraus
  33. 39. Schedule <ul><li>The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>West integration and German unity </li></ul><ul><li>The ‘Economic Miracle‘ </li></ul><ul><li>The burden of the past </li></ul><ul><li>The culture of the 1950’s </li></ul><ul><li>The end of an era </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  34. 40. Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977) Minister of Economy, 1949-1963 Bundeskanzler, 1963-1966 Willy Brandt (1913-1992) Mayor of Berlin, 1957-1966 Bundeskanzler, 1966-1972
  35. 41. 1. Konrad Adenauer , Politiker (1876-1967) 2. Martin Luther , Kirchenreformator (1483-1546) 3. Karl Marx , Philosoph und Nationalökonom (1818-1883) 4. Sophie und Hans Scholl , Widerstandskämpfer (&quot; Weiße Rose &quot;) (1921/1918-1943) 5. Willy Brandt , Politiker (1913-1992) 6. Johann Sebastian Bach , Komponist (1685-1750) 7. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Schriftsteller (1749-1832) 8. Johannes Gutenberg , Erfinder des Buchdrucks (1400-1468) 9. Otto von Bismarck , Politiker (1815-1898) 10. Albert Einstein , Naturwissenschaftler (1879-1955) Unsere Besten, ZDF Ranking 2003
  36. 42. Conclusion <ul><li>Stabilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification (Pluralisierung) </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Tradition AND Mondernity </li></ul>

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