Geschiedenis germany during the cold war

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Geschiedenis germany during the cold war

  1. 1. Cold War Division of Germany HI136 History of Germany
  2. 2. Schedule <ul><li>Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero hour) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation Policies </li></ul><ul><li>The First Berlin Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Berlin Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Liberation of the Concentration Camp Dachau
  4. 4. ‘ A badly managed disaster area’ Refugees arriving in Berlin, 1945 Black market raid in Berlin, 1945
  5. 5. The Formal Division <ul><li>Teheran Feb. 1943: Germany will be divided and occupied </li></ul><ul><li>London Sept. 1944: three zones envisaged (joined by French in 1945) </li></ul><ul><li>Potsdam July 1945: Germany to be single economic unit, but administered by zonal commanders meeting in Allied Control Council </li></ul><ul><li>Officially, temporary situation pending peace treaty, but de facto consolidation </li></ul><ul><li>1947 Economic Council appears in western zones as proto-government </li></ul><ul><li>June 1948 separate currencies introduced </li></ul><ul><li>May 1949 Federal Republic of (West) Germany announced; Oct. 1949 German Democratic Republic (East) follows </li></ul><ul><li>May 1955 FRG joins NATO; GDR joins Warsaw Pact </li></ul><ul><li>August 1961 Berlin Wall built cementing division </li></ul>
  6. 7. Principles <ul><li>Denazification </li></ul><ul><li>Democratisation </li></ul><ul><li>Demilitarisation </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralisation </li></ul><ul><li>Decartelisation </li></ul><ul><li>(Dismantlement) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Soviet Occupation <ul><li>Gradualist approach with creeping Sovietisation (no one-party copy of USSR) </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of planning, but ‘smash and grab’ (Beria) versus ‘reconstruction’ (Tyulpanov) factions </li></ul><ul><li>Mass rapes alienate women </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalisation of industry popular (77% support), but dismantling of 30% of factories unpopular (approx. 30%) </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform (popular among farmers, but set unilateral precedent, upsetting western partners) </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees: USSR mainly blamed for inhumane treatment of refugees, ca. 1.5 million die) </li></ul><ul><li>Norman Naimark, The Russians in Germany </li></ul>
  8. 9. Revisionist views of Russia <ul><li>Stalin’s perceived desire for a deal on Germany (united but neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>Message to KPD leaders in June 1945 that Germany would remain united </li></ul><ul><li>Brakes on separatist pressures from East German leaders (June 1948) </li></ul><ul><li>National unity offers (March 1952 Stalin Notes); was this to try to scupper FRG integration into military bloc? </li></ul><ul><li>Rolf Steininger, Wilfried Loth, Stalin’s Unwanted Child </li></ul>
  9. 10. French Occupation <ul><li>Hopes for dismemberment of Germany (Rhinelandia </li></ul><ul><li>International control of Ruhr </li></ul><ul><li>Oppose centralised institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Non-signatories to Potsdam (no refugees allowed into French Zone) </li></ul><ul><li>Punitive reparations from German industry and forestry </li></ul><ul><li>Only join Anglo-American Bizone in 1948 </li></ul>General Koenig, French commander
  10. 11. British Occupation <ul><li>April 1946 British alarm at communist-SPD merger in Soviet Zone (bid for all-zone superparty?) </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-1946 British sterling crisis; occupation becoming liability </li></ul><ul><li>Invite other occupiers to merge zones (only US accept > Bizonia, Jan. 1947) </li></ul><ul><li>Britain now seen as proactive & keen to encourage firmer line from Americans (Deighton, The Impossible Peace ) </li></ul><ul><li>Post-revisionist synthesis stresses regional actors </li></ul>Ernest Bevin, British foreign secretary
  11. 12. American Occupation <ul><li>JCS 1067: no fraternisation; population to be kept at subsistence level </li></ul><ul><li>May 1946: US halt reparations deliveries to Soviet Zone </li></ul><ul><li>Byrnes’ speech (Sept. 1946): America pledges to stay in Germany for long haul </li></ul><ul><li>1947 governor Clay blocks moves to nationalisation of industry </li></ul><ul><li>Carolyn Eisenberg, Drawing the Line , for a critical view of the Americans </li></ul>
  12. 13. Marshall Aid, June 1947-1952 <ul><li>West Germany as ‘locomotive’ to economic recovery of western Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Internationalisation of economy to satisfy French security worries </li></ul><ul><li>Renewed West German infrastructure of Ruhr mines </li></ul><ul><li>Was it more psychological than real aid? (Werner Abelshauser v. Christoph Buchheim) </li></ul><ul><li>Cf dismantling policy in eastern Germany </li></ul>
  13. 14. Schedule <ul><li>Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero hour) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation Policies </li></ul><ul><li>The First Berlin Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Berlin Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  14. 15. Berlin: the quadripartite city
  15. 16. Berlin: cont. <ul><li>Liberated by USSR in April 1945 at cost of 100,000 casualties; western sectors occupied July 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Formal access only recognised via air </li></ul><ul><li>Easy access to West via open border, including U-Bahn or flown out of Tempelhof </li></ul>
  16. 17. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>Soviet concerns at western preparations for separate West German state (London talks from Jan. 1948) </li></ul><ul><li>Currency reform: June western Allies introduce deutschmark into western zones and West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Soviets retaliate with closure of access to West Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>General Clay organises airlift with political support from Mayor Reuter; despite difficulties in autumn 1948, tonnages rise in Nov. </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda debacle for East </li></ul><ul><li>Western Allies move from being ‘victor powers’ to ‘protector powers’ </li></ul>American transport aircraft (‘raisin bomber’) lands at Tempelhof; note the children waiting for possible sweets thrown overboard
  17. 19. Berlin: the Divided City <ul><li>During blockade two city governments </li></ul><ul><li>U-Bahn (West) & S-Bahn (East) </li></ul><ul><li>Currency speculation </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Shopwindow Berlin’: Ku-Damm as showcase of western standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Espionage centre (CIA Berlin tunnel, human intelligence) </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcasting: RIAS American radio </li></ul>Poster showing smuggling of currency between sectors ‘ Beware RIAS poison’: communist anti-American poster warning of US broadcasts
  18. 20. Schedule <ul><li>Germany in 1945 – die Stunde Null (zero hour) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation Policies </li></ul><ul><li>The First Berlin Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Berlin Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  19. 21. Refugees via Berlin & Inner-German border
  20. 22. Berlin Crisis, 1958-61 <ul><li>GDR’s desire for recognition by West </li></ul><ul><li>USSR’s hopes for peace treaties & removal of atomic weaponry from FRG </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev ultimatum for West to leave West Berlin within 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Western intransigence & threat of nuclear weapons to preserve West Berlin; but non-intervention in East Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Economic race to overtake West German economy falters in 1960 </li></ul><ul><li>Wall cheap alternative to subsidies by USSR </li></ul>
  21. 23. Conclusion: Division of Germany <ul><li>Traditional interpretation: Soviet Union is responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Revisionist interpretation: USA are mainly responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Post-revisionist interpretation: both sides are responsible </li></ul>

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