Symposium on Small PV ApplicationsStatus of SHS Dissemination in BangladeshExperience with Physical, Financing and Technology Shahriar Ahmed Chowdhury Director, Centre for Energy Research Assistant Professor, Department of EEE United International University E-mail: email@example.com Monday; 6th of June, 2011
Highlights Energy Scenario of Bangladesh Progress of SHS project Functional structure of SHS Project Financial system of the program Technical status and maintenance requirements of the SHS
BangladeshArea: 144,000 km2Population: 158 MPopulation density: 1097/km2Location: 20o33’ – 26o38’ (N) 88o02’ – 92o41’Neighbors: India, Myanmar and Bay of BengalPer Capita Income: 450 US$Per capita electricity consumption: 236 kWh(6th in South Asia, above Nepal )Electricity access: 49%Average GH Irradiation: 4.7 kWh/M2 Source: BPDB Annual Report 2009- 2010
Bangladesh : Primary Energy Mix (in %) Hydro, 0.34 Coal, 0.75 Gas, 45.97 Petroleum 18.33 Biomass 34.58 Source: Statistical Year book of Bangladesh 2009
Power (Installed capacity 5823 MW ) 226 (4%) 230 (4%) 230 (4%) 250 (4%) 186 (3%)1263 (22%) 335 (6%) Gas Hydro Furnace oil Steam Turbine Diesel 2638 (45%) Gas Turbine Hydro 1466 (25%) Combined Cycle 4822 (83%) Coal Diesel Plant Type Fuel Type Source: Annual Report of BPDB 2009-2010
PV Electrification Program of Bangladesh SHS Rural Electrification starts in organized way (RERED Project) in the year 2003 with the support from IDA and GEF Initial Installation of the project target was 50,000 within 5 and half year in off grid areas of Bangladesh Initial target achieved 3 years ahead of completion date and US$ 2M below the estimated cost Following the success IDA, GTZ, KfW, ADB and IDB have extended support A revised target is set to 1 M SHS by 2012 Starting with 5 POs, IDCOL now have 30 POs
Functional Structure of the Project APPLIES for compliance SEEK APPROVAL Testing SUPPLIERS TSC Authority Provides PROVIDES certificates APPROVAL PAY FOR SUPPLY EQUIPMENT EQUIPMENT SEEK GRANT ANDPO SELECTION APPLIES LOAN COMMITTEE SELECT PO/NGO IDCOL PROVIDE GRANT AND LOAD GRANT AND REIMBURSE SOFT TERM CREDIT CREDIT SELLS SHS AND SUPPLY PROVIDE SERVICE EQUIPMENTOPERATIONSCOMMITTEE CONSUMERS DONORS
Partners of the Project Government Sources necessary fund for the program Creates incentives (waiver of duties, tax benefits etc.) IDCOL Provides grants to POs to reduce SHS cost and capacity building Soft loan to PO Technical assistance (training, logistics and promotional supports) Donor Agencies [WB(IDA), GEF, KfW, GIZ, ADB, IDB] Provides grants and soft loans through IDCOL Technical assistance to the program Partner Organization (PO) Select Areas and customers and install SHS Extend micro credit to customers provide after sales services Manufacturer / Suppliers Sell SHS or its components to POs Professionals Technical specification and impact assessment
Committees PO Selection Committee Consists of representatives from IDCOL and relevant government ministry and organization Select POs to implement the program on the basis of micro finance experience, financial and technical strength Technical Standard Committee (TSC) Consists of experts from University, Engineering department of government and IDCOL Determines technical standards, reviews product Credentials of dealers and approves the eligible equipment Operations committee Consists of program in charge from all POs and representatives from IDCOL Looks after the operational aspects of the program
AuditsIDCOL appoints independent organizations to conduct twotypes of audit:(i) Financial audit The objective of the financial audit is to ensure that the households’ down payments are accounted for properly and POs are utilizing the grants and refinancing for their intended purposes only.(ii) Technical audit The technical audit is conducted to ensure that only TSC approved equipment with their committed quality are used under the program. Representatives of the PO and suppliers accompany the technical audit team.
TrainingsPO personnelTo build awareness and capacity building among the staff ofthe POs’ and the consumers.Topics: SHS configuration, positioning of SHS, installationprocedure and guidelines with measurements, maintenanceand troubleshooting of SHS and batteries, guidelines formonitoring and inspection of SHS, marketdevelopment, micro-credit methods for marketing.Cost: 80% of the total expense is sponsored by IDCOL andthe rest is shared by the POs.For ConsumerSince SHS is entirely new to the households, consumertrainings are conducted regularly to educate them. They aretrained on how to use the SHS and fix petty problems withoutwaiting for the technician.
Other supportsFollowing supports are extended to POs by IDCOL:i) Logistic support: Each PO is given a computer for efficientdocumentation related to SHS installation. They are provided withtool boxes, motorcycle, demonstration kit, hydrometers and batterychargers for rendering better service to customers. Major share of thecosts is sponsored by IDCOL.ii) Promotional support: distribute publicity materials to raiseawareness and popularize the use of SHS in different parts of thecountry. Posters, leaflets, T-shirts, and billboards are distributed tothe POs for wider publicity of solar energy. TV and radioadvertisement are also developed and aired.iii) Exposure visit: To experience with the diversified uses of the PVsystems and other RETs, visits to other countries are also organizedboth for PO representatives and IDCOL staffs.
Development Impacts Provides illumination to rural areas. Increases income generating activities e.g. working hours have been increased for small businessmen, weavers, tailors, hair dressers, and handicraft makers. Students are getting benefits through extended hour of studies at night. The use of TV and radio has enhanced rural people’s access to the outer world. Study found that many women are feeling more secured at night after installation of SHS.
Fund flow Grant and Loan Grant and Loan IDCOL Debt service of Government Donor Debt service of loan loanGrant and Debt service Loan of Loan Grant and Loan PO Customer Debt service of loan As of November, 2010 the POs are enjoying an average collection efficiency (Loan repayment rate) of 97%
RefinancingDonor agencies to IDCOL IDA ADB IDB Tenure 20 20 20 Grace Period 5 8 7 Interest rate 3% per annum 3-5% 3% per annum Repayment frequency Semi-annual Semi-annual Semi-annualIDCOL to PO Tenure 6-8 years Grace period 1-2 years Interest rate (declining balance) 6%-8% per annum Repayment frequency Semi-annualPO to Customer Tenure 1-5 years Interest rate (declining balance) 12%-15% per annum Repayment frequency Monthly
Findings from the last Technical AuditApproach of the auditI. Field observation and testing 60 SHS visited out of 300,000 6 out of 15 Partner Organisations visitedII. Manufacturer’s factory visit 4 Battery Manufactures 6 Charge Controller Manufacturers 5 Lamp ManufacturersIII. Laboratory Testing SHS components (Batteries, Charge Controllers, Lamp Circuits)
Azimuth, Tilt and shading of the installed panels) Figures is in BDT
LVD and HVD of the installed charge controllers
Specific gravity of the charged and discharged batteries Charged Discharged 1300 1250 1200Sp. Gravity (-) 1150 1100 1050 1000 A1 A2 A3 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 C1 C2 D1 D2 D3 Manufacturer
Efficiency of the lamp circuit (Inverter) at LVD at HVD 100Inverter efficiency (%) 80 60 40 20 0 P1 P2 Q1 Q2 R1 R2 S1 S2 T1 T2 Manufacturer
Crest factor of the lamp circuit (Inverter) at LVD at HVD 2.2 2.1Crest factor (-) 2 1.9 1.8 1.7 P1 P2 Q1 Q2 R1 R2 S1 S2 T1 T2 Manufacturer
Voltage and current waveform of the inverter Voltage waveform Current waveform
Quality of switch of the installed systems (contact resistance) acceptable [%] unacceptable [%] 100 80 60 40 20 0 <1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 >5 Age of system Sample size: 180
Voltage drop in the connected wire acceptable unacceptable100%80%60%40%20% 0% P Q R S T U V W POs
Recommendations after Technical Audit Well equipped national testing facility Mobile equipment testers for field testing A strong independent quality control mechanism Upgrading the technical standards Standard packages for SHS Educating consumers in operation and maintenance Proper training facilities for the field technicians Emphasis on Loss Reduction by use of appropriate components