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Mini grid and Solar home system

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Motivation and problem
Introduction to solar powered mini-grid and SHS
Solar Home System (SHS)
3.1 technical aspects
3.2 economic aspects
3.3 social and environmental aspects
Case Study
Conclusion and outlook
www.devi-renewable.com

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Mini grid and Solar home system

  1. 1. Solar PV and Mini Grids <ul><li>May 3rd 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Seminar Rural Energy Supply </li></ul><ul><li>Postgraduate Programme </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable Energy (PPRE) </li></ul><ul><li>Anita, Corinna, Dirk, </li></ul><ul><li>Esther, Rangini, Tuong </li></ul>
  2. 2. What will the future look like? Source: Siemens, 2009 Source: Solarprojekt Freilassing
  3. 3. Table of contents <ul><li>Motivation and problem </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to solar powered mini-grid and SHS </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Home System (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 technical aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 economic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 social and environmental aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation <ul><li>Source: http://www.mhi.co.jp/en/earth/issue/history/future/renewable/solar.html </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is the problem? <ul><li>Rural areas with no electricity, grid connection might not be suitable </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity of low cost energy supply </li></ul><ul><li>Different sources of energy -> solar PV might be a solution </li></ul>
  6. 6. Table of contents <ul><li>1. Motivation and problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introduction to solar powered Mini-grid and SHS </li></ul><ul><li>3. Solar Home System (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 technical aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 economic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 social and environmental aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is solar powered Mini grid?
  8. 8. Solar powered mini grid Components: 1. Solar generator, 2. SUNNY BOY (Solar Inverter), 3. SUNNY ISLAND (Battery Inverter), 4. Batteries, 5. Diesel generator, 6. Wind power plant http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0cpjqudoQM
  9. 9. What is Solar Home System (SHS) ?
  10. 10. Solar home system overview Photo: solarenergylive.com
  11. 11. Solar home system overview Photo: SEC Lt, Nepal
  12. 12. Solar home system overview Photo: hqweb.unep.org
  13. 13. Table of contents <ul><li>1. Motivation and problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introduction to solar powered mini-grid and SHS </li></ul><ul><li>3. Solar Home System (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 technical aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 economic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 social and environmental aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  14. 14. Technical aspects of SHS – design <ul><li>Basic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity of easy operation </li></ul><ul><li>DC system and appliances </li></ul><ul><li>Different systems available </li></ul>Source: Sovacool et al. 2011
  15. 15. Technical aspects of SHS – design <ul><li>Size of system (PV module/battery) depends on specific local conditions: </li></ul><ul><li>Solar radiation, site conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Electricity service expectations (appliances/loads) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy expenditure patterns </li></ul><ul><li>General socio-economic situation </li></ul>W p : peak power load: daily energy consumed by load in Wh/day η battery : battery efficiency η installation : installation efficiency G mean : mean irradiation of worst month
  16. 16. Technical aspects of SHS – training and maintenance <ul><li>Before installation: </li></ul><ul><li>Training of users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information about prices, product performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication about necessity of maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explanation of PV technology and operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training of skilled technicians and access to sites </li></ul>Source: Rural21/C. Kropke 2010
  17. 17. Technical aspects of SHS – training and maintenance <ul><li>After installation: </li></ul><ul><li>Regular maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>of key components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance checks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleaning of PV modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water additions in batteries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacement of broken elements </li></ul></ul>Source: Sovacool et al. 2011
  18. 18. Technical aspects of SHS – quality and availability <ul><li>Guaranteeing access to well-functioning SHS </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and compatibility of components </li></ul><ul><li>Easy replacement </li></ul><ul><li>of components </li></ul><ul><li>Local entrepreneurs, </li></ul><ul><li>technicians, </li></ul><ul><li>manufactures </li></ul>Source: Afircan Electrification Initiative/Youngreen 2010
  19. 19. Table of contents <ul><li>1. Motivation and problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introduction to solar powered Mini-grid and SHS </li></ul><ul><li>3. Solar Home System (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 technical aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 economic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 social and environmental aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  20. 20. Cost Analysis: Methodology <ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate electricity price per kWh generated by a SHS </li></ul><ul><li>annual costs/ annual electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>Annualized-Life-Cycle-Costs (ALCC) </li></ul><ul><li>all initial and future costs are calculated over the operational lifetime of a system </li></ul><ul><li>total investment costs converted into uniform annual costs </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Recovery Factor (CRF) </li></ul><ul><li>accounts for the cost of financing a project (interest) </li></ul><ul><li>formula: i (1+i) n / [(1+i) n -1] </li></ul><ul><li> i=discount rate, n=lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>annuities = individual payments * CRF </li></ul>
  21. 21. Methodology (2) <ul><li>Levelized Unit Cost Of Electricity (LUCE) </li></ul><ul><li>W p = peak Watt capacity of PV module </li></ul><ul><li>EHFS = Equivalent Hour of Full Sunshine </li></ul><ul><li>CUF = Capacity Utilization Factor </li></ul>
  22. 22. Example of cost analysis (India) Source: based on Chaurey, Kanpal (2010) ) Components Capital cost (USD) Life (years) CRF Annualised cost (USD) PV Module (70 Wp) 296.72 20 0.1339 39.73 Battery (12 V, 40 Ah) 107.88 5 0.2774 29.93 Charge Controller 11.24 5 0.2774 3.12 Appliances (4*9 W) 67.44 10 0.1770 11.94 Balance-of-systems 44.98 10 0.1770 7.96 Annual O&M costs 3.39 Total annualised costs 528.26 96.07 Annual electricity generation (kWh) 114.98 kWh LUCE (USD/ kWh) 0.84 Assumptions: Discount rate 12% EHFS 5 Days of operation in year 365 Capacity utilization factor 0.9
  23. 23. Comparison to costs for mini-grid <ul><li>In general: Cost reductions ($/kWh) as sizes and volumes of PV modules and batteries increase </li></ul><ul><li>cost-advantage of mini-grid </li></ul><ul><li>But: Costs for mini-grid depend on: </li></ul><ul><li>Length of total distribution line </li></ul><ul><li>Number + spatial distribution of households connected via mini-grid </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical factors </li></ul><ul><li> may offset cost-advantage! </li></ul>
  24. 24. Comparison to costs for mini-grid Source: Chaurey, Kandpal (2010)
  25. 25. Financing Models for SHS
  26. 26. Cash Sales <ul><li>PV supplier distributes PV systems directly or through a dealer network to the end-users, who pay in cash </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>minimal number of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>low transaction costs </li></ul><ul><li>high flexibility in consumer choice </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>limited market as a result of the high up-front investment needed </li></ul><ul><li>incentive to buy under-sized systems and cheap replacement components to save money </li></ul><ul><li>installation and maintenance/ after-sales service are problematic </li></ul>
  27. 27. Credit Sales  The end-user acquires the PV system on credit <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>main barrier of the high initial investment is lowered </li></ul><ul><li>investment costs are spread over a number of years </li></ul><ul><li>Dealer credit </li></ul><ul><li>one institution handles both the financial and the technical work </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>high rural credit risk </li></ul><ul><li> ability and willingness to repay the credit often limited </li></ul><ul><li>dealer cash-flow often as constraint </li></ul><ul><li>high interest rates due to expensive capital through dealer re-finance </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>End-user credit </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>PV company avoids financial risks and can concentrate on sales and after-sales services </li></ul><ul><li>credit institutions are much better equipped to manage a credit scheme </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>market is restricted to customers that the credit institution deems creditworthy </li></ul><ul><li>high interest rates and down-payments </li></ul><ul><li>geographically restricted because of the infrastructure needed for the collection of the payments and possible retrieval of the collateral </li></ul>
  29. 29. Donation  Hardware is provided for free (or almost free) by a sponsor <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>low initial costs for end-user </li></ul><ul><li>potential for cost reduction through economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>rapid deployment </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>user less involved/ feel less responsible </li></ul><ul><li>mostly limited to the hardware </li></ul>
  30. 30. Lease/ Hire-Purchase arrangements  PV supplier/dealer or a financial intermediary leases the PV system to the end-user <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>spreading of costs for the user over a long period </li></ul><ul><li>cost reductions due to economies of scale </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance can be kept at a high standard because of the professional care for the system </li></ul><ul><li>good-quality products are selected because of the long repayment period </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>End-users may not treat the systems with care, as initially the maintenance and ownership do not lie with them </li></ul><ul><li>geographically restrictive (extensive infrastructure needed for the collection of the payments and the maintenance and repair of the systems) </li></ul>
  31. 31. Fee for service / fee for energy  An energy service company (ESCO) owns the system, and provides an energy service to the end-user for a monthly fee <ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>end-user does not have to invest in a solar system (only connection fee) </li></ul><ul><li>maintenance and repair are organized centrally  lower costs + high quality maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>high-quality systems, components and installation are encouraged because of the inevitable long-term agreements </li></ul><ul><li>proper collection and recycling of components (e.g. batteries) is possible </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul><ul><li>high risks and high transaction costs result in high monthly fees and reduce affordability for poor households </li></ul><ul><li>end-user is not the owner of the system  may not treat the system as carefully </li></ul><ul><li>client is usually not allowed to miss a monthly payment </li></ul>
  32. 32. Table of contents <ul><li>1. Motivation and problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introduction to solar powered mini-grid and SHS </li></ul><ul><li>3. Solar Home System (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 technical aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 economic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 social and environmental aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  33. 33. Social aspects of SHS: Benefits <ul><li>Increase in comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Additional income/saving costs </li></ul><ul><li>Education and employment </li></ul><ul><li>Health and security </li></ul><ul><li>Prevent rural-urban migration </li></ul>Source: www.designthatmatters.org/k2 2005
  34. 34. Social aspects of SHS: Barriers <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>People’s expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers </li></ul>Source: Sovacool et al. 2011
  35. 35. Social aspects of SHS: Barriers <ul><li>&quot;Solar energy is very important, it is not that expensive and can last very long, 100 years. </li></ul><ul><li>One SHS can create enough energy to power a computer, copy machine, lights in every room, television, and appliances, all from a pretty small device.&quot; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Sovacool et. al. 2011: 8) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Social aspects of SHS: Barriers <ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>People’s expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural barriers </li></ul>Source: Sovacool et al. 2011
  37. 37. Environmental aspects of SHS: Pros & Cons <ul><li>Savings of C0 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Displacing dry cell batteries </li></ul><ul><li>Little space consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Recycling systems for lead-acid batteries required </li></ul><ul><li>Resource exploitation and energy consumption for production, transport and recycling </li></ul><ul><li>By-products and toxic components </li></ul>Source: www.berlin.de/special/umwelt/batterien
  38. 38. Table of contents <ul><li>1. Motivation and problem </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introduction to solar powered mini-grid and SHS </li></ul><ul><li>3. Solar Home System (SHS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1 technical aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2 economic aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3 social and environmental aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>5. Conclusion and outlook </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Energy service provider and social enterprise in Bangalore </li></ul><ul><li>Started in 1995 by Harish Hande an Energy Engineer </li></ul><ul><li>Today: 170 employees, 25 energy service centers </li></ul><ul><li>Products: Solar lighting, Solar thermal, Cookstoves </li></ul>SELCO India Solar Pvt. Ltd.
  40. 40. <ul><ul><li>To sell and service SHS in rural areas of India that lack access to electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making affordable through financial instruments such as bank loans and micro finance credits </li></ul></ul>GOAL
  41. 41. ACHIEVEMENTS <ul><li>Won two times the “ ASHDEN awards” </li></ul><ul><li>(Green Oscar) in 2005 and 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Installed 115,000 solar home systems in 15 year </li></ul><ul><li>75 local entrepreneurs created </li></ul><ul><li>Two-thirds of its customers surviving on less than $3-4 per day </li></ul>
  42. 42. STRATEGY <ul><li>4. After sales services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Door to door s services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Financial schemes </li></ul></ul>3. Selling experience http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gnkcs7icerk
  43. 44. CONCLUSION <ul><li>SHS are a good option for rural electrification </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of private local entrepreneurs needed </li></ul><ul><li>Good financial instruments needed </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity to carefully consider local conditions and customers‘ needs prior to taking action </li></ul><ul><li>Necessity to „think further“  production and maintenance infrastructure needed </li></ul><ul><li>Inequity in energy supply between rural and urban population remains </li></ul>
  44. 45. Are there any Questions?
  45. 46. Mini grid and SHS <ul><li>Mini Grid Design Manual, Allen R. Inversin, International Programs, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.sma.de/en/news-information/videos-animations/videos-animations-sunny-island.html ( video on solar PV mini grid system by SMA ) </li></ul><ul><li>A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV micro grids A. Chaurey a,1, T.C.Kandpal b, Energy Policy. </li></ul>REFERENCE
  46. 47. Technical aspect <ul><li>Nieuwenhout, F.D.J. et al, 2001: Experience with Solar Home Systems in Developing Countries: A Review. Progress in Photovoltais: Research and Applications 9: 455 – 474. </li></ul><ul><li>Van der Vleuten, F. et al., 2007: Putting Solar Home System Programmes into Perspective: What lessons are relevant? Energy Policy 35: 1439 – 1451. </li></ul><ul><li>Allicance Soleil SARL, ETC International Group, 2009: Training Manual for Domestic Solar Electricity Trainers </li></ul>REFERENCE
  47. 48. Economic aspect <ul><li>www.energypedia.info </li></ul><ul><li>Worldbank: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FR.INR.LEND </li></ul><ul><li>Anisuzzaman, M.; Urmee, T.P. . Financing Mechanisms of Solar Home Systems for Rural Electrification in Developing Countries: http://www.aseanenergy.info/Abstract/32010680.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Chaurey, A.; Kandpal, T.C. ,2010. A techno-economic comparison of rural electrification based on solar home systems and PV microgrids. Energy Policy 38. 3118-3129 </li></ul><ul><li>Scheutzlich, T.; Klinghammer, W.; Scholand, M.; Wisniwski, S.; Pertz, K., 2001. Financing of solar home systems in developing countries. Volume I: Main Report. Environmental Management, Water, Energy, Transport Division 44 GTZ </li></ul>REFERENCE
  48. 49. Social and Environmental aspects <ul><li>Baldwin, G., Childs, B., Hunter, C., Urrea V. 2007: Developing a Strategy to Improve Solar Home System Sustainability in Rural Thailand. Worcester Polytechnic Institute: http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-030107-003542/unrestricted/SOLAR_Final_Report.pdf 25.04.2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Barua, D. C., Urmee, T. P., Kumar S., Bhattacharya S. C. 2001: A Photovoltaic Solar Home System Dissemination Model In: Progress In: Photovoltaics: Research And Applications 9: 313-322 </li></ul><ul><li>Kaufman S., 1999: Rural Electrification with Solar Energy as a Climate Protection Strategy. http://www.repp.org/repp_pubs/articles/resRpt09/index.htm 25.04.2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Khan, H. J., Hugue, A. J., Andaleeb, S. S. : The Solar Home System: An Alternative Energy Source For Rural Households in Bangladesh: http://www.bdiusa.org/Publications/JBS/Volumes/Volume3/jbs3.2-3.pdf 25.04.2011 </li></ul><ul><li>Posorski R., Bussmann M., Menke, C. 2003: Does the use of Solar Home Systems (SHS) contribute to climate protection? In: Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1061-1080. </li></ul><ul><li>Sovacool B. K., D’Agostino A. L., Bambawale M. J. 2011: The socio-technical barriers to Solar Home Systems (SHS) in Papua New Guinea: ‘‘Choosing pigs, prostitutes, and poker chips over panels’’. In: Energy Policy 39 (2011) 1532–1542. </li></ul>REFERENCE
  49. 50. Case-study <ul><li>http://www.selco-india.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://nexus.som.yale.edu/design-selco/ ( video for solar entrepreneur ) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ashdenawards.org/winners/selco07 http://money.cnn.com/magazines/business2/business2_archive/2006/12/01/8394996/index.html </li></ul>REFERENCE

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