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Wind energy I. Lesson 6. Wind turbines in general P2

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Wind energy I. Lesson 6. Wind turbines in general P2

  1. 1. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindJarek Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 1
  2. 2. Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 2
  3. 3. Outline- variety of wind turbines / classification- drag coefficient and drag force (example: Persian Windmill)- aerodynamics of an airfoil- lift coefficient and lift force (example: Darrieus Rotor)- history of wind turbines Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 3
  4. 4. variety of wind turbines Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 4
  5. 5. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind different kinds of WECs horizontal axis wind turbinewind turbine vertical axis wind turbine Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 5
  6. 6. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind different kinds of WECs “drag” based wind turbineswind turbine “lift” based wind turbines Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 6
  7. 7. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind drag force based wind turbinesWhat is drag?wind velocity v Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 7
  8. 8. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind drag force based wind turbines power of the windWhat is drag? force acting on the body?wind velocity v Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 8
  9. 9. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind drag force based wind turbines power of the windWhat is drag? force acting on the body?wind velocity v Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 9
  10. 10. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind drag force based wind turbines power of the windWhat is drag? force acting on the body? different shapes have different air resistances, i.e. differentwind velocity v cd = 0,34 drag coefficients cd cd = 1,33 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 10
  11. 11. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindWind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 11
  12. 12. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind cd is dependent on shape and Re sphereWind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 12
  13. 13. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWinddrag force based wind turbines Persian windmill year 500-900 a.d. How can we estimate the maximum power? Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 13
  14. 14. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind drag force based wind turbinespower estimation of a persian windmill v = const cp cd = 1.1 cp,max =0,16 tip speed ratio tip speed ratiotip speed ratio for drag force based wind turbines < 1 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 14
  15. 15. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWinddrag force based wind turbines Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 15
  16. 16. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind lift force based wind turbinesairfoil design Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 16
  17. 17. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind lift force based wind turbinesHow does lift occur? FL vup vdown Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 17
  18. 18. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind lift force based wind turbines Bernoulli Equation (strong simplification of Navier-Stokes-Eq.,How does lift occur? i.e. no viscosity, stationary, novorticity) 1 2 FL 2 ρu + p = const vup vdown negative Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 18
  19. 19. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind lift force based wind turbines Bernoulli Equation (strong simplification of Navier-Stokes-Eq.,How does lift occur? i.e. no viscosity, stationary, novorticity) 1 2 ρu + p = const 2 Pup Pdown negative Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 19
  20. 20. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindWhy is vup larger than vdown? Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 20
  21. 21. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind Why is vup larger than vdown?vup starting vortexvdown Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 21
  22. 22. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind Why is vup larger than vdown? angular momentum conservation starting vortexvup starting vortexvdown Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 22
  23. 23. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind Why is vup larger than vdown? angular momentum conservation starting vortexvup starting vortex wind velocity circulating vortex vup > vdownvdown Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 23
  24. 24. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindForces acting on an airfoilWind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 24
  25. 25. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind Forces acting on an airfoil Flift F wind velocity v Fdrag 1FD = cD (Re, α) · ρAu 2 2 1FL = cL (Re, α) · ρAu 2 cL = Lift coefficient 2 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 25
  26. 26. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind measuring lift (and drag) coefficients of airfoils 2 force sensors measure FL and FDwind velocity v 80 pressure sensors measure pressure distribution along the wall Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 26
  27. 27. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind measuring lift coefficients of airfoils 2 force sensors measure FL and FD 80 pressure sensors measure pressure distribution along the wall 1FL = cL (Re, α) · ρAu2 2 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 27
  28. 28. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindmeasuring lift coefficients of airfoils Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 28
  29. 29. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind Lift force based wind turbines example: Darrieuswind turbine Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 29
  30. 30. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind wind velocity v tip speed ratio for Darrieus rotors > 3total velocity velocity due to FD rotation u FL Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 30
  31. 31. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind wind velocity vtotal velocity velocity due to FD rotation u FL FD FL Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 31
  32. 32. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind wind velocity vtotal velocity velocity due to FD rotation u FL FD FD FL Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 32
  33. 33. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind wind velocity vtotal velocity velocity due to FD rotation u FL FD FD FD FL Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 33
  34. 34. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWind wind velocity v 0° assist rotation FD FL FD90°oppose 270°oppose FD rotation rotation FD 180° assist rotation FL Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 34
  35. 35. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines Denmark 1891 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 35
  36. 36. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines Russia 1931 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 36
  37. 37. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines USA 1942 - 50kW Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 37
  38. 38. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines Germany 1942 Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 38
  39. 39. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines USA 1943 - 70kW Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 39
  40. 40. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines UK 1956 - 100kW Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 40
  41. 41. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines Denmark 1957 -200kW Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 41
  42. 42. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines France 1958 - 800kW Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 42
  43. 43. Jarek Puczylowski - AG TWiSt / ForWindHistory of wind turbines Germany 1982 - 3000kW Wind Energy lecture 02.12.2010 43

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