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Wind energy I. Lesson 5. Wind turbines general

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Wind energy I. Lesson 5. Wind turbines general

  1. 1. Windenergy 2010/11
  2. 2. Windenergy 2010/11
  3. 3. Windenergy 2010/11
  4. 4. cp(lambda)Windenergy 2010/11
  5. 5. basic scheme of a wind turbine • wind - rotor - gear box - generator - grid integration there are different concepts around: different generators, multiple poles, synchronous or asynchronousWindenergy 2010/11
  6. 6. power class aerodynamics drive - train power Wind FT , T ωg generator Ug rotor P, ωR Tg fg cp (λ) FT support structure . FT thrust T torque Tg torque of generator P power ωR rotation speed of rotor ωg rotation speed of generator Ug grid voltage fg grid frequencyWindenergy 2010/11
  7. 7. Center for Wind Energy ResearchTurbine high speed generator shaft nacelle hub main shaft gearbox electrical / control system
  8. 8. Center for Wind Energy ResearchTurbine high speed generator shaft nacelle hub main shaft gearbox electrical / control system
  9. 9. design of wind turbine - resolved designWindenergy 2010/11
  10. 10. design of wind turbine - resolved design high speed shaft displaced - not in a line with main shaft - why?Windenergy 2010/11
  11. 11. • gear boxWindenergy 2010/11
  12. 12. compact - gearless designWindenergy 2010/11
  13. 13. redundant designWindenergy 2010/11
  14. 14. from TweleWindenergy 2010/11
  15. 15. power class aerodynamics drive - train power Wind FT , T ωg generator Ug rotor P, ωR Tg fg cp (λ) FT support structure . FT thrust T torque Tg torque of generator P power ωR rotation speed of rotor ωg rotation speed of generator Ug grid voltage fg grid frequencyWindenergy 2010/11
  16. 16. extreme events ... foundation
  17. 17. Center for Wind Energy Researchinstallation of a windturbine foundation concepts
  18. 18. Center for Wind Energy Researchinstallation of a windturbine foundation research: load measurements
  19. 19. Windenergy 2010/11
  20. 20. Center for Wind Energy Research5MW WEC - electr. energy for about 10.000 to 20.000persons area = 12469 m 2
  21. 21. Center for Wind Energy Researchinstallation of a windturbine foundation transport - logistics
  22. 22. Center for Wind Energy Researchconstruction
  23. 23. Center for Wind Energy Research
  24. 24. Center for Wind Energy Researchtestung centers for foundation and blades
  25. 25. Center for Wind Energy Researchtestung centers for foundation and blades
  26. 26. Windenergy 2010/11
  27. 27. Center for Wind Energy Researchinvestigation of the ground
  28. 28. Center for Wind Energy Researchfloating WECs
  29. 29. Center for Wind Energy Researchfloating WECs
  30. 30. Center for Wind Energy Researchfloating WECs
  31. 31. Center for Wind Energy Researchfloating WECs
  32. 32. power generator power class aerodynamics drive - train power Wind FT , T ωg generator Ug rotor P, ωR Tg fg cp (λ) FT support structure . FT thrust T torque Tg torque of generator P power ωR rotation speed of rotor ωg rotation speed of generator Ug grid voltage fg grid frequencyWindenergy 2010/11
  33. 33. generator • electric generator ‣ transforms mechanical motion (power) into electric power P=UI ‣ Faraday‘s law of induction - changing magnetic field dΦ - generates voltage (emf) Uind =− dt ‣ rotating magnet causes oscillating voltage out put ‣ demonstrationWindenergy 2010/11
  34. 34. synchronous / asynchronous generator • synchronous ‣ the frequency of the generator out is entirely fixed by the turbine rotational frequency (wind) through the gearbox. Thus the output voltage frequency is synchronous with the high speed shaft frequency ‣ Wind turbines which use synchronous generators normally use electromagnets in the rotor which are fed by direct current from the electrical grid. Since the grid supplies alternating current, they first have to convert alternating current to direct current before sending it into the coil windings around the electromagnets in the rotor. The rotor electromagnets are connected to the current by using brushes and slip rings on the axle (shaft) of the generator.Windenergy 2010/11
  35. 35. synchronous / asynchronous generator • asynchroneous or cage or indiction generator ‣ the frequency of the generator output is controlled by the excitation from the main supply. Consequently the turbine rotation speed can vary slightly and is not exact synchoneous through the generator with the grid. The normal generator for this is an induction genertaor with magnetic excitation drawn from the grid ‣ the asynch. generator was designed as a motor but works also as generator. Its advantage is that is it very simple further details see http://www.windpower.org/en/tour/wtrb/electric.htmWindenergy 2010/11
  36. 36. reactive power • due to complex resistance u and I get out of phase leading to reactive power - not useable • additional impedence (inductivity for capacitance) can neutralize this - this can be achieved by synchronous generatorsWindenergy 2010/11
  37. 37. Center for Wind Energy Researchnext decade : offshore technical challenges / steps wind potential - ground - selection of WEC - foundation - construction - grid connection - operation and maintenance
  38. 38. Center for Wind Energy Research
  39. 39. Center for Wind Energy Researchcables - grid connection
  40. 40. Center for Wind Energy Researchcables - grid connection platform alpha ventus
  41. 41. Center for Wind Energy Researchcables - grid connection platform alpha ventus
  42. 42. Center for Wind Energy Researchnew cables GIL (gas isolated conductors)
  43. 43. Center for Wind Energy Researchnew cables GIL (gas isolated conductors)
  44. 44. power class aerodynamics drive - train power Wind FT , T ωg generator Ug rotor P, ωR Tg fg cp (λ) FT pitch support structure . FT thrust T torque Tg torque of generator control system P power ωR rotation speed of rotor ωg rotation speed of generator Ug grid voltage fg grid frequencyWindenergy 2010/11
  45. 45. • loads: ‣ aerodynamic ‣ gravitational ‣ - 600 kW machine will rotate some 2 108 times during a 20 year lifeWindenergy 2010/11
  46. 46. • loads: ‣ aerodynamic ‣ gravitational ‣ inertia - gyroscope, precession,Windenergy 2010/11
  47. 47. • loads: ‣ aerodynamic ‣ gravitational ‣ inertia - gyroscope, precession, troque τ = r × Fg dL =τ dt ‣ Rotor must be well balanced - support in the center of massWindenergy 2010/11
  48. 48. • loads: ‣ aerodynamic ‣ gravitational ‣ inertia - gyroscope, precession, centrifugal ‣ operating loads - generator, brakes, yaw and pitch control ‣ extreme loads - 50 year gust - 3 or 5 sec gust = factor (1.4) * 50 year 10 min speed value ‣ loss of load due to disconnection from grid + 1 year gust - speed up until break sets in ‣ tower shadowWindenergy 2010/11
  49. 49. • classification of wind turbines IEC 61400 ‣ class I to IV ‣ class A - higher - B lower degree of turblence • GL - includes load • danish standard DS 472Windenergy 2010/11
  50. 50. • dynamic load and eigenmodes => resonances • --- back boardWindenergy 2010/11
  51. 51. Windenergy 2010/11
  52. 52. • dynamic load and eigenmodes => resonancesWindenergy 2010/11
  53. 53. • spectral analysis of signals • rotational frequency • eigen modes at .4 HzWindenergy 2010/11
  54. 54. • spectral analysis of signals • rotational frequency • eigen modes at .4 Hz closer to resonanceWindenergy 2010/11
  55. 55. • dynamic load and eigenmodes => resonancesWindenergy 2010/11
  56. 56. • dynamic load and eigenmodes => ressonancesWindenergy 2010/11
  57. 57. endWindenergy 2010/11
  58. 58. 10th lecture 14th of Jan • control system purpose ‣ to guarantee steady power production ‣ to prevent damage in high wind speed ‣ to keep mechanical loads minimal ‣ to stay below max power given by the design of the generator • basic aspects ‣ control of power production ‣ emergency - - high wind speed periods - interruption of grid connection (no load by generator) - emergency brakeWindenergy 2010/11
  59. 59. • simple control systemsWindenergy 2010/11
  60. 60. Windenergy 2010/11
  61. 61. 9 u [m/s] 7 5 3 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 ● ● ● ● 1.0 ● t [sec] ● LIDAR, IEC ● ● ● ● LIDAR, Dynamic ● ● ● ● 0.8 ● ● ● ● 0.6 ● P [kW] P Pr ● 400 ● ● ● 0.4 ● 100 ● ● ● 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 ● 0.2 ● t [sec] ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 0.0 ● ● 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 un [m/s] 18 u [m/s] u [m/s] 20 12 6 10 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 t [sec] t [sec] P [kW] 1400 P [kW] 1700 600 1300 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 t [sec] 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 t [sec]Windenergy 2010/11
  62. 62. control system • regular (non emergency control) ‣ control quantities - angle of attack - rotation speed (tip speed ratio) ‣ pitch control, passive pitch ‣ stall control, active stall ‣ rotor orientation ‣ tip speed ratio - Black borad details and tranparenciesWindenergy 2010/11
  63. 63. • control cases ‣ fixed speed - fixed pitch ‣ fixed speed - variable pitch ‣ variable pitch - fixed pitch ‣ variable speed - variable pitch - explained by P(u); cp(lambda), cp(u) doagrams - - details on blackboardWindenergy 2010/11

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