Lect 4-&-5 cells-bsc-1010_f13_jc

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  • S13: last slide of class #4
  • Added location column F13
  • Lect 4-&-5 cells-bsc-1010_f13_jc

    1. 1. Cells Lectures #4 & #5, Chapter 4 by John Cozza, Biology Dept. (some material modified from Raven, Biology 9th ed.)
    2. 2. Cells outline • What is a cell? • Types of cells • Cytoplasm – Cytosol – Organelles – Cytoskeleton • Cell wall and ECM – Cell junctions
    3. 3. Cells outline • What is a cell? • Types of cells • Cytoplasm – Cytosol – Organelles – Cytoskeleton • Cell wall and ECM – Cell junctions
    4. 4. What is a cell?
    5. 5. How did the first cell originate? • Genetics first: RNA world • Metabolism first • Proteins first • Membrane first • Hybrid world • Intelligent design? http://pandasthumb.org/archives/2010/02/primordial-soup-1.html
    6. 6. Interactive question #1 Intelligent design is not a scientific hypothesis because it is not A.an educated guess B.possible C.controversial D.testable
    7. 7. One hypothesis of life’s origin… • Micro-caves of undersea volcanic vents • Metabolism first • Then RNA • Then proteins • Then DNA
    8. 8. …and the first prokaryotic cells (bacteria & archaea) • Then lipids & membranes • Then cell walls Martin, W. and M. Russell 2003. On the origins of cells: a hypothesis for the evolutionary transitions from abiotic geochemistry to chemoautotrophic prokaryotes, and from prokaryotes to nucleated cells. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 358: 59–85.
    9. 9. Cell size
    10. 10. Cells outline • What is a cell? • Types of cells • Cytoplasm – Cytosol – Organelles – Cytoskeleton • Cell wall and ECM – Cell junctions
    11. 11. Types of cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic
    12. 12. Prokaryotic cell http://classes.midlandstech.com/carterp/Courses/bio225/chap04/sld003.htm
    13. 13. Nitrosomonas sp. (Proteobacteria) Dirtland: http://commtechlab.msu.edu/sites/dlc-me/zoo/zdrs0232.html Anabaena variabilis (Cyanobacteria) http://genome.jgi-psf.org/anava/anava.home.html Some prokaryotes have internal membranes!
    14. 14. Prokaryotic cell E. coli By David Goodsell Scripps Institute
    15. 15. Yellow = DNA, RNA, & proteins Blue = Cytoplasmic proteins Purple = ribosomes Green = membranes + proteins http://mgl.scripps.edu/people/goodsell/illustration/public
    16. 16. TEM of eukaryotic cell http://www2.estrellamountain.edu/faculty/farabee/BIOBK/biobookcell2.html
    17. 17. Eukaryotic cell Prokaryotic cell
    18. 18. Interactive question #2 The definitive difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is that prokaryotes A.are smaller B.are pathogens C.do not have a nucleus D.have a cell wall E.lack internal membranes
    19. 19. Eukaryotic cell section Yellow & green = cell membrane and proteins Blue = proteins Blue filaments = cytoskeleton Pink = ribosomes Tan = mRNA, tRNA From: Inside a Eukaryotic Cell by David Goodsell Scripps Institute http://mgl.scripps.edu/peop le/goodsell/gallery/patterso n.html
    20. 20. Eukaryotic cell section Yellow (L) = Golgi apparatus Yellow (R) = mitochondrion Blue = proteins Green = glycosylation Blue “Buckyball” = coated vesicle Pink = ribosomes Tan = mRNA, tRNA
    21. 21. Eukaryotic cell section Yellow = nuclear membrane Blue = proteins Orange “spaghetti” = mRNA being synthesized (R) and then spliced in nuclear pore (L) Pink (R) = DNA
    22. 22. Origin of eukaryotic cell: endosymbiosis fermentation photosynthesis respiration
    23. 23. Origin of the nucleus: alternative hypotheses Martin, W. 2005. Archaebacteria (Archaea) and the origin of the eukaryotic nucleus. Current opinion in microbiology 8(6): 630-637.
    24. 24. Origin of the nucleus: alternative hypothesis Margulis, L. 2000. The chimeric eukaryote: Origin of the nucleus from the karyomastigont in amitochondriate protists. PNAS 97(13): 6954-6959
    25. 25. According to the various hypotheses, the nucleus may have evolved from any of the following except: A.A merger of a community of cells B.A merger of a liposome and a chromosome C.A spore D.An engulfed cell E.Infoldings of the cell Interactive question #3
    26. 26. Cells outline • What is a cell? • Types of cells • Cytoplasm – Cytosol – Organelles – Cytoskeleton • Cell wall and ECM – Cell junctions
    27. 27. Cytosol • Water (~70%) • Ions • Building blocks , nutrients, etc. • Proteins (>20%) • Other macromolecules • DNA (prokaryotes) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cytosol http://www.scripps.edu/news/scientificreports/sr2008/mb08olson.html
    28. 28. Cytosol: E. coli by David Goodsell The Machinery of LIfe Fig. 4.3
    29. 29. Think—pair—share What are the advantages to a eukaryotic cell of having organelles?
    30. 30. Organelles (with membrane) Organelle Main features Function Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi apparatus Mitochondrion Chloroplast Storage plastid Vacuole Lysosome Microbody
    31. 31. Nucleus and endomembrane system Why are we considering them together? White blood cell by David Goodsell The Machinery of LIfe Fig. 5.3
    32. 32. Nuclear pore by David Goodsell The Machinery of Life, Fig. 5.3
    33. 33. Endoplasmic reticulum (rough ER) by David Goodsell The Machinery of Life, Fig. 5.4
    34. 34. Golgi apparatus by David Goodsell The Machinery of Life, Fig. 5.4
    35. 35. Secretory vesicles leaving the cell by David Goodsell The Machinery of Life, Fig. 5.6
    36. 36. Energy organelles • Mitochondria (red) • Chloroplast (deep green) Euglena gracilis
    37. 37. Mitochondrion by David Goodsell The Machinery of Life, Fig. 5.1
    38. 38. Artemesia chloroplast TEM by George Chapman Chloroplast
    39. 39. Artemesia chloroplast TEM by George Chapman Chloroplast internal membranes by David Goodsell http://cbm.msoe.edu/markMyweb/SUN- chlorophyllEbookWorking/chloroplast.html Chloroplast
    40. 40. Storage plastids Cazzonelli, C. & Pogson, B. 2010. Source to sink: regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in plants. Trends in plant science 15(5): 266-274.
    41. 41. Plastids may function in all of the following except A.photosynthesis B.fruit ripening C.food storage D.cell respiration Interactive question #4
    42. 42. Vacuole http://a mit1b.w ordpress. com/the- molecule s-of- life/10- the- living- cell- gallery/
    43. 43. “Organelles” with no membrane aka macromolecular assemblies “Organelle” Location Main features Function Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex Replisome (DNA polymerase) RNA polymerase Spliceosome Ribosome Fill this table out as we go along…
    44. 44. Ribosome • rRNAs • Proteins
    45. 45. Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic ribosomes Melnikov, S. et al. 2012. One core, two shells: bacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 19(6), 560- 567. Blue = rRNA Red = protein Light = conserved Dark = unique
    46. 46. Eukaryote cytoskeleton • Microtubules • Intermediate filaments • Actin filaments (microfilaments) • Motor proteins Modified from David Goodsell The Machinery of Life, Fig. 5.6
    47. 47. Bacterial cytoskeleton! The bacterial cytoskeleton. The only cytoskeletal element present in spherical bacteria such as S. aureus (top left) is the tubulin- like cell division protein FtsZ (green), which localizes in a ring at the onset of cell division, recruits other cell division proteins, and defines the division plane. Most rod-shaped bacteria (top right) also contain one or more actin-like MreB homologues (red), which exhibit helix-like localization patterns and are essential for cell width control. At the onset of cell division, the FtsZ ring forms and defines the division plane. C. crescentus, a vibrioid bacterium (bottom), contains a third cytoskeletal element, the intermediate filament-like crescentin (blue), which is required for cell curvature and localizes at the inner curvature of cells. Cabeen, M. & Jacobs-Wagner, C. 2007. Skin and bones: the bacterial cytoskeleton, cell wall, and cell morphogenesis. The Journal of cell biology, 179(3): 381-387.
    48. 48. Flagella Bacteria Eukaryotes
    49. 49. Cells outline • What is a cell? • Types of cells • Cytoplasm – Cytosol – Organelles – Cytoskeleton • Cell wall and ECM – Cell junctions
    50. 50. Bacterial ↑ Plant → FungalCell walls: not a wall—a mesh
    51. 51. Extracellular matrix: animals ↑ Human connective tissue with fibroblasts (darker)
    52. 52. Cell junctions: animals
    53. 53. Plasmodesmata: plants http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/pae/bota ny/crang/vtphloem/sieve1/mg0700.html
    54. 54. Interactive question #5 Plasmodesmata are most like which cell junction in animals? A.Tight junction B.Desmosome C.Gap junction
    55. 55. Cells outline • What is a cell? • Types of cells • Cytoplasm • Cell wall and ECM Next: • Membranes

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