Biological molecules
Lecture #2, Chapter 3
by John Cozza, Biology Dept.
(some material modified from Raven, Biology 9th
ed...
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Elements of life
(modified by JC)
Elements of life
Modified using info
from: Nielsen, F.
1984. Ultratrace
elements in
nutrition. Ann. Rev.
Nutr. 4:21-41
= f...
Interactive question #1
The relative amount
of iron, phosphorus,
and sodium required
in the human diet is
A.P > Fe > Na
B....
Essential nutrients
• All life vs.
some species
• Criteria
– Found in cells
– Deficiency
symptoms
– Biochemical
function
Interactive question #2
Fluoride (F ion) is a candidate
essential nutrient in humans.
When tiny amounts are consumed
in dr...
Elements of life: the big six
Element Symbol Atomic
number
Number of
covalent
bonds
Polarity of
bond with
carbon
Hydrogen ...
Carbon bonding
• C – C bonding
– Chains, branches, rings
– Single, double, triple
• Hydrocarbons: C – C & C – H
– Fossil f...
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Functional
groups
Ethane
(hydrocarbon)
Functional groups
Interactive question #3
Which functional
group(s) does this
molecule have?
A.Amino
B.Carboxyl
C.Hydroxyl
D.(A ) and (B)
E....
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Metabolism
food macromolecules
building
blocks
(monomers)
Small
compounds
(H2O, CO2,
NH3, etc.
structure
other biological ...
Synthesis and hydrolysis
(in anabolism) (in catabolism)
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Biomolecules table:
Fill in using your book and other sources
Macromolecule How to
distinguish
Building
blocks
Examples
(a...
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Sugars: monosaccharides
Isomers in sugars
Sugars: disaccharides
http://hasqu
estions.tumb
lr.com/
Interactive question #4
This reaction is an example of ______, and it
______ energy.
A.Dehydration synthesis; gives off
B....
Starch and cellulose
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Nucleotides
ATP molecule
N- base
phosphate groups
ribose sugar
Nucleic acids
https://www.idtdna.com/pag
es/decoded/decoded-
articles/core-
concepts/decoded/2011/03/1
6/unraveling-rna-th...
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Amino acid
properties
• 20 regular
• Nonpolar
• Polar uncharged
• Charged
• Aromatic
• Special function
Essential amino acids
• 8 out of 20
• Traditional diets
– Corn, wheat, squash
(high Met)
– Beans (high Lys)
– Potatoes (ba...
Amino acids and the peptide bond
Protein
primary
(1°)
structure
—COO-
Carboxyl end
Protein folding: 2° and 3° structure
2° structure
Hemoglobin
Protein structure: hemoglobin
Protein Data Bank
http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm
.do?
momID=41&evtc=Suggest&evta=Mol
David...
Biological molecules outline
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Carbohydra...
Fatty acids
http://online.santarosa.edu/presentation/page/?48535
(MONO)
polar end
Are fatty foods bad for you?
African oil palm
Elaeis guineensis
http://www.eufic.org/article/en/nutrition/fats/artid/The-importance-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids/
*
*
Sources in the...
Fats and heart disease
Estimated changes (% with 95% confidence intervals) in risk of coronary heart
disease (CHD) associa...
Interactive question #5
According to this
study, replacing
some saturated
or trans fat with
unsaturated fat
in the diet
re...
Trans fatty acids
“partially hydrogenated
vegetable oil” = trans fat =
BAD
cis unsaturated oils = GOOD
saturated fat = ?
h...
Look at the ingredients!
Fats and cholesterol
Hu, F. et al.
2001. Types of
Dietary Fat and
Risk of
Coronary Heart
Disease: A
Critical Review.
Am Co...
Fats and oils: triglycerides
• 3 saturated or
unsaturated fatty
acids + glycerol
• Energy storage
– Fats 9 Kcal/g
– Starch...
Steroids
cholesterol
sex hormones bile salts
metabolic
hormones
Phospholipids
Polar “head”
Prostaglandins
• Local hormones
• Pain &
inflammation
– Aspirin &
Ibuprofen
• Blood clotting
• Smooth muscle
contraction
–...
Terpenes
• Plant essential
oils
• Antioxidants
• Carotenes
– Vitamin A
• Insect
pheromones
http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/m
otm...
Biological molecules summary
• Elements of life
– Functional groups
• Overview of metabolism
• Macromolecules
– Structure
...
Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc
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  • Lect 2 biomolecules-bsc-1010_f13_jc

    1. 1. Biological molecules Lecture #2, Chapter 3 by John Cozza, Biology Dept. (some material modified from Raven, Biology 9th ed.)
    2. 2. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    3. 3. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    4. 4. Elements of life (modified by JC)
    5. 5. Elements of life Modified using info from: Nielsen, F. 1984. Ultratrace elements in nutrition. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 4:21-41 = form covalent bonds: biomolecules = monoatomic ions: osmosis & transport = trace elements*: specialized functions * There may be others!
    6. 6. Interactive question #1 The relative amount of iron, phosphorus, and sodium required in the human diet is A.P > Fe > Na B.P > Na > Fe C.Fe > P > Na D.Fe > Na > P E.Na > Fe > P
    7. 7. Essential nutrients • All life vs. some species • Criteria – Found in cells – Deficiency symptoms – Biochemical function
    8. 8. Interactive question #2 Fluoride (F ion) is a candidate essential nutrient in humans. When tiny amounts are consumed in drinking water, F binds to the tooth enamel and has been shown to reduce cavities. This information is sufficient to confirm F as an essential nutrient. A.True B.False
    9. 9. Elements of life: the big six Element Symbol Atomic number Number of covalent bonds Polarity of bond with carbon Hydrogen H 1 1 Non-polar Carbon C 6 4 Non-polar Nitrogen N 7 3 Polar Oxygen O 8 2 Polar Phosphorus P 15 3-5 Polar Sulfur S 16 2 Non-polar
    10. 10. Carbon bonding • C – C bonding – Chains, branches, rings – Single, double, triple • Hydrocarbons: C – C & C – H – Fossil fuels • Added functions: N, O, P, S Chlorophyll b
    11. 11. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    12. 12. Functional groups Ethane (hydrocarbon)
    13. 13. Functional groups
    14. 14. Interactive question #3 Which functional group(s) does this molecule have? A.Amino B.Carboxyl C.Hydroxyl D.(A ) and (B) E.(B) and (C)
    15. 15. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    16. 16. Metabolism food macromolecules building blocks (monomers) Small compounds (H2O, CO2, NH3, etc. structure other biological molecules (vitamins, defense, hormones, pigments, etc.) Catabolism (breakdown) Anabolism (synthesis) + energy costs energy
    17. 17. Synthesis and hydrolysis (in anabolism) (in catabolism)
    18. 18. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    19. 19. Biomolecules table: Fill in using your book and other sources Macromolecule How to distinguish Building blocks Examples (add more) Functions Carbohydrates disaccharides starch cellulose Nucleic acids ATP DNA RNA Proteins enzymes membrane collagen Lipids triglycerides phospholipids terpenes
    20. 20. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    21. 21. Sugars: monosaccharides
    22. 22. Isomers in sugars
    23. 23. Sugars: disaccharides http://hasqu estions.tumb lr.com/
    24. 24. Interactive question #4 This reaction is an example of ______, and it ______ energy. A.Dehydration synthesis; gives off B.Dehydration synthesis; requires C.Hydrolysis; gives off D.Hydrolysis; requires
    25. 25. Starch and cellulose
    26. 26. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    27. 27. Nucleotides ATP molecule N- base phosphate groups ribose sugar
    28. 28. Nucleic acids https://www.idtdna.com/pag es/decoded/decoded- articles/core- concepts/decoded/2011/03/1 6/unraveling-rna-the- importance-of-a-2'-hydroxyl http://en.wi kipedia.org/ wiki/DNA RNA DNA
    29. 29. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    30. 30. Amino acid properties • 20 regular • Nonpolar • Polar uncharged • Charged • Aromatic • Special function
    31. 31. Essential amino acids • 8 out of 20 • Traditional diets – Corn, wheat, squash (high Met) – Beans (high Lys) – Potatoes (balanced)
    32. 32. Amino acids and the peptide bond
    33. 33. Protein primary (1°) structure —COO- Carboxyl end
    34. 34. Protein folding: 2° and 3° structure 2° structure
    35. 35. Hemoglobin
    36. 36. Protein structure: hemoglobin Protein Data Bank http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/101/motm .do? momID=41&evtc=Suggest&evta=Mol David Goodsell http://news.rutgers.edu/focus/issue.20 08-04-09.1171885477/article.2008-04- 22.6247976497/articlepage.2008-04- 22.8524051197
    37. 37. Biological molecules outline • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Carbohydrates – Nucleic acids – Proteins – Lipids
    38. 38. Fatty acids http://online.santarosa.edu/presentation/page/?48535 (MONO) polar end
    39. 39. Are fatty foods bad for you? African oil palm Elaeis guineensis
    40. 40. http://www.eufic.org/article/en/nutrition/fats/artid/The-importance-of-omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acids/ * * Sources in the human diet: - Cold water fish (salmon, trout, tuna ,haddock, mackerel, sardines, cod) - Flaxseeds and flaxseed oil - Pumpkin seeds - Walnuts - Canola oil - Olive oil Omega-3 and -6 fatty acids: essential!
    41. 41. Fats and heart disease Estimated changes (% with 95% confidence intervals) in risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) associated with isocaloric dietary substitutions. Adjusted for coronary risk factors and total energy intake. Hu, F. et al. 2001. Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review. Am Coll Nutr 20 (1): 5-19 SC UC SU TU (2%) lower risk higher risk
    42. 42. Interactive question #5 According to this study, replacing some saturated or trans fat with unsaturated fat in the diet reduces the risk of heart disease. A.True B.False
    43. 43. Trans fatty acids “partially hydrogenated vegetable oil” = trans fat = BAD cis unsaturated oils = GOOD saturated fat = ? http://www.indiana.edu/~oso/Fat/trans.html
    44. 44. Look at the ingredients!
    45. 45. Fats and cholesterol Hu, F. et al. 2001. Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review. Am Coll Nutr 20 (1): 5-19 total “bad” “good” saturated trans long sat mono unsat omega-6 higher lower
    46. 46. Fats and oils: triglycerides • 3 saturated or unsaturated fatty acids + glycerol • Energy storage – Fats 9 Kcal/g – Starch 4 Kcal/g • Average person weighs 100 lbs. less because of fat! Saturated fat ______
    47. 47. Steroids cholesterol sex hormones bile salts metabolic hormones
    48. 48. Phospholipids Polar “head”
    49. 49. Prostaglandins • Local hormones • Pain & inflammation – Aspirin & Ibuprofen • Blood clotting • Smooth muscle contraction – Labor http://tonga.usp.edu/gmoyna/biochem341/lecture29.html
    50. 50. Terpenes • Plant essential oils • Antioxidants • Carotenes – Vitamin A • Insect pheromones http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/m otm/isoprene/isoprenejm.htm
    51. 51. Biological molecules summary • Elements of life – Functional groups • Overview of metabolism • Macromolecules – Structure – Function Next: • Cells

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