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  1. 1. The Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Sac Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Yeasts </li></ul><ul><li>Club Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Smuts and Rusts </li></ul><ul><li>Imperfect Fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiotic Relationships </li></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  3. 3. Characteristics of the Fungi <ul><li>Kingdom Fungi contains the fungi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly multicellular eukaryotes that share a common mode of nutrition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells release digestive enzymes and then absorb resultant nutrient molecules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most are saprotrophic decomposers. Some are parasitic. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several have mutualistic relationship. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Structure of Fungi <ul><li>Yeasts are best known example of unicellular fungi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body ( thallus ) of most fungi is multicellular mycelium . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network of hyphae give the mycelium a large surface area per unit volume. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorption of nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  5. 5. Mycelium of Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  6. 6. Structure of Fungi <ul><li>Fungal cells are quite different from plant cells. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack chloroplasts and have a cell wall containing chitin and not cellulose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy reserve is glycogen, not starch. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonmotile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Septate fungi have cross walls in their hyphae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nonseptate fungi are multinucleated. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  7. 7. Reproduction of Fungi <ul><li>Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Fungal sexual reproduction involves three stages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Haploid Hyphae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dikaryotic Stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diploid Zygote- undergoes meiosis then form spores </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  8. 8. Reproduction of Fungi <ul><li>During sexual reproduction , hyphae from two different mating types fuse. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyphae that contains paired haploid nuclei is said to be dikaryotic . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fungal spores germinate directly into haploid hyphae without embryological development. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction usually involves the production of spores , and fragmentation of mycelium. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unicellular yeasts reproduce by budding . </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  9. 9. Evolution of Fungi <ul><li>Has been suggested fungi evolved from red algae because both fungi and red algae lack flagella in all stages of the life cycle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zygospore Fungi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(phylum Zygomycota) are mainly saprotrophs living off animal and plant remains. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Produce spores with sporangia. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Name refers to the zygospore seen during sexual reproduction. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Black bread mold </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Black Bread Mold ( Rhizopus stolonifer ) Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  11. 11. Sac Fungi <ul><li>Most sac fungi (phylum Ascomycota) are saprotrophs that digest resistant materials containing cellulose, lignin, or collagen. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are composed of septate hyphae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ascus refers to the fingerlike sac that develops during sexual reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asci usually surrounded and protected by sterile hyphae within an asocarp . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asexual reproduction involves production of conidiospores . </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  12. 12. Sac Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  13. 13. Yeasts <ul><li>Term yeasts is generally applied to unicellular fungi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many are ascomycetes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Budding is common form of asexual reproduction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual reproduction results in the formation of asci and ascospores. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When some yeast ferment, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  14. 14. Yeast Cells Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  15. 15. Club Fungi <ul><li>Club fungi (phylum Basidomycota) include mushrooms and bracket fungi. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These are fruiting bodies called basidiocarps . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain basidia , club-shaped structures that produce basidiospores. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually reproduce sexually. </li></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  16. 16. Club Fungi Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  17. 17. Smuts and Rusts <ul><li>Smuts and rusts are club fungi that parasitize cereal crops. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great economic importance because of annual crop losses. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do not form basidiocarps. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life cycle often requires two different plant hosts to complete the cycle. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  18. 18. Smuts and Rusts Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  19. 19. Imperfect Fungi <ul><li>Imperfect fungi (phylum Deuteromycota) always reproduce asexually by forming conidiospores. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced at tips of modified aerial hyphae. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as imperfect in the sense that a sexual stage has not yet been observed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Penicillium - Penicillin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aspergillus - Soy sauce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Candida albicans - Yeast infections </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  20. 20. Penicillium Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  21. 21. Symbiotic Relationships <ul><li>Lichens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Association between a fungus and a cyanobacterium or green alga. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized fungal hyphae penetrate photosynthetic cells and transfer nutrients directly to the fungus. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can live in areas of extreme conditions and contribute to soil formation. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  22. 22. Lichen Morphology Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.
  23. 23. Mycorrhizas <ul><li>Mycorrhizas are mutualistic relationships between soil fungi and the roots of most plants. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help plants acquire mineral nutrients. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Give plant greater absorptive surface. </li></ul></ul></ul>Mader: Biology 8 th Ed.