AITPM 2014
Trend and Impact Analysis of Non-Motorised Public Transport
Restriction Schemes in a Developing City
Dr. Mamun ...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 2
OVERVIEW
Introduction
NMPT Status Review
Restriction schemes for NMPT
Impacts of...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 3
INTRODUCTION
 Non Motorized Transport (NMT) is a
key component of urban transpo...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 4
In many cities of developing countries
& some cities in developed countries,
NMT...
LOCATION
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 6
 Conceptual Framework
WHAT IS NMPT?
• NMPT is in use for passenger and
freight ...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 7
NMPT : SAME FUNCTION, DIFFERENT TYPES
Rickshaw, Bangladesh Becak, Indonesia Tris...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 8
NMPT Growth in Dhaka
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 9
NMPT SITUATION IN DHAKA: MULTI-SECTOR ROLE
32
28
40
0 20 40 60
1992
1994
2005
Pe...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 10
RESTRICTION SCHEMES
Recent history is negative policy
position
 NMPT licensing...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 11
 Policies restricting/banning NMPT have received much criticism
• ‘Post-NMPT b...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 12
IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES
 License control impact analysis
42.67%
Unli...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 13
IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES
 Analysing physical restriction
 Alternativ...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 14
• Shortest path search examined, between a fixed origin-
destination pair,
• co...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 15
 Customized network scenarios
NMPT treatment corridor Trip path Trip points
Co...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 16
 Location choice
• The origin-destination (O-D) zones selected are Dhanmondi -...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 17
Node
Shortest path withg alternative routeShortest path without restrictions
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 18
 The Findings
NMPT treatment
corridor
Trip path Trip points
Shortest travel
di...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 19
IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES
 Other implications
 Road space
Year Attrib...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 20
IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES
 Other implications
 Mode shift
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 21
CONCLUSION
 Non Motorized Public Transport (NMPT) has established itself
‘unde...
Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 22
Thank You
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Mamun Rahman

  1. 1. AITPM 2014 Trend and Impact Analysis of Non-Motorised Public Transport Restriction Schemes in a Developing City Dr. Mamun Rahman Adelaide, South Australia 121-15 August , 2014
  2. 2. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 2 OVERVIEW Introduction NMPT Status Review Restriction schemes for NMPT Impacts of NMPT management schemes Conclusion
  3. 3. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 3 INTRODUCTION  Non Motorized Transport (NMT) is a key component of urban transport systems  In cities in developed countries, we usually think of NMT as walk & bicycle = private NMT  The NMT form that is the focus of this study is distinctly different in terms of its market coverage, service type and operational characteristics
  4. 4. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 4 In many cities of developing countries & some cities in developed countries, NMT serves as public transport = Non Motorized Public Transport (NMPT) This study is intended to investigate • Existing status of NMPT in transport system • Current policy practice towards NMPT development • Implication of NMPT management schemes The case study is Dhaka, capital city of Bangladesh
  5. 5. LOCATION
  6. 6. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 6  Conceptual Framework WHAT IS NMPT? • NMPT is in use for passenger and freight transport in many developing & some developed country cities. • Common typologies include • rickshaw (Bangladesh, India) • trishaw (China, Srilanka) • cyclos (Cambodia, Vietnam) • becak (Indonesia) • pedicab (UK, USA, Australia, New Zealand) • bicitaxi (Columbia, Cuba) • The mode is an NMT Taxi
  7. 7. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 7 NMPT : SAME FUNCTION, DIFFERENT TYPES Rickshaw, Bangladesh Becak, Indonesia Trishaw, China Pedicab, USABicitaxi, Mexico Velotaxi, Germany
  8. 8. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 8 NMPT Growth in Dhaka
  9. 9. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 9 NMPT SITUATION IN DHAKA: MULTI-SECTOR ROLE 32 28 40 0 20 40 60 1992 1994 2005 Percentage share Year Female travelling alone or accompanying children 155 1910 3720 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 1994 2005 2010 Milliontaka Year Revenue 18 30 50 0 20 40 60 1994 2005 2011 Percentage share of NMPT industry in total Dhaka employment sector Year Empoyment by NMPT industry 13 22 6 31 40 46 54 38 48 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1998 2005 2010 Share(%) Year Non-transit* Transit^ NMPT^^
  10. 10. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 10 RESTRICTION SCHEMES Recent history is negative policy position  NMPT licensing restriction has been on- going since 1952.  NMPT physical ban commenced in 1980  High import duty on spare parts since 1987  Strong initiatives towards NMPT physical banning resumed in 2002, as part of Dhaka Urban Transport Project Latest restrictions in March 2011
  11. 11. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 11  Policies restricting/banning NMPT have received much criticism • ‘Post-NMPT ban’ impact assessment reports (by Bangladesh Government and World Bank) have highlighted • ad hoc planning and implementation • marginal benefit to motorised traffic but negative impact to public transport users (both motorised and non-motorised) • large negative socio-economic impact of ban on users and operators • reduced equity in access to transport by NMPT users
  12. 12. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 12 IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES  License control impact analysis 42.67% Unlicensed NMPT share 65.6% 71.33% 82.8% 92.18%
  13. 13. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 13 IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES  Analysing physical restriction  Alternative route analysis  The Approach • Location based access measures • Comparison of possible changes in accessibility and connectivity of NMPT due to network restriction; • Spatial attribute of distance & temporal attribute of travel time is adopted as impedance measure • Interactive analytical tools of VISUM, ‘shortest path search’ used.
  14. 14. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 14 • Shortest path search examined, between a fixed origin- destination pair, • comparative trip distance ( direct distance) variability & • associated travel time variability • The performance tests were conducted with free flow network condition and congested network condition. • The link & transport system (NMPT) speed under free flow is assumed as 10kph. • The sample test network was built using NMPT restriction condition currently prevailing in Dhaka, with VISUM as a tool.
  15. 15. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 15  Customized network scenarios NMPT treatment corridor Trip path Trip points Corridor 2 (Mirpur Road) Dhanmondi Internal Roads- Mirpur Road-Azimpur Road –Abdul Gani Road Dhanmondi Road 12/A to BUET ,Palashi Alternative NMPT route (Mirpur side Road) Dhanmondi Internal Roads- Mirpur Side Road-New Market Green Market Road- Pilkhana Road -Azimpur Road –Abdul Gani Road Dhanmondi Road 12/A to BUET ,Palashi
  16. 16. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 16  Location choice • The origin-destination (O-D) zones selected are Dhanmondi - a popular residential area with expanding mixed use(Zone 4) and Palashi - an institutional area with two major universities, number of schools and small retail centres (Zone 6) • A large volume of trips are made between these two zones , mainly education trips, shopping trips, office trips and home trips. • This network part is chosen for NMPT performance test due to the location significance of the zones, strong inter-zonal travel demand and the existence of the only physically segregated MT-NMPT link on an otherwise NMPT restricted major corridor.
  17. 17. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 17 Node Shortest path withg alternative routeShortest path without restrictions
  18. 18. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 18  The Findings NMPT treatment corridor Trip path Trip points Shortest travel distance Change Corridor 2 (Mirpur Road) Dhanmondi Internal Roads- Mirpur Road- Azimpur Road –Abdul Gani Road Dhanmondi Road 12/A to BUET ,Palashi 5.275 Alternative NMPT route (Mirpur side Road) Dhanmondi Internal Roads- Mirpur Side Road-New Market Green Market Road- Pilkhana Road - Azimpur Road –Abdul Gani Road Dhanmondi Road 12/A to BUET ,Palashi 7.353 +39%
  19. 19. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 19 IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES  Other implications  Road space Year Attribute Car ( percent) Buses ( percent) NMPT ( percent) 2000 % Space on the Main Road Link 29.9 * 5.2 43.5 2000 % Passenger on the Main Road Link 13.6 37.4 30.6 2005 % Space on the Main Road 54.2* 21.3 0.0 2005 % Passengers on the Main Road Link 12.5 79.9 0.0
  20. 20. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 20 IMPACT ON NMPT MANAGEMENT SCHEMES  Other implications  Mode shift
  21. 21. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 21 CONCLUSION  Non Motorized Public Transport (NMPT) has established itself ‘under the radar’  It is high time decide on the appropriate future nature and role definition for this transport system  For many developing country cities  NMPT mode is dominant  Proper integrated planning approach is required for sustainable management  For developed country cities ( Europe, North America and Australia)  Pedicab is mostly a novelty  Potential for substantial growth and expansion  Assess the possible role and operation definition  Learn from the concerns of developing country cities  Act in accordance to ensure synchronized coexistence in future
  22. 22. Mamun Rahman I August 12-15 2014 I Page 22 Thank You

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