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Achieving Exemplary Walking and Cycling Outcomes in a Major Road Project


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Fay Patterson

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Achieving Exemplary Walking and Cycling Outcomes in a Major Road Project

  1. 1. Achieving Exemplary Walking and Cycling Outcomes in a Major Road Project Fay Patterson
  2. 2. As if the project were a walking/ cycling/ PT plan for the precinct: comprehensive, convenient, safe walking and cycling networks with a focus on amenity AITPM Excellence Award for Transport Planning (2015); Janet Brash Memorial Award as the most outstanding of the three excellence award winners ‘Exemplary’
  3. 3. • Upgrading South Road as part of a 78km long, high- speed, non-stop transport corridor • Darlington precinct: one of the most complex sections of the corridor ($625 million project in itself) • Obvious potential for severance impacts • NB ‘Value review’ after this project was completed!  How and why the transport planning achieved exemplary results
  4. 4. REQUIRED: DESIRABLE: etc walking cycling etc
  5. 5. Strategic context: freight (and cars)
  6. 6. Strategic context: active transport
  7. 7. Federal, state and local governments all strongly support infrastructure that encourages walking, cycling and public transport over freight (which is above private car use) • These are the governments’ expressed desires, intentions and priorities, and the community's expectation Transport planning: • walking and cycling are not modes to be considered after the traffic elements are finalised • a holistic, societal view of the infrastructure needed for the precinct to function well
  8. 8. Relevant Technical Standards • Often: itemise a selection from design standards  Applying standards after planning has occurred won’t create a good environment for walking/ cycling 5 key attributes for walking: • connected – access to key destinations • comfortable – width, surfaces, DDA • convenient – crossings easy, safe, no delay • convivial – interesting, clean, free from threat • conspicuous – clearly signed, published in local maps 6 key needs of cyclists: • space to ride • a smooth surface, free of debris • speed maintenance • appropriate sight lines to the path surface • connectivity • information
  9. 9. • Austroads' Guide Information for Pedestrian Facilities • Research: how to encourage more cycling, with reference to Austroads guidelines • Cross-sector factors: design quality and wider economic benefit of transport projects; pedestrians and cyclists as consumers  Compatible with future-proofing (e.g. modelling)  Challenged perceptions, opened horizons re: standards and guidelines Emerging Technical Agenda
  10. 10. Existing Conditions Wide footpaths, DDA compliant ramps, crossings at signals, bike lanes, good bus stop spacing, modern bus shelters…  Technical standards can be met and even exceeded, but resulting conditions are still not good or safe Not enough that facilities exist – user experience? Old, retro-fitted, discontinuous, disconnected, inconvenient, unpleasant, unmaintained, impinged upon (+ unsafe) • crossing arterial roads a particular issue • max. delays 120-143s ≈ 140-170m (cycle), 500-600m (walk) • cycle crashes on Sturt Road, despite low levels of use • all ped crashes except 1: crossing without signal control, within 100m of a bus stop
  11. 11. Future Conditions Ped projections (Uni, TAFE): • 4,200 crossing South Rd (cf 1,700 now) • 820 more crossing Sturt Rd east of Main South Rd • 3,000 crossing Sturt Rd west of Main South Rd
  12. 12. • Entire study team (incl. traffic modellers, designer drafters, economic analysts) understood/ internalised transport planning concepts and aims • Capacity to identify opportunities and impacts from the road design base as it changed • Delivering goals, not infrastructure  Skilled professionals empowered to use talents in a dynamic design process Design Development
  13. 13. Main Design Elements* • Overpass FMC to Laffer’s Triangle: no delay, -1 crossing, upgrade entry to FMC, cyclists aligned to (safe) Uni route, retain potential energy; ped crossing of Sturt Rd (long-term to rwy station), part of Greenway, shade trees, continuous footpath treatment • Infrastructure moved off footpaths • Improved connection to Patrick Jonker Bikeway • Intersection improvements, Sturt Road/ University Drive • Bike lanes, Marion Rd and Sturt Rd • Options for PT interchange * Before the ‘value review’ and train extension, so not what is now proposed
  14. 14. Main Design Elements* • Separated walking/ cycling paths along Main South Road, with trees, landscaping (NB Jensen Planning + Design) – European design for bikes re: side street crossings • Bus stops relocated to give ped access (+ opposite each other) • PAC Sturt Rd for Sturt Linear Path + connected into Laffer’s Triangle and the Greenway • Two overpass crossings of Main South Road into Tonsley precinct (+ one north, over Daws Rd) – also used to provide DDA access to bus stops • Cyclist underpass at Ayliffe’s Road • Any slip lanes that couldn’t be justified removed • Paths as alternatives to long cycle stand-up lanes (Sturt Rd)
  15. 15. Failures • Benefit-Cost for active transport? • Problem: forecasting usage • Since then: • BCR for av. cycle project, no connectivity = 3.5:1* • BCR for good cycle project = ! (over 30:1 for some) • with strategic network development + e-bike scheme + peds + Uni + social/eco indicators, 15:1 to 20:1 is feasible –> why European infra is so good! $615 m $10 m 1:1 3.5:1 $615 m $35 m $650 m $610 m $15 m 1:1 10:1 $610 m $150 m $760 m $600 m $25 m 0.9:1 15:1 $540 m $375 m $915 m (>>1:1) * The average BCR for cycling projects has been found to be 14:1 to 15:1, but this tends to be skewed by a few projects with very high BCR. 3.5:1 is the ‘most common’ (modal) value.
  16. 16. • Shared use paths • should be option of last resort where pedestrian and cyclist numbers are expected to be high • wide overpass to FMC allowed for possible future conversion • PT interchange • original layout based on bus servicing with minimal facilities for passengers • the project identified a number of options based on passengers but the original layout was enforced • ‘Value review’ – transport planning approach? Failures
  17. 17. • ‘Up and over’ passes • underpasses can be built that do not create security issues • less distance (= climb/descent) to get clearance under than over a road = less effort • for cyclists, underpasses preserve energy • Later ‘value review’ didn’t incorporate this transport planning approach: walking/ cycling results unknown – detail vital, not obvious at consultation level Failures
  18. 18. Dutch-style intersection treatment • Used to improve safety by providing protection and improving sight-lines • Hard to fit, expensive, difficult to design? • No. If you have enough room for a bike lane, you have enough room for a minimal form of this treatment, at low cost  See handout  Darwin City Council to install the first in Australia (at greater than minimal design)
  19. 19. 90 degree angle parking • AS2890.5 On-street parking –> AS 2890.1 (off-street) • AS2890.1 Appendix B clause B4.4: field study • park cars at end of bays (as if bays are 0.5m shorter for the 85th %ile car/ 0.2m for the 99th %ile) • reduce aisle width until can park in one manoeuvre – both front-in and reverse-in (implications?) • add 0.6m (but don’t use clearances in turning templates in low speed situations, so why here?)  Does this really give an aisle width that must always be adhered to, or are there situations in which it could/ should be relaxed?  Handout: finding space for cyclists (includes the above)