Overexpression of PIP2;5 Aquaporin Alleviates Effects of Low Root Temperature on Cell Hydraulic Conductivity and Growth in Arabidopsis Proponents: Seong Hee Lee Gap Chae Chung Ji Young Jang Sung Ju Ahn Janusz J. Zwiazek Julius Manolong Ric Solijon
• Low soil temperature restricts the growth and yield of plants.• Growth reduction is accompanied by reduction of water uptake.• not surprising that low temperature tolerance has been often correlated with drought resistance.
• Reduced water flux at low temperatures is thought to occur due to higher water viscosity and the inhibition of transmembrane water transport.• The ability of plants to maintain the transmembrane waterflow may be among the key factors linked to chilling tolerance.
• Transmembrane water flow is regulated by aquaporins.4 subfamilies:1. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs)2. Tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs)3. Nodulin-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs)4. Intrinsic proteins
• Problems:1. the effects of low temperature on aquaporin expression are not always clear, with down- regulation of some aquaporins.2. less is known about the effects of lowtemperature on aquaporin gating, whichregulates water flux through proteinconformational changes
Regulation of aquaporins:1. Phosphorylation2. Dephosphorylation3. Cytoplasmic pH4. Divalent cations
• Use of Arabidopsis with overexpressed PIP1;4 and PIP2;5• Subjected Arabidopsis roots to low temperature (10°C) whereas the shoots of plants were exposed to high transpirational demand conditions (23°C/21°C day/night temperatures).• Used several inhibitors of protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation
HYPOTHESES (1) the impact of low temperature on rootwater transport involves aquaporin gatingthrough the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes, and(2) Overexpression of the low-temperature-responsive aquaporins PIP1;4 and PIP2;5 wouldhelp the plants maintain high Lp values and, inconsequence, high growth rates when theirroots are exposed to low temperature.
Effects of Low Root Temperature on Relative Growth Rates: Figure 1. Shoot (A) and root (B) relative growth rates in wild-type Arabidopsis plants and in plants overexpressing PIP1;4 and PIP2;5.
Effects of Low Temperature on T1/2 and Lp Figure 3. Typical results of descending and ascending temperature effects on T1/2 in individual cortical cells of Arabidopsis roots.
Effects of Ca(NO3)2, LaCl3, and Protein PhosphataseInhibitors on Lp• 1. 1 mM LaCl3 (calcium channel blocker) in the wild-type plants at 25°C resulted in an over 2-fold decrease in Lp• The addition of 5 mM Ca(NO3)2at 25°C showed no effect on Lp• 5 mM Ca(NO3)2 was added at 10°C, the value of Lp was increased almost to the same level as the one measured at 25°C
• 1 mM Na3VO4 and 75 mM okadaic acid increased Lp when added to roots at 10°C Figure 4. Effect of temperature and exogenous treatments on Lp. A, Effects of descending root temperatures (25°C, 20°C, 15°C, and 10°C) followed by the ascending root temperature of 25°C on Lp. B, Lp values in roots of plants subjected to 10°C for 1 and 5 d and in roots exposed to 25°C.
Activation Energy for Root Water TransportActivation energy (Ea) for Lp was 63 kJ mol21 in thewild-type plants (Table III). In both PIP overexpressionplants, Ea values for Lp were below 10 kJ mol-1
Relative Expression Profiles of the 13 PIP Genes inArabidopsis Exposed to Low-Temperature Stresses Figure 5. Analyses of PIP expression. A, Relative expression profile of the 13 PIP genes in roots of 3- week-old wild-type Arabidopsis seedlings at a root temperature of 23°C.
• the reduction of Lp in the wild-type plants at 10°C was reversed to as much as 70% of the preexposure level by the addition of 5 mM Ca(NO3)2 and protein phosphatase inhibitors (75 nM okadaic acid and 1 mM Na3VO4),• Okadaic acid and vanadate are commonly used as inhibitors of protein phosphorylation (Cohen and Cohen, 1989; Gordon, 1991).
• calcium channel blocker,1 mM LaCl3, significantly inhibited Lp at 25°C, further supporting the notion that aquaporin gating is linkedto the calcium signal• Some PIPS and tonoplast intrinsic preoteins are insensitive to mercury but many are blocked.
• Overexpression of aquaporins in plants alleviates the effect of mercury on Lp, likely because the inhibition of water transport by mercury is only partial and there are more water-transporting channels present in the PIP-overexpressing plants.• PIP1;4 and PIP2;5 do not have Cys-189, which is known to be present in many mercury- sensitive aquaporins.
• In higher concentrations, mercury can also inhibit water transport by acting as a nonspecific metabolic inhibitor (Wan and Zwiazek, 1999; Zhang and Tyerman, 1999).• the inhibition of Lp was less effective in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PIP1;4 and PIP2;5 compared with the wild-type plants, reflecting the increased aquaporin abundance and the watertransporting functionality of both PIPs.
• wild-type plants demonstrate a high dependency of cell water transport on temperature in Arabidopsis roots.• the 7- to 9-fold lower Ea values measured in PIP1;4 and PIP2;5 overexpression lines provide strong evidence for the importance of these proteins in cell water transport at low temperature.
Table 4. Activation energy differencess Ea (kJ mol-1) Water across membrane thru less than 25 channels Water across the lipid bilayer 46–63 Higher plants 18 to 48 Tradescantia virginiana 186 Cucumber root cortical cells 100 Nicotiana tabacum 57
• Overexpression of PIP1;4 and PIP2;5 in Arabidopsis was effective in alleviating the short-term effects of low root temperature on Lp in root cells.• But alleviation was no longer present after 5 d of root exposure to 10°C in plants overexpressing PIP1;4
• The temperature sensitivity of cell water transport in Arabidopsis roots : -the reductions in shoot and root growthrates in the wild-type and PIP1;4-overexpressingplants exposed to 10°C root temperature for 5days.• But no effects on PIP2;5
• The inhibition of Lp by low temperature could be partially prevented by the application of Ca(NO3)2 and by protein phosphatase inhibitors• low temperature sensitivity of root water transport may be connected to the aquaporin phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes.
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