Genetic Diversity Cheetah  ( Acinonyx jubatus )
What is Genetic Diversity? <ul><li>refers to any variation in the nucleotides, genes, chromosomes, or whole genomes of org...
Diversity <ul><li>Genetic differentiation within species occurs as a result of sexual reproduction causing changes in the ...
Cheetah <ul><li>About 10,000-12,500 cheetahs are estimated to remain in 24 to 26 African countries and less than 100 anima...
Cheetah <ul><li>They produce 1 - 5 cubs. The average gestation period is about 91 - 95 days.   </li></ul><ul><li>The avera...
Status: Endangered <ul><li>Cheetahs are endangered in most parts of Africa. They are probably near extinction in Asia and ...
Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>10,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>-climate changes - all but one species of the cheetah,  ...
Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>Geneticists found that cheetahs exhibit much lower levels of variation than other mammals  ...
Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>Inbreeding results to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. low survivorship </li></ul><ul><li>2. poor sper...
Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>1985, Stephen O’Brien and colleagues at the National Cancer Institute in Maryland reported ...
Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>Mid-1980s indicated that cheetahs have virtually no MHC variation. </li></ul><ul><li>1990′s...
 
Conservation Efforts <ul><li>Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF):   </li></ul><ul><li>-most prominent and founded in 1990 by D...
<ul><li>Rebecca Klein 2001   </li></ul><ul><li>Cheetah Conservation Botswana (CCB) cultivates a conservation ethic among f...
<ul><li>Artificial inseminating zoo cheetahs with cryopreserved sperm from cheetahs in Namibia to improve the genetics of ...
How to sustain Cheetah
How to sustain Cheetah? <ul><li>1. Avoid inbreeding of the two most related species. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Proper education...
<ul><li>The cheetah's survival depends on people and our ability to manage the wild population and protect its habitat.  <...
<ul><li>Genetic diversity is, therefore, a key component for conservation efforts associated with population management   ...
References <ul><li>Reference:  Castro-Prieto A, Wachter B, & Sommer S (2010). Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in...
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Cheetah (genetic diversity)

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Cheetah (genetic diversity)

  1. 1. Genetic Diversity Cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus )
  2. 2. What is Genetic Diversity? <ul><li>refers to any variation in the nucleotides, genes, chromosomes, or whole genomes of organisms (Ian Harrison et.al.) </li></ul><ul><li>is the sum of genetic information contained in the genes of individual plants, animals, and micro-organisms . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 clix@sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation .
  3. 3. Diversity <ul><li>Genetic differentiation within species occurs as a result of sexual reproduction causing changes in the DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>  in a population means that the population contains most of the possible alleles (alternate sets of plans) for a particular gene locus rather evenly distributed throughout the population </li></ul>
  4. 4. Cheetah <ul><li>About 10,000-12,500 cheetahs are estimated to remain in 24 to 26 African countries and less than 100 animals in Iran. Namibia has the world's largest number of free-ranging cheetahs with about 3,000 animals.   </li></ul><ul><li>Cheetahs now mostly populate Africa and sparsely distributed in Asia and the Middle East. They live on most parts of Africa except rainforests. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cheetah <ul><li>They produce 1 - 5 cubs. The average gestation period is about 91 - 95 days. </li></ul><ul><li>The average life span is 12 years in the wild, and 17 years in captivity. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Status: Endangered <ul><li>Cheetahs are endangered in most parts of Africa. They are probably near extinction in Asia and the Middle East.  </li></ul><ul><li>They are threatened by the loss of habitat and fur trade </li></ul><ul><li>people also kill them because they are considered a pest. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>10,000 years ago </li></ul><ul><li>-climate changes - all but one species of the cheetah, jubatus , became extinct. </li></ul><ul><li>-close relatives were forced to breed, and the cheetah became genetically inbred. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes, which are composed of DNA, store the information that an individual inherits from his or her parents. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>Geneticists found that cheetahs exhibit much lower levels of variation than other mammals </li></ul><ul><li>Most species=80% same genes </li></ul><ul><li>Cheetahs=99% same genes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>Inbreeding results to: </li></ul><ul><li>1. low survivorship </li></ul><ul><li>2. poor sperm quality </li></ul><ul><li>3. greater susceptibility to diseases like viruses. </li></ul><ul><li>But…. </li></ul><ul><li>The real survival problems faced by cheetahs, they say, are more of the human created sort - loss of habitat and loss of prey.( Sonal Pance . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>1985, Stephen O’Brien and colleagues at the National Cancer Institute in Maryland reported extremely low levels of genetic variation in cheetahs. </li></ul><ul><li>skin grafts from one animal were not rejected by another, a sign that their immune systems are genetically identical. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cheetah Gene Diversity <ul><li>Mid-1980s indicated that cheetahs have virtually no MHC variation. </li></ul><ul><li>1990′s, field studies questioned whether the cheetah’s survival in the wild was being compromised by their lack of genetic variation. </li></ul><ul><li>1994, Caro and Laurenson pointed that Human threats are the main cause. </li></ul><ul><li>Aines Castro-Prieto, Simone Sommer and colleagues,different HMC alleles still low. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Conservation Efforts <ul><li>Cheetah Conservation Fund (CCF): </li></ul><ul><li>-most prominent and founded in 1990 by Dr Laurie Marker. </li></ul><ul><li>-Based in Namibia, Africa </li></ul><ul><li>-conducting a great deal of scientific research over the past couple of decades </li></ul><ul><li>-educated farmers and locals and played a role in lowering the incidence of man-animal conflict and stabilizing the big cat's population in that part of the world </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Rebecca Klein 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Cheetah Conservation Botswana (CCB) cultivates a conservation ethic among farmers in Botswana while contributing important scientific data to the international cheetah conservation effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrating predator-proof farming techniques in local workshops, live theater and video production, CCB empowers farmers to secure their livelihoods while sharing land with cheetahs. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Artificial inseminating zoo cheetahs with cryopreserved sperm from cheetahs in Namibia to improve the genetics of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the breeding and management of zoo animals to increase cub production and improved cub survival rates </li></ul><ul><li>Developing a clear understanding of the relationship between cheetah age and subsequent reproductive ability </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating issues associated with stresses of zoos and their association with reproduction and health </li></ul>
  15. 16. How to sustain Cheetah
  16. 17. How to sustain Cheetah? <ul><li>1. Avoid inbreeding of the two most related species. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Proper education to all the farmers to avoid destruction on Cheetahs’ habitats . </li></ul><ul><li>3. providing a clean environment for the cheetahs. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Giving the equal chances to the cheetahs to mingle with all the members of the group for mating. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Monitoring of the Cheetah’s natural habitat. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The cheetah's survival depends on people and our ability to manage the wild population and protect its habitat. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Genetic diversity is, therefore, a key component for conservation efforts associated with population management   ( Andayani  et al. , 2001 ) </li></ul>
  19. 20. References <ul><li>Reference:  Castro-Prieto A, Wachter B, & Sommer S (2010). Cheetah paradigm revisited: MHC diversity in the world’s largest free-ranging population.  Molecular biology and evolution  PMID:  21183613 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cheetah.org/?nd=intro_to_the_cheetah </li></ul><ul><li>http://wildlifeconservationnetwork.org/wildlife/cheetahbotswana.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://nationalzoo.si.edu/SCBI/endangeredspecies/cheetah/default.cfm </li></ul>Copyright 2008 PresentationFx.com | Redistribution Prohibited | Image © 2008 clix@sxc.hu | This text section may be deleted for presentation .

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