Linguistics Initially used in the middle of 19th century to difference a newer approach to the study of language with then developing and traditional approach of philology Franz Boas, in adition was the first to apply the comparative method to study native american languages Currently linguistics have new branches it have been developed in combination with other disciplnes that are Sociolinguistics, phycolinguistics, computational linguistics, anthropological linguistics, socio ethnic linguistics, aplied linguistics,
phonology Contrastrive analisis stand a for appliedcontrastive studies deal with the practical consequencesof differences betwen contrasted languages for teachingpurposesACS theoretical linguistic componet – TCS/(theoreticalcontrastive studies) can be performed on the level ofphonology, phonology, lexicon, syntax,semantics,pragmatics,texluiguisticsStudy contrast or comparison of two or more languagesstructures whose subject matter is more specificComparative linguistics is concerned whit comparinglanguages in order to establish their historical relatedness.
Relevant and rewarding study area for certain tipes ofstudentsStudents of applied linguistics to teach a foreignlanguageStudents from language specific descriptive CLcourses Contrastive linguistic syllabus Lexis(language-terminology;terms expresions) Sound(utterances) Sintax(grammar, sentence,structure,languagerules)
Contyrastive analysis Sound systems involve phonological or phonetic contrast Contrastive pragmatics The study of the ability of natural language speakers to comunicate more than that is explicity stated Deals whit the ways we reach our goal in comunication Methodology The phonological systems migth be donein isolated or contextualized parameters Other languages wich are not derived from the same ancestor may not use the contrastive method. It becomes impracticable
New trends Althougth lado (1957)included a comparison of cultures studies focused on what has been described as microlinguistics Contrastive analisys Role of corpora Is a body of texts,utterances, or other specimens considered more or less representative It supplies references to description of linguistic phenomenain the students mother tongue The contrast identified should be categorized and ranked in strength reflecting relative learning difficulty
Language The study spotligth of linguistics is language.concept on it have been stated acording to different points of viewof researches “language is the system of human comunication wich consist of the structured arrangement of sounds or their written representation into larger units e.g.morphemes words, sentences, utterances”Richards(1999)“language is an arbitrary structured system of utterances- sound, gestures,signs, and movements, written symbols, morphemes, words and sentences used for human comunication”
Ethnology list sbout 6.912 living languages in the world up to 2005 language speakers World area Number percent percent Asia 2.269 32.8% 61% Africa 2.092 30.3% 11.8% Pacific 1.310 19% 0.1% Americas 1002 14.5% 0.8% Europe 239 3.5% 26.3% totals 6.912 100% 100%
Language with over 100millon speakerslanguages Speakers (in millons) 1st language 2nd language TotalMandarin 873 178 1.051Hindi/ urdu 366 224 590English 340 168 508Arabic 206 246 452Spanish 322 60 382Russian 145 110 255Bengali 171 34 211Portuguese 177 15 192Indonesian 23 140 163German 95 28 123Japanese 122 1 123french 65 50 115These languages are spoken by over 4,041,000,000 people or 61% of the current world population
Languages by Secondary speakers Primary speakernumber of speakers French populationChinesse Mandarin EnglishSpanish Russian Chinesse Portuguese EnglishEnglish Arabic SpanishBengali Russian SpanishHindi/urdu French Chinese Hindi/urduArabic German ArabicPortuguese japanese PortugueseRussian Bengali japaneseJapanese germangermanfrench
People communicate in endless way dueto the vast places they live in andaccordingly to their lifestyles.The languages are clasificated intoverbal-spokenwritten or symbolic languageIdeografic written
Sound Syllabic Expresingwritten written but syllable by syllabe Alphabetic Letters usesymbolic written alphabetic symbols UseIdiograms idiograms symbols (chinese)
An inconsistenciy might be related toincompatibility which is the cuality or stateof being inconsistence; discosdant inrespect to action such contrariety betweentwo things that both can not exist or betrue together.
These inconsistences happen due to: The same letter or letter combination can refer to different sounds The same sound can be written wirh different letters or letterscombination Difrerent dialects pronunce the same word differently
A group of the same or similar elementsgathered or occurring closely together is acluster.Linguistically, a clusters occurs when thereare two or more successive vowels orconsonants in spelling or utterances.Diphthongs are a kind of clusters.
orthografic (letters)CLUSTERS= group symbols phonetic (sounds)Clusters (2 or more adjacent similar)
This deal with the pronunciation that students give to synthetic words orthographic vowel-clusterEjm:E <late> /´leyt/S < piedad> /pye´dad/F <moi> /mwa/
CONSONANT CLUSTER<Orthografic> /Phonetic/ Inicial Middle Final
1. CCV a) /p,b,k,g,f/ + / l / /r/ S b) /p,t,k,b,d,g,f/ + R sounds /ɹ / E /ʁ/ F2. CCCV S E F /´stɹ / /´stʁ/ X /´spl/ /´spl/ /´skɹ/ /´skʁ / /´spɹ/ /´spʁ /
From two up to four-medial consonantclusters vccv / vcccv / vccccv / ; exceptEnglish which may pile up to five consonantclusters /vcccccv/Ejm:S: <obra> /obra/E: <order> /ͻ ɹdar/ <corkswcrew> /’kͻ ɹkskluw/F: <cyclism> /siklizm/