international relation


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  • Last week: based on introduction (ch 1 detailed discussion of this) This week: ch3
  • Lecture: principal developments in world history 1900-1990 -end of European imperialism -development of ‘total war’ -advent of nuclear weapons -onset of the cold war First half 20thC dominated by dominance of (and conflict between) European states Second half – conflict between US and USSR
  • ‘ Total war’ is used to describe both WWI and WWII -”to denote not only their global scale -but also the combatant’s pursuit of their opponent’s ‘unconditional surrender’ … (esp. WWI)… -also signifies the mobilisation of whole populations -including women into factory work, auxiliary civil defence units, and as paramilitaries and paramedics -as part of the total call-up of all able-bodied citizens in the pursuit of victory” (Baylis et al 2008: p. 588)
  • Origins of WWI = has been a great deal of debate Some argued complex alliances and military imperatives Others said internal political dynamics of autocratic German elite (eg. Fritz Fisher) the motivations of the combatants are clear -nationalist beliefs and patriotic values -most combatants thought would be short, victorious, and even glorious -in reality trench warfare
  • At the end of the war the Treaty of Versailles was signed -League of Nations -rights and responsibilities of victors and losers of WWI -harsh reparations upon Germans - ‘Mandatories system’ where ‘advanced nations’ were given authority over colonial peoples The fourteen points (p. 580) -reflects Wilson’s vision of an international society: -self-determination [only selectively pursued US colonial interests] -open diplomacy -League of Nations But the treaty failed -a united and frustrated Germany -it led to Germany’s desire to regain lost territories -because the treaty created new states and set contested borders -[German minority in Czechoslovakia ] The great depression also contributed (Wall Street Crash 1929)
  • Appeasement is the term used for this -”A policy of making concessions to a … territorially acquisitive state -in the hope that settlement of more modest claims will assuage that state’s expansionist appetites” (p. 577) The Munich Agreement was an agreement in 1938 between Germany and Britain/France -Hitler claimed the Sudetenland (part of Czechoslovakia) -Britain and France agreed provided Hitler would go no further -within months Hitler has seized the rest of Czechoslovakia and was preparing to invade Poland -there was probably no alternative -nobody could confronting Hitler
  • The League of Nations - collective security - largely failed (1) the US senate prevented US participation (2) ineffective international responses: Japan attacked Manchuria (1931) -Italy invaded Abyssinia (1935) -Germany involved in Spanish Civil War (1936-1939) Japan invaded China in 1937 -China was tangled up in civil war between communists and nationalists However, Japanese ascendancy also posed threat to US interests/ European empires -the US put economic sanctions on Japan -and Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in 1941 Germany and Italy war with US to support Japan Germany defeated in May 1945 -the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki - (1) many civilians killed (2) Japan was effectively defeated Alperovitz argued -Truman’s motive to coerce Soviets to accept US interests -however this view is controversial
  • Demise of imperialism in 20thC self-determination became a guiding principle of international politics “ each ‘people’ should enjoy self-government over it’s own sovereign nation-state “ (p.586) It was first promoted by US President Woodrow Wilson -he promoted it ardently, but only selectively -for East/Central Europe During the age of imperialism -political status was tied to having imperial possessions -but after 1945 this came to be seen as disgraceful -however actual independence was often slow and sometimes involved armed struggle
  • Different states and different imperial powers had different experiences of decolonisation British empire 1945 Many argue that the British empire peaked in 1945 -between 1947 and 1980, 49 territories gained independence Withdrawal from India in 1947 was the most dramatic British decolonisation generally more peaceful than French - but notable exceptions: -Kenya (1952-1956) ‘Mau Mau War’ -Malaya (1948-60) ‘Malayan emergency’ Zimbabwe - white minority blocked transition to ‘one person, one vote’ democracy In South Africa apartheid represented a sort of domestic imperialism -also Namibia, Angola and Mozambique
  • French empire 1938 The French experience was very different Germany occupied France during WWII -so for France wanted to maintain imperial status as a form of prestige The attempt to keep its territories in Indo-China [Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam] -led to long guerilla war and defeat in Vietnam France generally withdrew from its empire in Africa -but refused to leave Algeria
  • WWII was even more global and total than WWI WWII started in 1939 -at that point Europe was the centre of world politics (empires/colonialism etc) -US and USSR were preoccupied with internal development WWII helped bring the US and the USSR into European political and military affairs This tension between US and USSR known as the cold war origins in post-war Europe but affected people all over the world After WWII US and USSR became ‘superpowers’ -they combined global political ambition -military capabilities including weapons of mass destruction
  • The cold war was based on -European weakness -the perception of Soviet strength -Western perceptions of destructive Soviet intent The cold war - characterised by the atomic bomb -the atomic bomb was developed by the US during WWII -the US feared that the Germans would develop it first and win WWII -however nuclear weapons changed the nature of diplomacy
  • the rise of the US was - key transition of 20thC The rise of the USSR equally crucial -rise of Moscow and Eastern European ‘allies’ -and their relations with People’s Republic of China and -revolutionary forces in ‘third world’ Most (but not all) historians say the Cold War emerged from events between 1945-1950 (end of WWII) Yalta and Potsdam conferences between Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt/Truman designed to decide fate of Germany and other Central / East European countries In the West - concern USSR more interested in expansion than security
  • The first major confrontation of cold war: Berlin 1948 -Stalin wanted to secure it but a massive airlift kept West Berlin’s population and independence alive Led to NATO treaty -an attack on one member treated as an attack on all -principally reflected US commitment to defend Western Europe
  • The cold war outside Europe -although origins in Europe, implications elsewhere -1949 thirty years of civil war ended in China -Mao Zedong led the Communists to victory -major effect on Asian affairs – US/USSR perceptions of region 1950 North Korea attacked South Korea -perceived as a general ‘communist strategy’ so a ‘test case’ -the US and UN vs. China -3 million people were killed Middle East -Israel formed in 1948 following the Nazi genocide and failure of British colonial policy -but the decisions made here are not clearly related to cold war politics
  • The US was convinced that communism as a monolithic entity controlled from Moscow -they were convinced that the real intent was Europe -and while W Europeans did not necessarily believe this themselves, they came to depend on the US for security The rearmament of West Germany 1954 led to the Warsaw Pact in 1955 -The Warsaw Pact comprised the USSR and seven communist states -although Albania withdrew 1961, and pact dissolved in 1991 Stalin died in 1953 -his eventual successor was Nikita Khrushchev -he strove to modernise Soviet society -but this also led to reformist movements in Eastern Europe -Poland was controlled but there was bloodshed in Hungry in 1956
  • There were two major crises in the Cold War -Berlin (1961) - which led to the Berlin Wall dividing East and West Berlin -Cuba (1962) - the Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis -in 1962 the US found out USSR secretly deploying nuclear missiles in Cuba -this was despite both private and public assurances to the contrary -US President Kennedy ordered a naval blockade of the island The two superpowers stood face to face -however both leaders were anxious to form a diplomatic solution -recent evidence suggests risk of ‘inadvertent nuclear war’ higher than political leaders or later historians realised Khrushchev agreed to remove missiles if US didn’t invade Cuba -Later turned out Kennedy secretly moved to remove NATO nuclear missiles
  • The Crisis led to important progress on the Partial Test Ban treaty of 1963 -banned atmospheric nuclear testing After 1962 there was a more stable period of competition and coexistence -however nuclear arsenals continued to grow Other nuclear weapons states also emerged -Britain (1952) -France (1960) -China (1964) 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty - nuclear states committed to halting race -others promised not to develop them However by 1990 -Israel, India, Pakistan, South Africa
  • As the US became more involved with Vietnam War -Soviet-Chinese relations deteriorated This led to the foundations for -détente between the US and USSR, and -rapprochement between the US and China Détente is -the relaxation of tensions Rapprochement is the establishment of -more friendly ties between US and PR China in 1970s Nixon and his advisor Kissinger -this did not mark the end of political conflict
  • The complicated nature of these relations were highlighted by 1973 Arab-Israeli war -US and the USSR drawn into dangerous confrontation -however Israeli-Egyptian rapprochement -Egypt switched its allegiance Détente ended in the late 1970s -Ethiopia 1975 -Angola 1978 -and perception arms control agreements for military advantage US weakened -1979 Iran -although Islamic government hostile to both superpowers At the end of 1979 -NATO installed new missiles -Soviets invaded Afghanistan (like the Vietnam war was for the US)
  • By start of 1980s – concern in West about arms control and détente -some suggested that the US should change to more aggressive policy to USSR -US should act as if could ‘win’ a nuclear war 1980 Ronald Regan -sounded ill-informed and therefore dangerous with regard nuclear matters “ Strategic Defense Initiate” (SDI) - “Star Wars” - research program to explore the possibility of space-based defense against ballistic missiles -the Soviets took this very seriously
  • However the resulting tension came to be known as ‘the second cold war’ -came to be compared to the early confrontation 1946-1953 -in USSR and W Europe serious concern about nuclear war -much of this was in reaction to Regan’s rhetoric and policies Concern about Grenada (1983) and Libya (1986) - Contras in Nicaragua -> 1986 International Court of Justice – US guilty -some operations ended in humiliation - Lebanon (1983) However USSR took it all very seriously -1983 S Korean airliner -US retaliated nuclear missiles in Europe -1983 USSR thought Able Archer training exercise preparation for real attack
  • Early 1980s - Brezhnev, Andropov, Chernenko -ill-health However 1985 - Mikhail Gorbachev - ‘new thinking’ led to foreign policy and Soviet society revolutions - perestroika and glasnost led to the demise of the USSR -unlike Khrushchev, was unprepared to quash dissent with force --Brezhnev: Soviet bloc nations (Warsaw Pact) only allowed limited sovereignty -replaced by ‘Sinatra doctrine’ (1989) – E European nations could ‘do it their way’ -E Europeans – speedy/peaceful transition Moscow-aligned regimes -> democracy -most dramatically Germany united – GDR disappeared Gorbachev eased tensions -1987 INF Treaty -triumph for Gorbachev, but Thatcher/Regan said vindicated NATO policy since 1979 -Bush Snr. START reduced long-range nukes to early 1980s levels Despite Paris agreement 1990 -only success in nuclear arms control, not disarmament
  • Dramatic changes across 20thC politics -leads to questions about nature of international history and international relations How did WWI come about? How can we explain the rise of Hitler? Who won the cold war? How? What were the consequences? We have talked about three topics (total war, end of empire and cold war) -these are all related Irrespective of the causes, WWI became an industrialised total war -reflects technological, political and social forces
  • Close but problematic relationship between cold war and history of nuclear weapons -some say US use of nukes WWII key to origins of cold war -others say paranoia of total annihilation key to Soviet defence policy -(without nuclear deterrence, war in Europe would have been more likely) -others say the importance of nuclear weapons is exaggerated New challenges from other ideologies -pan Arabism and revolutionary Islam
  • international relation

    1. 1. International Relations Week 2 [read Baylis et. al. (2008) chapter 2] Brendon Tagg [email_address]
    2. 2. International history 1900-1990 <ul><li>End of imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Total war </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear weapons </li></ul><ul><li>Cold war </li></ul>
    3. 3. ‘Total war’ <ul><li>WWI (1914-18) and WWII (1939-45) </li></ul><ul><li>global scale </li></ul><ul><li>pursuit of ‘unconditional surrender’ </li></ul><ul><li>mobilisation of whole populations </li></ul><ul><li>women; factory, civil defence, </li></ul><ul><li>paramilitary, paramedics </li></ul><ul><li>total call-up in pursuit of victory </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    4. 4. WWI <ul><li>Origins highly debated </li></ul><ul><li>-complex alliances? </li></ul><ul><li>-autocratic German elite? </li></ul><ul><li>Motivations are clear </li></ul><ul><li>-nationalism/patriotism </li></ul><ul><li>-short, victorious, glorious </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) <ul><li>End of WWI </li></ul><ul><li>-rights and responsibilities of victors and losers </li></ul><ul><li>-harsh on defeated Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points </li></ul><ul><li>-self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>-open diplomacy </li></ul><ul><li>-association of nations (League of Nations) </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty failed – frustrated Germany, Depression </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Munich Agreement (1938) <ul><li>Appeasement </li></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France </li></ul><ul><li>Sudetenland </li></ul><ul><li>Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Poland </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    7. 7. Japan <ul><li>League of Nations failed </li></ul><ul><li>-US; Japan, Italy, Germany </li></ul><ul><li>WWII: Japan’s rise threatened </li></ul><ul><li>-US and European empires </li></ul><ul><li>Italy Germany support Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Germany defeated May 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Hiroshima, Nagasaki August 1945 </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    8. 8. End of Empire <ul><li>Self-determination </li></ul><ul><li>Promoted by Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>-but only for some </li></ul><ul><li>Age of imperialism –status </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions changed after 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Different experiences of decolonisation </li></ul>
    9. 9. British Decolonisation <ul><li>1947-1980 [49 territories] </li></ul><ul><li>India dramatic / Pakistan separation violent </li></ul><ul><li>African colonies largely 1950s-early 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Mau Mau War </li></ul><ul><li>Malaya </li></ul><ul><li>emergency </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    10. 10. French Decolonisation <ul><li>Indo-China [Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam] </li></ul><ul><li>Algeria </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    11. 11. WWII to Cold War <ul><li>Before WWII - Europe at centre </li></ul><ul><li>- US and Soviets preoccupied </li></ul><ul><li>Post WWII </li></ul><ul><li>US and Soviets at centre </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Superpowers’ </li></ul><ul><li>-global political ambition </li></ul><ul><li>-military capability (WMD) </li></ul>
    12. 12. Cold War <ul><li>End of WWII alliance UK, US, USSR </li></ul><ul><li>European weakness; perceived Soviet strength </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic bomb </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    13. 13. 1945-1953: Onset of Cold War <ul><li>End of WWII </li></ul><ul><li>-rise of US and USSR </li></ul><ul><li>-Yalta conference </li></ul><ul><li>-Potsdam conference </li></ul><ul><li>Concern: USSR expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>,_Roosevelt,_Stalin)_(B%26W).jpg </li></ul>
    14. 14. Berlin 1948 <ul><li>First major cold war confrontation </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin wanted to secure Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>Massive airlift </li></ul><ul><li>Political commitment emerged </li></ul><ul><li>-NATO </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cold War Outside Europe <ul><li>1950 North Korea - South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>‘ general communist strategy’? -> ‘test case’ </li></ul><ul><li>US and UN vs. PR China </li></ul><ul><li>3 million killed </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East less clearly ‘cold war’ </li></ul><ul><li>-Israel 1948 supported by US and USSR </li></ul><ul><li>-Soviets supported Arab nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>-Israel tied to Br, Fr, US – but later Arab states too </li></ul>
    16. 16. 1953-1969: Conflict, Confrontation and Compromise <ul><li>US assumed </li></ul><ul><li>communism monolithic </li></ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact 1955 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin -> Khrushchev </li></ul><ul><li>Modernisation </li></ul><ul><li>Reforms E Europe </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    17. 17. Crises <ul><li>Berlin (1961) </li></ul><ul><li>Cuba (1962) </li></ul><ul><li>- USSR secretly deploying nuclear missiles </li></ul><ul><li>- Kennedy ordered naval blockade </li></ul><ul><li> http:// </li></ul>
    18. 18. Progress From Crisis <ul><li>Partial Test Ban treaty 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>After 1962 - stable period competition coexistence </li></ul><ul><li>Other nuclear weapons states </li></ul><ul><li>-Britain (1952) France (1960) China (1964) </li></ul><ul><li>1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>-by 1990 Israel, India, Pakistan, South Africa </li></ul>
    19. 19. 1969-1979: Détente’s Rise and Fall <ul><li>détente US and USSR </li></ul><ul><li>rapprochement US and China </li></ul>
    20. 20. Détente’s Rise and Fall <ul><li>1973 Arab-Israeli war </li></ul><ul><li>US and the USSR drawn in </li></ul><ul><li>Détente ended in the late 1970s </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia 1975 and Angola 1978 </li></ul><ul><li>Iran 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>NATO missiles Europe 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>- Afghanistan 1979 </li></ul>
    21. 21. 1979-1986: ‘The Second Cold War’ <ul><li>Early 1980s - USSR supremacy? </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Regan </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Defense Initiate” (SDI) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    22. 22. ‘ The Second Cold War’ <ul><li>Reaction to Regan’s rhetoric </li></ul><ul><li>Grenada (1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Libya (1986) </li></ul><ul><li>general Central America policy; Nicaragua Contras </li></ul><ul><li>1986 International Court of Justice </li></ul><ul><li>USSR took it seriously </li></ul><ul><li>-1983 S Korean airliner </li></ul><ul><li>- Able Archer incident </li></ul>
    23. 23. 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev <ul><li>‘ new thinking’ </li></ul><ul><li>-perestroika (restructure) </li></ul><ul><li>- glasnost (openness) </li></ul><ul><li>aim - transform relations with US and W Europe </li></ul><ul><li>result- dramatic change across Eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>1987 INF Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>- Gorbachev triumph, Thatcher/Regan vindication? </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>How did WWI come about? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we explain the rise of Hitler? </li></ul><ul><li>Who won the cold war? How? What were the consequences? </li></ul>
    25. 25. Conclusion