international relation

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international relation

  1. 1. International Relations Week 1 Brendon Tagg [email_address]
  2. 2.
  3. 3. My view of this course <ul><li>My background </li></ul><ul><li>sociology </li></ul><ul><li>social anthropology </li></ul><ul><li>My view of this course </li></ul><ul><li>arguments not answers </li></ul><ul><li>Balance: accessibility and depth </li></ul>
  4. 4. Textbook <ul><li>Baylis, J., S. Smith and P. Owens (2008) The Globalization of World Politics (4th ed.) Oxford: University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>RM 80 (student discount) </li></ul><ul><li>Also journal articles </li></ul>
  5. 5. Ethical issues <ul><li>Cultural issues </li></ul><ul><li>constructive criticism </li></ul><ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>consider multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Respectful disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>share different ideas </li></ul>
  6. 6. Referencing / plagiarism <ul><li>Please use a recognised referencing style </li></ul><ul><li>- Author, year, publisher/journal, edition, page numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledge other people’s ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Both direct quote and general arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Do not quote Wikipedia etc. in assignments </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cell phones / office hours <ul><li>Cell phone off or on silent mode </li></ul><ul><li>Emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Monday and Wednesday, 10-11am </li></ul><ul><li>Room PA202 (main building) </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>
  8. 8. Language issues <ul><li>English only (sorry!) </li></ul><ul><li>Support each other, or ask me </li></ul><ul><li>Class rep </li></ul><ul><li>You can keep a copy of the lecture notes </li></ul>
  9. 9. Moodle <ul><li>http://elearn.umt.edu.my </li></ul>
  10. 10. Topics in this course <ul><li>Globalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Global management </li></ul><ul><li>The League of Nations and the UN </li></ul><ul><li>Regional organisations (e.g. AU, ASEAN) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-state global actors (NGO’s) </li></ul><ul><li>non-profit NGO’s </li></ul><ul><li>Trans-national corporations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Topics in this course <ul><li>Major theories of International Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Idealism vs. Realism </li></ul><ul><li>Dependency theory </li></ul><ul><li>Just War theory </li></ul>
  12. 12. Topics in this course <ul><li>Specific issues </li></ul><ul><li>Development aid </li></ul><ul><li>Arms race and nuclear proliferation </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism and ethnic conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Human rights / refugees </li></ul><ul><li>The environment </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul>
  13. 13. Assessment <ul><li>Mid-semester test 30% week 6 (30 Aug?) </li></ul><ul><li>Group presentations 30% weeks 10 and 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Final exam 40% </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is globalisation? <ul><li>“ By globalization we simply mean the process of increasing interconnected-ness between societies such that events in one part of the world more and more have effects on peoples and societies far away” (Baylis, Smith and Owens 2008: 8). </li></ul>
  15. 15. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  16. 16. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  17. 17. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  19. 19. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  20. 20. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  21. 21. What is globalisation? <ul><li>observed throughout world </li></ul><ul><li>non-state actors </li></ul><ul><li>global technologies </li></ul><ul><li>global reactions </li></ul><ul><li>no ordinary buildings </li></ul><ul><li>90 countries’ citizens </li></ul><ul><li>reasons for attacks </li></ul>
  22. 22. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  24. 24. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  25. 25. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  26. 26. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  27. 27. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  28. 28. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  29. 29. Ideas supporting globalisation <ul><li>pace of economic transformation </li></ul><ul><li>communications </li></ul><ul><li>global culture </li></ul><ul><li>world increasingly homogenous </li></ul><ul><li>ideas of time and space </li></ul><ul><li>global political culture </li></ul><ul><li>cosmopolitan culture </li></ul><ul><li>risk culture </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ideas refuting globalisation <ul><li>Hirst and Thompson (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>- globalisation just a ‘buzzword’ </li></ul><ul><li>Critique economic aspects of globalisation: </li></ul><ul><li>- current world not that unique </li></ul><ul><li>- few genuine TNCs </li></ul><ul><li>- no shift of finance and capital </li></ul><ul><li>- three blocs dominate </li></ul><ul><li>- regulation is possible </li></ul>
  31. 31. Ideas refuting globalisation <ul><li>Hirst and Thompson (1996) </li></ul><ul><li>- globalisation just a ‘buzzword’ </li></ul><ul><li>Critique economic aspects of globalisation: </li></ul><ul><li>- current world not that unique </li></ul><ul><li>- few genuine TNCs </li></ul><ul><li>- no shift of finance and capital </li></ul><ul><li>- three blocs dominate </li></ul><ul><li>- regulation is possible </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ideas refuting globalisation <ul><li>Other objections: </li></ul><ul><li>uneven in its effects </li></ul><ul><li>Western imperialism? </li></ul><ul><li>winners and losers </li></ul><ul><li>not necessarily good </li></ul><ul><li>who is held responsible? </li></ul><ul><li>essential paradox </li></ul>
  33. 33. Ideas refuting globalisation <ul><li>Other objections: </li></ul><ul><li>uneven in its effects </li></ul><ul><li>Western imperialism? </li></ul><ul><li>winners and losers </li></ul><ul><li>not necessarily good </li></ul><ul><li>who is held responsible? </li></ul><ul><li>essential paradox </li></ul>
  34. 34. Questions to think about <ul><li>Is globalisation: </li></ul><ul><li>a new phenomenon in world politics? </li></ul><ul><li>a positive or negative development? </li></ul><ul><li>merely the latest stage of capitalism? </li></ul><ul><li>merely a new form of Western imperialism? </li></ul><ul><li>Does globalisation: </li></ul><ul><li>make the state obsolete? </li></ul><ul><li>make the world more or less democratic? </li></ul><ul><li>make war more of less likely? </li></ul>
  35. 35. I.R. vs. World Politics <ul><li>The Globalization of World Politics : An Introduction to International Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Nation : “A group of people who recognize each other as sharing a common identity, with a focus on a homeland” (Baylis et al 2008: 584) </li></ul><ul><li>State : “A legal territory entity composed of a stable population and a government; it possesses a monopoly over the legitimate use of force; its sovereignty is recognized by other states in the international system” (Baylis et al 2008: 587) </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Nation-states: </li></ul><ul><li>“ a political community in which the state claims legitimacy on the grounds that it represents the nation. The nation-state would exist if nearly all the members of a single nation were organized in a single state, without any other national communities being present. Although the term is widely used, no such entities exist.” (p. 584) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Theories of world politics <ul><li>“ A theory is not simply some grand formal model with hypotheses and assumptions. Rather a theory is a kind of simplifying device that allows you to decide which facts matter and which do not.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Baylis, Smith and Owen 2008: 4) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Theory <ul><li>Using theory is not optional </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone has a theory </li></ul><ul><li>-implicit vs. explicit </li></ul><ul><li>First International Politics Department </li></ul><ul><li>1919, University of Wales </li></ul><ul><li>to find causes of major political problems </li></ul><ul><li>a normative position: how things should be </li></ul>
  39. 39. Idealism vs. Realism <ul><li>This view criticised as idealist </li></ul><ul><li>-to engineer the world to how it ought to be </li></ul><ul><li>Opponents preferred a view called realism </li></ul><ul><li>-how the world really is (i.e. not very pleasant) </li></ul><ul><li>Realism has had the upper hand since then </li></ul><ul><li>-may be ‘common-sense’ </li></ul><ul><li>-but it is hardly neutral </li></ul>
  40. 40. Idealism <ul><li>Idealism dominant after WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Immanuel Kant </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Often now a derogatory term </li></ul>
  41. 41. Idealism <ul><li>Result of WWI carnage </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to abolish war </li></ul><ul><li>Wilson’s Fourteen Points – Versailles (1918) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-449533/Rare-footage-WWI-Gallipoli-battle-unearthed.html </li></ul>
  42. 42. Idealism <ul><li>Cosmopolitan ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Fell into disrepute (WWII) </li></ul><ul><li>EH Carr The Twenty Years’ Crisis (1946) </li></ul><ul><li>Seen as naïve and utopian </li></ul><ul><li>Served interests of status quo? </li></ul><ul><li>However liberalism now increasingly popular … </li></ul>
  43. 43. Realism <ul><li>Thucydides </li></ul><ul><li>Peloponnesian Wars </li></ul><ul><li>Machiavelli, Hobbes, Weber </li></ul>
  44. 44. Realism <ul><li>EH Carr </li></ul><ul><li>Hans Morgenthau </li></ul><ul><li>No harmony between states </li></ul>
  45. 45. Realism <ul><li>Grim view of international politics </li></ul><ul><li>Survival rather than progress </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of power </li></ul><ul><li>Both descriptive and prescriptive insights </li></ul>
  46. 46. Realism <ul><li>Perpetual peace ‘flies in the face’ of history? </li></ul><ul><li>Human nature is fundamentally flawed </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative? Pessimistic? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Realism <ul><li>Dominant since 1945, yet widely criticised </li></ul><ul><li>increased interdependence </li></ul><ul><li>unnecessary assumptions -> neorealism </li></ul>
  48. 48. Neo realism <ul><li>Kenneth Waltz </li></ul><ul><li>anarchy is a structural feature </li></ul><ul><li>saves ‘human nature’ from the blame </li></ul><ul><li>But increasingly irrelevant? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Liberalism <ul><li>Idealism = extreme Liberalism </li></ul><ul><li>Main themes of Liberalism: </li></ul><ul><li>-humans are perfectible </li></ul><ul><li>-democracy necessary for perfectibility to develop </li></ul><ul><li>-ideas matter (ie. not just power) </li></ul><ul><li>-belief in progress </li></ul><ul><li>States are not the only important actors </li></ul><ul><li>Competing interests within states </li></ul>
  50. 50. Liberalism <ul><li>possibility for co-operation between states </li></ul><ul><li>national interests in more than just military terms </li></ul><ul><li>order emerges from laws, agreed norms etc. (not ‘balance of power’) </li></ul><ul><li>In practice, state sovereignty is seriously limited </li></ul>
  51. 51. Marxism <ul><li>A third theoretical position </li></ul><ul><li>(after Liberalism, Realism) </li></ul><ul><li>structuralism or world-system theory </li></ul><ul><li>All politics takes place within world capitalist economy </li></ul><ul><li>-social classes the most important actors </li></ul><ul><li>-class forces explain behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>-world economy constrains states’ freedom </li></ul>
  52. 52. Marxism <ul><li>Economic, not military terms </li></ul><ul><li>-core, periphery and semi-periphery </li></ul><ul><li>All states have to play by the rules of the international capitalist economy </li></ul>
  53. 53. Constructivism <ul><li>http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/margaret-thatcher/6166487/Britain-and-France-feared-fall-of-Berlin-Wall.html </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in 1980s </li></ul><ul><li>human agency had a greater role </li></ul><ul><li>we constantly make and re-make the social world </li></ul>

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