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The Moon & Planetary Geology

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The Moon & Planetary Geology

  1. 1. Geologic Processes that Shape Planets
  2. 2. What Forces Shape our Planet? <ul><li>Geologic Processes: </li></ul><ul><li>Plate Tectonics </li></ul><ul><li>Weathering & Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Impact Cratering </li></ul>
  3. 3. Earth's composition <ul><li>Crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surface rock layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>thick, dense silica layer where magma comes from </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Outer Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid iron/nickel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inner Core </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid iron/nickel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>liquid outer core spinning around solid inner core creates Earth's magnetic field </li></ul>
  4. 4. Other Planets' Compositions
  5. 5. Earth's Layers <ul><li>Soil & Sediment : dirt and sand </li></ul><ul><li>Crust : top surface layer of rock </li></ul><ul><li>Thicker Continental crust, 100km (60mi) </li></ul><ul><li>Thinner Oceanic crust, 5-35 km (22 mi) </li></ul><ul><li>Mantle : thick, dense silica layer </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>magma (partially molten rock) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower Mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hotter & harder due to pressure </li></ul></ul>Lithosphere Asthenosphere
  6. 6. Plate Tectonics <ul><li>Slow-moving convection currents in the mantle cause sections of Earth's crust to move above </li></ul><ul><li>Fault lines are the boundaries where plate edges meet. </li></ul><ul><li>Earth's crust is broken up into sections called &quot;plates&quot; that drift slowly above the syrupy mantle. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Earthquakes occur as pressure is rapidly released along fault lines </li></ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions are triggered, trenches are formed, and ridges of newly released magma form </li></ul>Note the Pacific Plate's &quot;Ring of Fire&quot;
  8. 8. Tectonic Plate Boundaries <ul><li>Convergent : plates move toward one another </li></ul><ul><li>Divergent : plates move away from each other </li></ul><ul><li>Transform : plates slide alongside each other </li></ul>
  9. 9. Volcanic Eruptions <ul><li>Volcanoes form differently depending on viscosity (thickness) of lava expelled: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shield Volcano - liquid lava develops long gentle slopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cinder Cone - explosive, runny lava forms a cone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composite or Strato-volcano - thicker lava & pyroclastic flows form steep-sloped peaks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lava Dome - very thick lava piles up into big mound around a central vent </li></ul><ul><li>Caldera - peak collapses after exploding </li></ul>Flood Basalt
  10. 11. Gradual Weathering & Erosion <ul><li>What breaks down rocks? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water & other chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ice & glaciers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plants, burrowing organisms & humans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What carries away sand, soil & rock? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>water (water cycle, glacial movement) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>natural disasters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Impact Cratering <ul><li>Indentations caused by meteoroids (asteroids or comets) colliding with Earth's surface </li></ul>
  12. 14. Craters on Earth <ul><li>Chunks of space rocks hurtle into Earth's atmosphere at speeds up to 72 km/s (2,700 miles per hour!) </li></ul><ul><li>These speeds make them up to 100 times more explosive than dynamite. </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Why so many craters? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth's moon has no atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low gravity allowed any gas molecules around to escape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>surface is rocky/dusty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most meteoroids burn up in Earth's atmosphere before making impact. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Super-fast speeds cause meteors to be pelted by gas molecules in atmosphere, causing heat (friction) </li></ul></ul>Earth's Moon
  14. 17. The Moon <ul><li>Earth's only natural satellite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ISS, communication satellites & &quot;space junk&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less than ¼ the size of Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 th largest moon in the solar system (bigger than Pluto) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most moons in the solar system orbit planets much bigger than themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less dense than Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no magnetic field (solid core) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probably less iron in core than Earth's </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neil Armstrong - 1 st man on moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>July, 20 1969 - 1 st of 6 manned lunar missions </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Moon Origins <ul><li>Large Impact Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller body crashes into Earth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring of debris forms around Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth's rotation is sped up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collisions within debris ring form moon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>accretion (smashing together of particles) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Moon Phases <ul><li>Wax </li></ul><ul><li>getting bigger </li></ul><ul><li>Wane </li></ul><ul><li>getting smaller </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbous </li></ul><ul><li>between ½ & whole illuminated </li></ul><ul><li>Crescent </li></ul><ul><li>< ½ illuminated </li></ul><ul><li>When do solar eclipses occur? </li></ul><ul><li>When do lunar eclipses occur? </li></ul>
  17. 20. Moon - Earth Interactions <ul><li>What Affects Tides? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moon pulls water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also pulls Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes ocean &quot;bulges&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth's rotation causes 2 highs & 2 lows each day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Centrifugal force also contributes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ocean Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Up & down, not in and out </li></ul></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Spring Tide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very high tides and super lows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun/earth/moon aligned (full & new moons) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neap Tide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate high/low tides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sun & moon pull at right angles (1/4 moons) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxigean Spring Tide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Highest of high tides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New moon is closest to earth in orbit (called perigee) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Happens once every 1.5 years </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Moon - Earth Interactions <ul><ul><li>Earth's Axial Wobble </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth tilted on axis by 23.5 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth is not completely round, so it wobbles as it spins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earth's axial tilt changes by ~ 3 degrees every 26,000 yrs (the Milankovitch cycle) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Moon's gravitational pull has a stabilizing affect, keeping this wobble to a minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How does this affect us? </li></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Lunar & Solar Eclipse <ul><li>Lunar Eclipse </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Eclipse </li></ul>

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