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Life Science
Classifying Life
Characterizing &
Sorting Living Things
In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can:
Week 11
Review Quiz
Bonus: Use the letter Y in a Punnett square to sh...
Note-Taking
• Note-Taking Methods:
– Full Sentences
– Outlining
– Cornell Method
– Mind Mapping
– Flow-Based Diagramming
•...
What is
Inheritance?
Reproduction:
DNA to offspring
Asexual:
Identical offspring
Sexual:
= amounts of DNA
From each parent...
Week 11 Lab
Gummy Bear Genetics
Observation
AA ____ Dd ___ GG ___ Jj ___ Mm ___
Bb ___ Ee ___ HH ___ kk ___ nn ___
Cc ___ ...
Week 11 Lab
Gummy Bear Genetics
Mendelian
Inheritance
Answer Key:
*M1 = GG x GG
*M2 = GG x gg
*M3 = GG x Gg
M4 = Gg x Gg
M...
Facts are Stupid Things!
• Organized things are
easier to understand.
– Patterns
– Interactions
– “Big picture”
– How indi...
Classification of Life
Taxonomy: a system of grouping in such a way that allows for
easier study and understanding
• Shopp...
First Classification System
• Developed the binomial
(two name) system
– Felis catus
(house cat)
– Pseudotsuga menziesii
(...
Classification: the Grouping of Life
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
• Linnaeus created a kind of "filing ...
Classification: Sorting Life
• Linnaeus grouped living things based on:
– physical characteristics
• body symmetry
• feath...
Binomial Nomenclature
• two-name system of naming (always written in italics)
– Genus is 1st
name (capitolized); species i...
Which Are More Closely Related?
Ursus maritimus
Ailuropoda
melanoleuca
Ursus arctos
Week 11 Activity
Shoe Classification
Procedure:
1.Remove your right shoe and
place it on the table.
2.In your lab notebook...
Shoe ClassificationProcedure
7.Classify the 3 new shoes using your
written system of descriptions.
Analysis
1.What were so...
Classification throughout History
© 2015 PIXTON.COM
As science
progresses, more
changes will
probably be made
to how we cl...
• All living organisms are made up of cells.
– All cells have DNA, cytoplasm, & a cell membrane
– There are two major cell...
Five Kingdoms of Living Things
Why do you think they have been grouped this way?
• No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
• Often have a rigid cell wall and capsule around the
plasma membrane for extra ...
Bacteria
(Formerly Kingdom Monera or Eubacteria)
• Single-cell organisms
• "True Bacteria"
– some make us sick
– some help...
Archaea
(Kingdom Monera or Archaebacteria)
• Tiny, single-cell prokaryotes
• Many live in extreme conditions:
– very hot/c...
• Nucleus
(contains DNA that
coils into
chromosomes)
• Organelles =
“little tools”
• All organisms
besides bacteria
& arch...
Protists
(Kingdom Protista)
Amoeba Paramecium Giardia
Water Mold Slime Mold
Euglena Dinoflagellates DiatomBrown AlgaeGreen...
Fungi
(Kingdom Fungi)
• Eukaryotic
• Multi-cellular
• Heterotrophic
– feed on decaying organisms
• Sessile organisms
– can...
Plants
(Kingdom Plantae)
Bryophyte (Moss)
Pteridophytes
(Ferns)
Conifers (cone-
bearing plants)
Angiosperms (flowering pla...
Plant Cell Animal Cell
Eukaryotic Cells
Animals
(Kingdom Animalia)
• All eukaryotic, multi-cellular, heterotrophic, and motile
• Common Phyla:
– Porifera
• sponge...
Grouped as
MONERA in some
countries
Six
Kingdoms
• Animals
• Plants
• Fungi
• Protists
• Bacteria
• Archaea
6
ARCHAEA
BACT...
Classification
Classification
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Classification

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Classification

  1. 1. Life Science Classifying Life Characterizing & Sorting Living Things
  2. 2. In your lab notebook, please answer as best you can: Week 11 Review Quiz Bonus: Use the letter Y in a Punnett square to show the percentage of yellow pea pods in a cross between a homozygous dominant plant and a homozygous recessive plant. All the pea pods of the offspring plants would be yellow. 1. What are stem cells? • Cells which can become any type of specialized cell. 1. Different forms of a gene that code for the same trait are called… • Alleles 1. How are genotype and phenotype different? • Genotype = allele combination, phenotype = expressed traits 1. Use the letter B to show a homozygous recessive genotype. • bb 1. Name two inherited traits that could be influenced by environmental factors. • Hair color (can be dyed or bleached) • Tree height (growth could be stunted by drought)
  3. 3. Note-Taking • Note-Taking Methods: – Full Sentences – Outlining – Cornell Method – Mind Mapping – Flow-Based Diagramming • Tip # 5: – Resist distractions. • talking, texting, doodling • day-dreaming (spacing out) – If you miss something, leave a blank space and fill it in later. • ask a friend to show you their notes • check the class wiki slides
  4. 4. What is Inheritance? Reproduction: DNA to offspring Asexual: Identical offspring Sexual: = amounts of DNA From each parent 2 copies of each gene (1 from each parent) Genes influence inherited traits. 1 copy of each gene randomly passed to offspring ¼ of my DNA is from Grandparents I have more genes in common with closer relatives (parents)
  5. 5. Week 11 Lab Gummy Bear Genetics Observation AA ____ Dd ___ GG ___ Jj ___ Mm ___ Bb ___ Ee ___ HH ___ kk ___ nn ___ Cc ___ ff ___ Ii ___ Ll ___ OO ___ Purple flowers dominant to white: Brown eyes dominant to blue: PP _________ BB _________ Pp _________ Bb _________ pp _________ bb _________ Straight hair dominant to curly: Tail spikes dominant to plain tails: Straight _______________ Spikes __________________ Curly _________________ Plain ___________________
  6. 6. Week 11 Lab Gummy Bear Genetics Mendelian Inheritance Answer Key: *M1 = GG x GG *M2 = GG x gg *M3 = GG x Gg M4 = Gg x Gg M5 = Gg x gg M6 = gg x gg *What is needed to determine the specific genotype of these parents? Incomplete Dominance Answer Key: ID1 = RR x RR ID2 = RR x rr ID3 = RR x Rr ID4 = Rr x Rr ID5 = Rr x rr ID6 = rr x rr A TEST CROSS with a gg bear
  7. 7. Facts are Stupid Things! • Organized things are easier to understand. – Patterns – Interactions – “Big picture” – How individual things work & fit together • The interpretation of facts brings meaning.
  8. 8. Classification of Life Taxonomy: a system of grouping in such a way that allows for easier study and understanding • Shopping List! • Playlist!! Store Department Aisle Section Shelf Item Music Genre Artist Album Song Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
  9. 9. First Classification System • Developed the binomial (two name) system – Felis catus (house cat) – Pseudotsuga menziesii (Christmas tree) – Lumbricus terrestris (earthworm) – Orcinus orca (killer whale) • Carolus Linnaeus – Swedish botanist – "Father of Taxonomy" • First to group living things according to physical similarities • 3 Kingdoms: Animal, Vegetable, Mineral
  10. 10. Classification: the Grouping of Life Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • Linnaeus created a kind of "filing system" to sort all living things based on physical characteristics KKinging PPhiliphilip CCameame OOverver FForor GGoodood SSpicespices broadest level most specific (individual type)
  11. 11. Classification: Sorting Life • Linnaeus grouped living things based on: – physical characteristics • body symmetry • feathers vs. fur vs. scales – behavior • makes own food vs. eats others • lay eggs vs. give birth to live young – habitat • lives on land, air, or in water • We now also group things by: – cell type • Eukaryotic vs. Prokaryotic • unicellular vs. multicellular – nutrition (makes food vs. eats) – DNA (sequence and length)
  12. 12. Binomial Nomenclature • two-name system of naming (always written in italics) – Genus is 1st name (capitolized); species is 2nd name (lower case) Animalia Chordata Aves Aptenodytes Mammalia Corvus corax Falco sparverius forsteri sparverius Falco Aptenodytes forsteriCanis lupusHomo sapiens
  13. 13. Which Are More Closely Related? Ursus maritimus Ailuropoda melanoleuca Ursus arctos
  14. 14. Week 11 Activity Shoe Classification Procedure: 1.Remove your right shoe and place it on the table. 2.In your lab notebook, make a flow chart like the one pictured here, only leave the boxes blank. 3.Divide the shoes into two groups based on common characteristics. 4.Make a descriptive TITLE for each sub-group; write them down. 5.Continue dividing the shoes into groups until you have only ONE shoe per sub-group. 6.Using binomial nomenclature rules, share the name of YOUR shoe with the class. •Now pass any 3 of your group’s shoes to the table on your left. Shoes Title Title Title TitleTitleTitle
  15. 15. Shoe ClassificationProcedure 7.Classify the 3 new shoes using your written system of descriptions. Analysis 1.What were some of the common characteristics you used to classify your shoes? 2.Did you have trouble classifying any of them? Explain 3.Was it difficult to use your chart for the 3 new shoes? Did you run into any problems? 4.Is there more than one way you could have classified the shoes? Shoes Title Title Title TitleTitleTitle
  16. 16. Classification throughout History © 2015 PIXTON.COM As science progresses, more changes will probably be made to how we classify living things.
  17. 17. • All living organisms are made up of cells. – All cells have DNA, cytoplasm, & a cell membrane – There are two major cell types: PROKARYOTIC Cells – Bacteria and archaea – Tiny – No nucleus or organelles EUKARYOTIC Cells – Plants, animals, fungi and protists – Have an enclosed nucleus – Have membrane-bound organelles Cell Types - How are they Different?
  18. 18. Five Kingdoms of Living Things Why do you think they have been grouped this way?
  19. 19. • No nucleus or membrane-bound organelles • Often have a rigid cell wall and capsule around the plasma membrane for extra protection. • Also sometimes have a flagella or cilia for movement Prokaryotic Organisms
  20. 20. Bacteria (Formerly Kingdom Monera or Eubacteria) • Single-cell organisms • "True Bacteria" – some make us sick – some help us live – some make cheese • Different shapes – Bacilli (rod-shape) • E. coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus – Cocci (round chains/clusters) • Streptococcus, Staphylococcus – Spirilla (stringy spirals) • Campylobacter, Treponema
  21. 21. Archaea (Kingdom Monera or Archaebacteria) • Tiny, single-cell prokaryotes • Many live in extreme conditions: – very hot/cold, deep/dark – acidic or sulfuric • DNA & metabolism different than bacteria
  22. 22. • Nucleus (contains DNA that coils into chromosomes) • Organelles = “little tools” • All organisms besides bacteria & archaea are eukaryotic – plants, animals, fungi, and protists Eukaryotic Organisms
  23. 23. Protists (Kingdom Protista) Amoeba Paramecium Giardia Water Mold Slime Mold Euglena Dinoflagellates DiatomBrown AlgaeGreen Algae Fungus- Like P l a n t - L i k e • Eukaryotic – cells have a nucleus • Most are single-celled • All eukaryotic organisms that aren't plants, animal, or fungi Animal-Like (protozoans)
  24. 24. Fungi (Kingdom Fungi) • Eukaryotic • Multi-cellular • Heterotrophic – feed on decaying organisms • Sessile organisms – cannot move • Molds, mildew, mushrooms, lichens, yeast
  25. 25. Plants (Kingdom Plantae) Bryophyte (Moss) Pteridophytes (Ferns) Conifers (cone- bearing plants) Angiosperms (flowering plants) • Eukaryotic • Multi-cellular • Autotrophic – produce own food • Sessile – cannot change location
  26. 26. Plant Cell Animal Cell Eukaryotic Cells
  27. 27. Animals (Kingdom Animalia) • All eukaryotic, multi-cellular, heterotrophic, and motile • Common Phyla: – Porifera • sponges, corals – Cnidaria & Ctenophora • jellyfish and comb jellies – Platyhelmenthes • flat worms, tapeworms – Nematoda • small unsegmented worms – Mollusca • clams, oysters, etc. – Annelida • segmented worms – Echinodermata • starfish and anemones – Arthropoda • crustaceans, insects, spiders – Chordata • those with spinal chords: birds, mammals, amphibians, bony fish, etc.
  28. 28. Grouped as MONERA in some countries Six Kingdoms • Animals • Plants • Fungi • Protists • Bacteria • Archaea 6 ARCHAEA BACTERIA

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