Language Comparison

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Language Comparison

  1. 1. Spanish and English, A Comparison By Julie
  2. 2. Data Analysis Journal Poster <ul><li>Information about person: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name: Luigi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location: Dominican Republic, North Coast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age: 27 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex: male </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status: student at a university studying hotel business administration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English Training: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Five years ago he took one English class for one year </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is taking English classes again </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaks English regularly with the people around him. (Many are missionaries and tourists.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Data Analysis Journal Poster
  4. 4. Data Analysis Journal Poster <ul><li>Subject Verb Agreement Errors </li></ul>What Luigi wrote Correct Form Error God know everything God knows everything. Incorrect use - plural verb was used with a singular proper noun He work everyday for us He works every day for us. Incorrect use - plural verb was used with a singular noun my classes was four hour everyday in the week My classes were four hours every day of the week. Incorrect use - singular verb used for a plural noun my classes was four hour everyday in the week My classes were four hours every day of the week. Incorrect use - singular verb used for a plural noun
  5. 5. Data Analysis Journal <ul><li>Spelling Errors </li></ul><ul><li>Verb Tense Errors </li></ul>What Luigi wrote Correct Form Error I finished on Dicember 2009 I finished in December 2009. Incorrect spelling of December. What Luigi wrote Correct Form Error I drop out the English classes on 2007. I dropped out of the English classes in 2007. The verb drop should be written in past tense   I spend like nine month for to learn English here  I spent about nine months in order to learn English here. The past tense should be used for the word spend
  6. 6. Data Analysis Journal <ul><li>Sentence Structure Errors </li></ul>What Luigi wrote Correct Form Error here is ok It is okay here. The sentence is missing the pronoun it. is a pleasure to talk with you Julie It is a pleasure to talk with you, Julie. The sentence is missing the pronoun it. Im glad to hear about if I want help you, I say yes! I’m glad to hear you need help. Yes, I will help you. Incorrect sentence structure is a pleasure to help you, It is a pleasure to help you. The sentence is missing the pronoun it. sorry so much about your Church Julie I’m very sorry about your church Julie. Missing the subject I sorry so much about your Church Julie Julie, I’m very sorry about your church. Missing the verb am
  7. 7. Data Analysis Journal <ul><li>Sample of Punctuation Errors </li></ul>What Luigi wrote Correct Form Error im fine thank and you? I’m fine, thanks. And you? First letter is not capitalized im fine thank and you? I’m fine, thanks. And you? Missing an apostrophe to form the contraction I’m im fine thank and you? I’m fine, thanks. And you? Missing a comma
  8. 8. Data Analysis Journal <ul><li>Improper Use of Words </li></ul>  Im glad to hear that everything is doing well with you I’m glad to hear that everything is going well with you Used the verb doing in place of the correct verb going sorry so much about your Church Julie Julie, I’m very sorry about your church. The adverb much should be replaced by the correct adverb very I drop out the English classes on 2007. I dropped out of the English classes in 2007. Incorrect preposition I drop out the English classes on 2007. I dropped out of the English classes in 2007. The preposition of is missing from the sentence.   I spend like nine month for to learn English here  I spent about nine months in order to learn English here. “ For” should be replaced with “in order to”
  9. 9. Data Analysis Journal <ul><li>Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each section of errors had its own repetitive pattern, but all errors relate back to differences between the L1 and the TL. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Language Comparison <ul><li>Key Features of Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on phonology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Roman Alphabet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllable structure dominated by Consonant (C) Vowel (V) approach. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other syllable structures: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V, CVC, VC, and CCV </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress and intonation pronounced in spoken language and shown in written language </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Language Comparison <ul><li>Key features of Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verb agrees with the subject only </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbs are conjugated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All nouns have gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definitive articles, indefinite articles and adjectives agree in gender and number with the nouns they modify. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish Syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible word order </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Normally follows Subject-Verb-Object </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Language Comparison <ul><li>Key Features of Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of auxiliaries in questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double negatives are used to show negation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modifiers: noun followed by an adjective </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Language Comparison Differences <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>More sounds </li></ul><ul><li>26 consonants phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>13 vowel phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Words end with a consonant </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consonant Clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>English does not include the phonemes /rr/ or the /ɲ/ that Spanish includes. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on phonology </li></ul><ul><li>18 consonants phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>5 vowels phonemes </li></ul><ul><li>Words end with a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consonant Vowel dominated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Spanish lacks the glottal /’/, the voiced affricate /ʤ/, the voiced /ð/ and unvoiced /ɵ/, the voiced /ž/ and unvoiced /ʃ/, the /z/, the /ŋ/, and the flap /ɾ/” (Bilinguistics, 2007). </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Language Comparison Differences <ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>Syllable timed language </li></ul><ul><li>Words are built from roots that are free morphemes </li></ul><ul><li>English verbs use different forms of a word to change tense </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns do not have gender </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use double negatives </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>Stress timed language </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal roots are bound and cannot stand alone </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish verbs are conjugated to change tense </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns have gender </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjectives, demonstratives and articles change according to gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject pronouns are only used for emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Use double negatives </li></ul>
  15. 15. Language Comparison <ul><li>Causes of Errors during language development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties students will face include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recognizing that phonemes represent different speech sounds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>creating morphemes and sentences </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ELLs will have difficulty creating words “because the majority of complex words in English are built from roots that are free morphemes” (O’Grady et al, 2010, p.121). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating sentences will be difficult because of a lack of verb conjugation. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Language Comparison <ul><li>Causes of errors during language development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ELLs will need to specify who or what the subject is before the verb instead of including it with the verb. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlanguage will also affect the pronunciation of the English phoneme /h/ and cause difficulty in pronouncing clusters. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Language Comparison <ul><li>Causes of errors during language development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenges ELLs will face in grammar include developing sentences with single negative construction, correctly using English prepositions and pronouns, and adjusting to rigid word order. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlanguage might also cause Spanish speakers to place the modifier after the noun in the English language and/or forget about the auxiliary, or drop articles. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Language Comparison <ul><li>The errors Luigi made were due to the differences in language structure of English and Spanish. He tried to apply Spanish syntax rules when creating English sentences. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Language Comparison <ul><li>Instructional Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Develop lessons where students learn, practice, and reinforce specific language concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Design instruction to focus on the new and unfamiliar sounds; including certain vowels, consonants, diphthongs, and syllables” (Hagan, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Unfamiliar sounds, syllables, and consonant clusters will be a key area on which to focus. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Language Comparison <ul><li>Instructional Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pairs may help Spanish speakers distinguish between different vowel sounds and clusters. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigating spelling rules and showing students cognates will develop a better understanding of written English and pronunciation. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to help ELLs, they should be shown the similarities between their native language and the target language, ultimately building on what they already know (Hagan, 2010). </li></ul>
  21. 21. Language Comparison <ul><li>Instructional Implications </li></ul><ul><li>“ The instructor should use words in context and provide extensive practice for English language learners to master the understanding and use of the new vocabulary words” (Hagan, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Explicitly instruct students in words with multiple meanings and then provide many opportunities to use these words in various contexts (Hagan, 2010). </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the students’ needs will help the instructor provide opportunities to meet these needs by using a variety of strategies while creating a positive learning environment. </li></ul>
  22. 22. References <ul><li>Bilinguistics. (2007). Basic Communication Processes: Introductory [.pdf]. Bilinguistics Inc. Retrieved from http:// www.pediastaff.com/resources-typical-development-of-speech-in - spanish-in-comparison-to-english </li></ul><ul><li>Chamot, A., Mado, J., & Hollie, S. (2009) Longman keystone level B ( Teacher’s Edition) White Plains, NY, USA: Pearson Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Colorín Colorado. (2007). Capitalizing on similarities and differences between Spanish and English . Retrieved from http ://www.colorincolorado.org/educators/background/capitalizing / </li></ul><ul><li>Frankfurt International School. (2011). The differences between English and Spanish . Retrieved from http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/langdiff/spanish.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Gifted Speech. (2010). For teachers . Retrieved from http:// www.giftedspeech.com/how-does-it-work/for-teachers / </li></ul>
  23. 23. References <ul><li>Hagan, E. (2010). Response to intervention: implications for Spanish-speaking English language learners. Perspectives on language and literacy, (Spring 2010), 36(2). Retrieved from http ://www.rtinetwork.org/learn/diversity/response-to-intervention-implications-for - spanish-speaking-english-language-learners </li></ul><ul><li>Mackenzie, I. (1993). The transparency of Spanish orthography. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society , 1993 (2), 15-21. Retrieved from http ://www.spellingsociety.org/journals/j15/spanish.php </li></ul><ul><li>O’Grady, W., Archibald, J., Aronoff, M., and Rees-Miller, J. (2010). Contemporary Linguistics An Introduction (6 th ed.) . Boston, MA, USA: Bedford/St.Martin’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Pathology CEUs. (2011). Speech development in Spanish and English quick reference slides . Retrieved from http://speechpathologyceus.net/cld-resource-library/ </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Pathology CEUs. (2011). Common Semantic and Syntactic Errors in the English Language Learners Retrieved from http://speechpathologyceus.net/wp - content/uploads/2010/10/Common-Semantic-and-Syntactic-Errors.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Williams, E. (1987). The batnam new college Spanish and English Dictionary . New York, NY, USA: Batnam Books. </li></ul>

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