• A music video or song video is a short film integrating a song and imagery,produced for promotional or artistic purposes.• Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing deviceintended to promote the sale of music recordings.• Music videos use a wide range of styles of film making techniques,including animation, live action filming, documentaries and non-narrativeapproaches such as abstract film.• Some music videos blend different styles, such as animation and liveaction.• Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the songs lyrics,while others take a more thematic approach.• Music Videos are classed to be promotion videos or promos, this isbecause they are usually promotional devices. Sometimes, music videos aretermed short-form music videos to distinguish them from full length movies.
In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced.Vitaphone shorts (produced by Warner Bros.) featured many bands, vocalistsand dancers. Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing theirhit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The earlyanimated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts andespecially Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces,were built around music. The Warner Brothers cartoons, even today billed asLooney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were initially fashioned around specificsongs from upcoming Warner Brothers musical films. Live action musical shorts,featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were also distributed totheatres.
Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called ‗SaintLouis Blues (1929) featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. It was then showed in theatres until 1932.
Musical films were another important precursor to music video, and several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywoodmusicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. Madonnas 1985 video for "MaterialGirl" which was closely modelled on Jack Coles staging of "Diamonds Are A Girls Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.
• In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France andshort films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg,Françoise Hardy, Jacques Brel, and Jacques Dutronc to accompany theirsongs.• In 1964, The Beatles starred in their first feature film A Hard Days Night,directed by Richard Lester. Shot in black-and-white and presented as a mockdocumentary, it interspersed comedic and dialogue sequences with musicalones. The musical sequences furnished basic templates on which countlesssubsequent music videos were modelled.• The Rolling Stones appeared in many promotional clips for their songs in the1960s.• During late 1972–73 David Bowie featured in a series of promotional filmsdirected by pop photographer Mick Rock, who worked extensively with Bowie inthis period. Rock directed and edited four clips to promote four consecutiveDavid Bowie singles—"John, Im Only Dancing" (May 1972), "The Jean Genie"(Nov. 1972), the December 1972 US re-release of "Space Oddity" and the 1973release of the single "Life On Mars" (lifted from Bowies earlier album HunkyDory).
•In the UK the importance of Top of the Pops to promote a single created anenvironment of innovation and competition amongst bands and record labelsas the show‘s producers placed strict limits on the number of videos it woulduse – therefore a good video would increase a songs sales as viewers hopedto see the video again the following week.•Queen‘s ―Bohemian Rhapsody‖ also started a whole new era for using musicvideos as promos.
• In 1981, the U.S. video channel MTV launched, airing "Video Killed theRadio Star" and beginning an era of 24-hour-a-day music on television.With this new outlet for material, the music video would, by the mid-1980s,grow to play a central role in popular music marketing.• In 1983, one of the most successful, influential and iconic music videos ofall time was released: the nearly 14-minute-long video for MichaelJacksons song "Thriller", directed by John Landis. The video set newstandards for production, having cost US$500,000 to film.• On March 5, 1983, Country Music Television, or CMT, was launched,created and founded by Glenn D. Daniels and uplinked from the VideoWorld Productions facility in Hendersonville, Tennessee. The Canadianmusic channel MuchMusic was launched in 1984. In 1984, MTV alsolaunched the MTV Video Music Awards (later to be known as the VMAs),an annual awards event that would come to underscore MTVs importancein the music industry.
•A lyric video is one in which the words to the song are the main element ofthe video.•In 1987, Prince released a video for his song "Sign o the Times". The videofeatured the songs words pulsing to the music presented along with abstractgeometric shapes; an effect created by Bill Konersman.• In 1990 George Michael released "Praying For Time" as a lyric video. Hehad refused to make a traditional music video, so his label released a simpleclip that displayed the songs lyrics on a black screen.