THE PROBLEM OF THE STRUGGLE WITH THEEVIL AND INJUSTICE BASING ON THE MATERIAL OF THENOVEL “MOBY DICK” BY HERMAN MELVILLE.
RomanticismRomanticism is the theory, practice and style of the romantic art, music and literature of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, usually opposed to classicism. Romanticism characterizes by peculiar attention towards human and peculiar endeavor of national originality.
Movements of RomanticismI. Early or Universal [Универсальный] (XVIII- XIX centuries); Novalis, W. Blake.Characteristic features: 1. There was no such sharp contrast between reality and ideal. 2.There was a focus on the stylistic and genre synthesis.II. Folk Romanticism [Народно-фольклорный] (XIX century); W. Scott, Wordsword, T.Shevchenko.Features: Nature is much more important than cult. Folklore is a part of nature. There was a great interest to the culture of past centuries. (ballad, tale, lyric)
III. Byronic Romanticism [Байроничный романтизм](10-30th of XIX century); Byron, Pushkin, Lermontov.Features: At that time predominated total denial of existed reality. There was a forthcoming of a new type hero- rebel-hero.IV. Fantastically-grotesque R.[Гофманский/ Гротескно-фантастический Р.] (20-60th of XIX century); Гофман, Шамиссо, Гоголь, Edgar Allan Poe.Features: The basic interest was concerning social, philosophical and psychological aspects of life. There came a problem between the outer and the inner world of a human.
V.Walterscottish Romanticism Historical [Вальтерскотовский Исторический] (30-70th of XIX century); Walter Scott, F. Cooper, A. Pushkin.Features: It was a time of the reproduction historical events. When authors depicted past they were sure that they could find some keynotes for understanding current troubles of their time.VI.Utopian Romanticism; (30-40th of XIX century) [Жорж Санд, Шарлота Бронте].Features: For that time it was important to idealize the main hero, who always was ready for a self-sacrifice just for the sake of others. There always came an optimistical keynote and of course positivism.
Characteristic features of the works for that period:• There was a gap between reality and ideal (the dream of the poet, writer);• It was important to transfer all the attention to the sphere of subjective, personal;• Authors emphasized an eminent interest to the inner world of the main hero;• There was always an admiration of something fantastic, strange, irrational.
Herman Melville (1819-1891)• “Typee”(1846)• “Omoo”(1847)• “Mardi”(1849)• “Moby Dick”(1851)
“Moby-Dick” or “The White Whale” (1851)Melville composed the first American prose epic, “Moby-Dick”. The plot of “Moby-Dick” deals with the ceaseless conflicts between good and evil, of nature’s indifference to man “visibly personified and made practically assailable.” Melville makes this conflict live for us not by putting it into simple statements but by using symbols – that is, objects or persons who represent something else.
THE THEME: Human’s struggle with evil. [The whale’s attack symbolizes evil; nature; in the religion – it is deserved punishment for sins.]THE IDEA: Here is depicted the statement of the idea that human is bonded with the universe; philosophical sense.
SYMBOLS IN THE NOVEL Moby-Dick A fair punishment for sinsNature (for Melville) Evil (for Ahab) (the attack of whale)
TO RESPOND EVIL ON EVIL – MEANS TO CIRCLE ALL THE TIME.
EVIL OFFENCE MORAL DESIRE TO DESTROYDESTRUCTION OFFENDER REVENGE
• HOW TO ROOT OUT EVIL WITHOUT LOSING HUMANITY?• IS IT REALLY POSSIBLE TO STRUGGLE WITH EVIL?• HOW TO STAY A HUMAN IN ANY SITUATION?
MAYBE IT IS IMPORTANT TO START FROM OUR OWN ATTITUDE ?• TO TRY FORGIVE OUR OFFENDERS;• TO KEEP IN MIND THAT REVENGE ISN’T A LIFE PURPOSE;• TO LEARN FROM OTHERS MISTAKES;