Air-mixture of gases in atmosphere Air pollution signifies the presence of substances in the ambient atmosphere that generated by the man and his activities, which has hazardous effect on the health of man, animals or vegetation.
The main substrance of atmosphere areoxygen to breath,co 2 for photosynthesis, N 2 for development for plants o 3 (ozone)layer against ultra violet rays the natural air contain trace amount of gases like methane,ammonia,so 2 ,hydrogen sulphide,carbon monoxide,hydrogen,argon and variable amounts of dust particle.
Fertilizer complex-oxide of nitrogen,dust particle during process of drying, burning, grinding, screening, mixing, conveying and packaing. Automobiles [emit hydrocarbons, CO, Pb, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matters (PM)] Cement factories-chemically in such air pollution there is mixture of oxide of alluminium potassium, silica, calcium and sodium.
Industries – emit large amounts of pollutants into the environment and includes smoke, sulfur dioxide, nitrogenoxides and fly ash. Petrochemical industries generate hydrogen fluoride, HCl, and organic halides . Many industries also discharge CO, CO2, Ozone, H2S, SO2 etc.
Thermal power station-principle source of so 2 . Aeroplanes-which is also produce so 2 by fuel combustion. Emissions Radioactive sources Domestic sources- domestic combustion of coal, wood or oil is a major source of smoke, dust, SO2 and nitrogen oxides.
The most direct and important source of air pollution affecting the health of many people is tobacco smoke .
Suspended particulate matters. Miscellaneous sources- burning of refuse, incineration, pesticide spraying, wind borne dust, fungi, molds, bacteria etc. and nuclear energy programmes.
there is tones of material emitted annually in to the air 98% of the pollution is due to major five pollutant CO(52%) Sulfure dioxide (18%) Hydro carbon(12%) Particulate matter (10%) Nitrogen oxide(6%)
Carbon monoxide Main source of co are petroliu engines industrial operation with incomplete combustion. Co combined with hb of blood when inhaled and impairs the transport of o 2 to tissues.
Radio activity- source of radioactivity Nuclear explosion Waste of radioactive substances Atomic reactor Use of radio active substances Soil and rocks containg radioactive substances
Effect of airpollutions on health of human being and animal being. Irritation to nose and throat. Headache Paroxyacetylnitrate cause skin,nose,throat irritation and cancer. So 2 destroy lungs and skin disease NO cause respiratory disease in children. Particulates matters –when breathing penetrate deep in to lungs and cause acute bronchitis,asthama and sometime carcinogen effect. Radioactive substance cause genetic damage,chronic´ damage.
Chronic effects of air pollution are chronic bronchitis,lung cancer,emphysema,resp.allergy. Air pollution also affect materials like buildings,paints,paper,rubber,taxetiles and produce discolouration,embrittlement,cracking,reduction in taxetile strength. Leakage of methyl isocyanate gase from carbide factory at Bhopal on dec.3.1984 making the city as gase chamber is worst industrial disaster in world history of chemical industry. Methyl isocynate affect on human health and cause in general disorder,bronchitis,chestpain,irritation to eye and even blindness along with skin disease.
by enclosure, ventilation and air cleaning. By prevent deforestation. Increase plantation on blankland. By extension and awarness programme. Replacement i.e. replacing a technology process causing air pollution by new process that does not. Legislation- e.g. Clean Air Acts. To decrease the nuisance of air pollution, the Govt. of India have enacted “ The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act ” in 1974.
Water is one of the most precious gift of nature without this no life could survive on earth. Water is combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Normally water is never pure in chemical sense. Water pollutants are natural and man made.
Pollution:- any thing is too much in wrong place is pollution. Water pollution means alteration of the physical, chemical and biological property of water. Water pollution are natural and man made. Natural impurities derived from the atmosphere, catchment area and soil but in such a low concentration that they do not pollute the water normally. Rather there presence is some time essential for maintaining the portability and other useful property of water.
Dissolved gases (nitrogen,CO2, H2S etc. which may be picked up during rainfall) Dissolved minerals like: Salts of Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium etc. from the soil of catchment areas. Suspended impurities (Clay, silt, sand and mud). Microrganisms – mainly the enteric bacteria, viruses etc. Natural impurities of water
pesticides and biocides. Radioactive substances from nuclear weapon test. Domestic sewage (bathing, washing, cooking) water waste. Plastics. Industrial waste (toxic agents ranging from metal salts to complex synthetic organic chemicals). Thermal pollution. Agricultural pollutants (fertilizers, pesticides). Physical pollutants (thermal pollution, radioactive substances).
Pesticides and biocides like BHC, DDT, Alluminium phosphide , chlor benzilate ,lindane , nicotine sulphate which are highlypollutant so such pesticide are restricted in India.
they are present in all the phase of environment-air, water and land Metal pollutant is include copper, lead, zinc, chromium, nickel, cadmium, mercury and selenium. Lead is one of the heavy metal pollutant of both atmosphere and ocean, which is mainly derived from vehicle burning fuel. Mercury is the another very toxic pollutant
It has been suggested that half of the world production mercury reaches to ocean. The Baltic sea is so heavily contaminated with mercury that its fishes are inedible. The concentration of mercury in shell fish led to death of many people in Japan. Minamata is japanese fishing port city, where atleast 43 death due to eating of contaminated fishes in 1953.
Cadmium and its compounds are used in various industry they are cadmium acetate, cadmium sulphide, cadmium oxide, cadmium carbonate etc. The sulphate, chloride and acetate of cadmium are soluble in water which leads toxicity. Floride is universally present in varing amount in soil and water atmosphere, vegetation and animal tissue. Toxic substance like cyanide, phenol, heavy metals like mercury, lead, arsenic cause damage to flora and fauna
About four million children die every year from water born disease in India. Biological water-borne disease (cholera, dysentery, gastro enteritis, diarrhea, jaundice, typhoid, hepatitis and guinea pig disease). Chemical borne diseases (heavy metal disease like minamata disease, bone softening disease) Increase concentration of floride cause damage to dental enamel. High nitrite content –cyanosis in infants. High arsenic content in endemic areas cause arsenic poisoning.
Various ways and technique suggested for prevention and control of water pollution are following Stabilization of eco-system. Reutilization or recycling of wastes