The united nations. revised 2007

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The united nations. revised 2007

  1. 1. THE UNITED NATIONS Everything you might want to know….. and more!
  2. 2. What is the United Nations? <ul><ul><li>Organization of countries joined together to work for world peace </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. What are the aims of the United Nations? <ul><li>Keep peace throughout the world </li></ul><ul><li>Develop friendly relations among nations </li></ul><ul><li>Work together to help poor people live better lives, remove poverty, disease and illiteracy and to encourage respect for each other’s rights and freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Be a center for helping nations achieve these goals </li></ul>
  4. 4. How did the U.N. begin? <ul><li>The League of Nations, the forerunner of the United Nations was created because people believed that a world organization of nations could keep the peace and prevent a repetition of the horrors of the 1914-18 war in Europe. </li></ul>
  5. 5. How did the U.N. begin? 2 <ul><li>After W W II, it became obvious that the League couldn’t prevent war, so the League of Nations was abandoned…but most of its ideals and some of its structure were kept by the United Nations. </li></ul><ul><li>The ideals of peace and social/ economic progress remained the basic goals of the new world organization. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How did the U.N. begin? 3 <ul><li>January 1, 1942 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26 countries signed the United </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations Declaration </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How did the U.N. begin? 4 <ul><ul><li>1945- Representatives of 50 countries met at the San Francisco Conference and drafted and adopted the United Nations Charter and laws of the International Court of Justice </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. When was the United Nations Officially Born? <ul><li>October 24, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>We now celebrate United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Day on October 24 throughout </li></ul><ul><li>the world. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How many members are now in the United Nations? <ul><ul><li>192 MEMBERS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most Recently Admitted Montenegro </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Who can become a member of the UN? <ul><ul><li>All peace-loving nations accepting the aims and rules of the Charter which express hope for world peace and works toward that goal </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What languages are used at the United Nations? <ul><li>Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>English </li></ul><ul><li>French </li></ul><ul><li>Russian </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish </li></ul>
  12. 12. Where is the U.N.’s Headquarters <ul><ul><li>New York, United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zoned “International” and has a separate flag, security officers, post office and special stamps </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. How many buildings are at the U.N.? <ul><li>4 Buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Assembly Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretariat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conference Building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dag Hammarskjold Library </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. How is the U.N. organized? <ul><li>6 Main Organizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic and Social Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trusteeship Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Court of Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretariat </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. GENERAL ASSEMBLY
  16. 16. What is the General Assembly? <ul><ul><li>Main body of the United </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nations where everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>meets together to discuss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>topics and vote </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. What does the General Assembly do? <ul><ul><li>Elects a president every year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes recommendations on any subject not being dealt with by the Security Council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Admits new members recommended by the Security Council </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. What does the General Assembly do? <ul><ul><li>Appoints Secretary-General </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elects members of other organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decides how much money each country should pay to run the U. N. and how the money is spent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adopts resolutions but cannot enforce them </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How does the General Assembly work? <ul><ul><li>Every nation has an equal vote regardless of size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voting requires a 2/3 majority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets once a year - 3rd Tuesday of September </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SECURITY COUNCIL
  21. 21. What is the Security Council ? <ul><li>Guardian of world peace </li></ul><ul><li>Deals with questions of peace and security </li></ul>
  22. 22. Who are the members of the Security Council <ul><li>15 members </li></ul><ul><li>5 permanent members </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russian Federation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. What does the Security Council do? <ul><li>Investigates disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Recommends settlement options </li></ul><ul><li>Determines if there is a possible threat to peace and security </li></ul><ul><li>Calls on nations to impose sanctions or other non violent means to prevent or stop war </li></ul>
  24. 24. How does the Security Council work? <ul><ul><li>Does not hold regular meetings but can have called meetings at any time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Any nation can bring a dispute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President takes turns a month at a time based on the English alphabetical order of country </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. How does the Security Council work? <ul><ul><li>Voting requires 9 out of 15 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If any of the 5 permanent members vote “no”, resolutions are vetoed </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. What powers does the Security Council have? <ul><li>Take military action against an aggressor </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend new members for admission to the UN </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend the appointment of the Secretary General </li></ul>
  27. 27. ECOSOC Economic and Social Council
  28. 28. What is ECOSOC? <ul><li>Organ that deals with the </li></ul><ul><li>needs of all humans </li></ul>
  29. 29. What are the Economic Concerns of ECOSOC? <ul><ul><ul><li>Trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. What are the Social Concerns of ECOSOC? <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s rights </li></ul><ul><li>Racial discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Narcotic drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Crime </li></ul><ul><li>Social welfare </li></ul><ul><li>Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Human environment </li></ul><ul><li>Food. </li></ul>
  31. 31. What does the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) do? <ul><ul><li>Makes recommendations on how to improve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>health conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>respect for human rights and freedom of people everywhere </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. How does ECOSOC work? <ul><ul><li>54 member countries, elected by the GA for 3 year terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds one meeting a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Votes are by majority </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. REGIONAL COMMISSIONS <ul><li>Assists ECOSOC in helping people in specific parts of the world </li></ul>
  34. 34. What are the Regional Commissions of the ECOSOC? <ul><li> Regional Economic/Social Commissions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECA - Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECE - Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECLAC - Latin America and the Caribbean </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESCAP -Asia and Pacific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ESCWA - Western Asia </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. SECRETARIAT
  36. 36. What doest the Secretariat do? <ul><ul><li>Carries out the day-to day operations of the United Nations </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. What is the work of the Secretariat? <ul><li>Administer peacekeeping operations </li></ul><ul><li>Mediate international disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Survey economic and social trends and problems </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare studies on human rights and sustainable development </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the media about the work of the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Organize international conferences on issues of worldwide concern </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret speeches </li></ul><ul><li>Translate documents into the Organization's official languages. </li></ul>
  38. 38. How does the Secretariat work? <ul><ul><li>8900 employees in NY with other workers spread all over the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workers include: economists, editors, librarians, translators and experts working “behind the scenes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Headed by the Secretary-General </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Secretary-General <ul><ul><li>Heads the Secretariat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appointed by GA for 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same power as a head of a member country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brings to Security Council problems threatening world peace </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Who is the Secretary General? <ul><li>Ban Ki-Moon </li></ul>
  41. 41. What does the Secretary-General do? <ul><ul><li>Propose issues to be discussed by the U.N </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Referee” in disputes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps resolve issues without going to Security Council or General Assembly </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. What does the Secretary-General do? <ul><ul><li>Heads the staff of international civil servants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff prepares background information on problems to assist in decision making </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Past and Present Secretary-Generals <ul><li>1946-52- Trygve Lie </li></ul><ul><li>1953-61- Dag Hammarskjol </li></ul><ul><li>1961-71- U Thant </li></ul><ul><li>1972-81 Kurt Waldheim </li></ul><ul><li>1982-91-Javier Perez de Cuellar </li></ul><ul><li>1992-1996-Boutrous Boutrous-Ghali </li></ul><ul><li>1997-2006-Kofi Annan </li></ul><ul><li>2007- present - Ban Ki-moon </li></ul>
  44. 44. TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL
  45. 45. What is the Trusteeship Council? <ul><li>Supervises the social advancement of people who live in Trust Territories ( places where the people can’t choose their own governments and are under the protection of the UN) </li></ul><ul><li>Members are the 5 permanent members of the Security Council </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions made by simple majority </li></ul>
  46. 46. How did the Trusteeship Council work? <ul><ul><li>Met once a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studied reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Checked to see that territory is being guided toward independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looked into complaints from the Territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent representatives to determine help needed </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. What did the Trusteeship Council do? <ul><ul><li>Watched over colonies (territory being ruled by country making decisions for them) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up the Special Committee on Decolonization, leading to 60 colonies becoming independent </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. TRUSTEESHIP COUNCIL The Trusteeship council is now defunct. All territories are independent nations.
  49. 49. INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE
  50. 50. What is the International Court of Justice? <ul><ul><li>Main organization handing down legal judgments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has 15 judges, 9 must agree before a decision is made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Housed in The Hague, Netherlands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In permanent session </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. What does the International Court of Justice do? <ul><ul><li>Countries (not individuals) take cases before the court </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When a case is tried, the country must agree to abide by the ruling </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. THE UNITED NATIONS Working for peace among all nations

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