Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Loss Aversion in Facebook Games

26,724 views

Published on

  • D0WNL0AD FULL ▶ ▶ ▶ ▶ http://1lite.top/WJkHd ◀ ◀ ◀ ◀
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • DOWNLOAD THIS BOOKS INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT (2019 Update) ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download PDF EBOOK here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... Download doc Ebook here { https://soo.gd/irt2 } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... eBook is an electronic version of a traditional print book THIS can be read by using a personal computer or by using an eBook reader. (An eBook reader can be a software application for use on a computer such as Microsoft's free Reader application, or a book-sized computer THIS is used solely as a reading device such as Nuvomedia's Rocket eBook.) Users can purchase an eBook on diskette or CD, but the most popular method of getting an eBook is to purchase a downloadable file of the eBook (or other reading material) from a Web site (such as Barnes and Noble) to be read from the user's computer or reading device. Generally, an eBook can be downloaded in five minutes or less ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks .............................................................................................................................. Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, Cookbooks, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult, Crime, Ebooks, Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .....BEST SELLER FOR EBOOK RECOMMEND............................................................. ......................................................................................................................... Blowout: Corrupted Democracy, Rogue State Russia, and the Richest, Most Destructive Industry on Earth,-- The Ride of a Lifetime: Lessons Learned from 15 Years as CEO of the Walt Disney Company,-- Call Sign Chaos: Learning to Lead,-- StrengthsFinder 2.0,-- Stillness Is the Key,-- She Said: Breaking the Sexual Harassment Story THIS Helped Ignite a Movement,-- Atomic Habits: An Easy & Proven Way to Build Good Habits & Break Bad Ones,-- Everything Is Figureoutable,-- What It Takes: Lessons in the Pursuit of Excellence,-- Rich Dad Poor Dad: What the Rich Teach Their Kids About Money THIS the Poor and Middle Class Do Not!,-- The Total Money Makeover: Classic Edition: A Proven Plan for Financial Fitness,-- Shut Up and Listen!: Hard Business Truths THIS Will Help You Succeed, ......................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ACCESS that WEBSITE Over for All Ebooks (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... DOWNLOAD FULL PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... DOWNLOAD FULL EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M }
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • ACCESS that WEBSITE Over for All Ebooks (Unlimited) ......................................................................................................................... DOWNLOAD FULL PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... DOWNLOAD FULL EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download Full PDF EBOOK here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M } ......................................................................................................................... Download EPUB Ebook here { http://bit.ly/2m6jJ5M }
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Loss Aversion in Facebook Games

  1. 1. Perspective from Behavioral Economics to Analyzing Game Design Patterns: Loss aversion in Facebook games<br />Juho Hamari<br />Helsinki Institute for InformationTechnology HIIT<br />The papercanbefoundhere<br />
  2. 2. “a [good] game is a series of interesting choices” – Sid Meier (the father of Civ games)<br />
  3. 3. But what happens when games are designed to direct “real-world” choices?<br />Gamification<br />
  4. 4. Choices about which games to play<br />
  5. 5. Choices about which places to visit<br />
  6. 6. Choices about returning to the game(or paying so you don’t have to)<br />
  7. 7. Choicesaboutlife<br />aspirations<br />Mindbloom.com<br />
  8. 8. In the following slides some of the most common game mechanics in Facebook games are linked to decision making biases that have been found to nudge our decision<br />It becomes increasingly important to think how game mechanics affect our decision making<br />
  9. 9. One perspective:Behavioral economics<br />Behavioral economics = the study of human decision making<br />Prospect theory = the perceived value is based on changes in wealth (reference-dependent)<br />Loss aversion = “Losses loom larger than corresponding gains”<br />Kahneman & Tversky (1979)<br />
  10. 10. Biases related to loss aversion<br />
  11. 11. Loss aversion<br />“losses loom larger than gains”<br />
  12. 12. Endowment effect (Kahneman, Knetsch & Thaler 1991)<br />People feel losses directed to owned goods more strongly than losses which ownership has not been established<br />Implementation: The player is more likely to return to tend the endowments than in a situation where the player would have been simply given the same good(s).<br />(The value function of prospect theory would suggest that) A stick has a bigger impact than a carrot<br />
  13. 13. Sunk-cost fallacy(Kahneman & Tversky 1979; Arkes & Blumer 1985)<br />Rational player would: Not account for (sunk)costs which have already incurred<br />What happens: When we put effort to an activity we are reluctant to discontinue it<br />
  14. 14. Sunk-cost fallacy(Kahneman & Tversky 1979; Arkes & Blumer 1985)<br />Implementation: “Appointment dynamic”<br />The sunk-cost in plowing the field and planting seeds increases the perceived desirability of returning to the game<br />Enticing players to buy keys to open crates in Team Fortress 2<br />Enticing players to come back before crops wither away<br />
  15. 15. Status-quo effect (Kahneman, Knetsch & Thaler 1991; Samuelson & Zeckhauser 1988)<br />Status-quo effect: People have a tendency to select an alternative that is anchored as the default for them<br />Implementation: “Would you like to share wealth with friends [x] Yes, [] No.”<br />Price anchoring in CityVille<br />
  16. 16. Insensitivity to income changes(Bowman et al. 1999 in Camerer 2001)<br />Bias: People have a tendency to continue the same rate of consumption regardless of negative income changes<br />Implementation: Free “starter” currency<br />The expectation is that the player gets used to the level of currency and tends to continue the same level of consumption regardless of negative changes is available currency<br />
  17. 17. Biases related to goals<br />
  18. 18. Quota anchoring(Camerer et al. 1997)<br />Bias:People have a tendency to adhere to quotas they set themselves or that are set for them<br />Implementation: Daily quests anchor a daily quota for players. Not completing the suggested set of daily quests would yield strong dissatisfaction, making the player more likely to spend more time playing<br />
  19. 19. Goal-gradient effect(Hull 1932, Kivetz et al. 2006)<br />Bias: The nearer to a completion of a goalplayergets the quickershecompletesit<br />Mechanic: Leveling, progression<br />Games use different kinds of progression metrics to reinforce this effect<br />
  20. 20. Endowment progress effect(Nunes & Drèze 2006)<br />Bias:If a player has already gained some progression for free, the more likely she is to complete the challenge<br />Mechanic: Free experience points or XP bonus (e.g. rested in World of Warcraft)<br />In many games players are given some initial progress for free<br />
  21. 21. a humble note<br />The presented decision making biases are presented here as hypotheses to how some of the game mechanics affect our decision making. To be absolutely certain about which biases and to what degree they affect our decision making in game contexts, we have to conduct empirical test.<br />
  22. 22. Thankyou<br />mail: juho.hamari @ hiit.fi<br />tweet: @VirtualEconomy<br />http://virtual-economy.org<br />
  23. 23. References (behavioral economics)<br />Arkes, H. R., & Blumer, C. (1985). The psychology of sunk cost. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 35(1),124-140.<br />Camerer, C, F. (2001). Prospect theory in the wild: Evidence from the field. In Choices, Values, and Frames, 288-300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.<br />Camerer, C, F., Babcock, L., Loewenstein, G., & Thaler, R. (1997). Labor Supply of New York City Cab Drivers: One Day at a Time. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 111, 408-41.<br />Hull, C. L. (1932).The Goal Gradient Hypothesis and Maze Learning. Psychological Review, 39, 25-43<br />Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J., & Thaler, R. (1991). The Endowment Effect, Loss Aversion, and Status Quo Bias: Anomalies. Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, 5(1), 193-206.<br />Kahneman, D. & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: An analysis of decisions under risk. Econometrica, 47, 313–327.<br />Kivetz, R., Urminsky, O., & Zheng, Y. (2006). The Goal-Gradient Hypothesis Resurrected: Purchase Acceleration, Illusionary Goal Progress, and Customer Retention. Journal of Marketing Research, (February 2006), 39-58.<br />Nunes, J., & Drèze, X. The Endowed Progress Effect: How Artificial Advancement Increases Effort. Journal of Consumer Research, 2006, 32 (4), 504-12.<br />Samuelson, W., & Zeckhauser, R. (1988). Status quo bias in decision making. Journalof Risk and Uncertainty 1 7-59.<br />
  24. 24. References(marketing in social games)<br />Hamari, J. (2011). Perspectives from behavioral economics to analyzing game design patterns: loss aversion in social games. CHI'2011 Social games workshop.<br />Hamari, J., & Järvinen, A. (2011). Building Customer Relationship through Game Mechanics in Social Games. In M. Cruz-Cunha, V. Carvalho & P. Tavares (Eds.),Business, Technological and Social Dimensions of Computer Games: Multidisciplinary Developments. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.<br />Hamari, J., & Lehdonvirta, V. (2010). Game design as marketing: How game mechanics create demand for virtual goods. International Journal of Business Science & Applied Management, 5(1), 14-29.<br />

×