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Hoenke Perspectives 9 26 09


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How did climate change in ancient days affect people, plants and animals on earth? Karl Hoenke shares research data on glaciers coming and going, global temperatures, oceans and waterways levels changing and more. Climate change of today is nothing compared to ancient days when people managed to survive and sometimes thrive.

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Hoenke Perspectives 9 26 09

  1. 1. 1<br />Musings on Dark Ages, Climates and ConnectednessContext & Perspectives<br />Presented to Ancient Artifact Preservation Society (AAPS)<br />by Karl Hoenke<br />26 September 2009<br />Marquette, Michigan<br />
  2. 2. Overview<br />Why’d it take us so long?<br />Dust Veils & Dark Ages<br />Things “out of place” <br />Glance at prehistoric Copper Industry <br />Introduce a few pre-Columbian maps<br />Recommended reading<br />
  3. 3. Average World Temperatures °F<br />Younger--Dryas<br />Toba Eruption – Mankind reduced to ~3,000 individuals (bottleneck)<br />Nashville<br />Chicago<br />Calgary<br />Nome<br />Comet Hit – End Ice Age<br />+9<br />Average Today = 57 °F<br />0<br />-9<br />48 °F<br />-18<br />39 °F<br />-27<br />30 °F<br />-36<br />21 °F<br />50<br />100<br />90<br />80<br />70<br />10<br />60<br />40<br />30<br />20<br />0<br />Thousands of Years Before Present (kBP)<br />
  4. 4. Stability<br />Average Today = 57 °F<br />± 2.5°F !!!<br />48 °F<br />39 °F<br />30 °F<br />21 °F<br />30<br />20<br />0<br />10<br />Thousands of Years Before Present (kBP)<br />Average World Temperatures °F<br />
  5. 5. Temperature Perspectives<br />+2 °F<br />-3 °F<br />
  6. 6. Selected, but Key Dates<br />11,000 BC Comet struck N.A.<br /> 5,500 BC Black Sea Inundated<br />2,354 BC<br /> 1,628 BC<br /> 1,159 BC Dust Veil Events<br /> 207 BC<br /> 540 AD<br />
  7. 7. 11,000 BCComet strikes Upper Midwest Ice Sheet<br />Approximate End of cave painting era in Europe<br />Megafauna disappear from North America<br />World ocean levels rose 300 feet, episodically, over next 6,000 years, inundating coastal settlements world-wide<br />Signs of recovery in Europe:<br />Ćatalhüyük & Göbekli Tepe, Turkey (9,000 BC)<br />Jericho, Israel (9,000 BC)<br />Woodhenges, Britain (8,000 BC)<br />Megalithic Culture, Atlantic Europe, (5,000 BC)<br />Signs of recovery in North America<br />Archaic (& Red Paint) cultures begin ~5,000 BC<br />Mound cultures begin ~3,000 BC<br />Old Copper Culture begins ~3,500 BC<br />
  8. 8. 5,500 BCMediterranean Floods Black Sea<br />Indo-Europeans disperse<br />Farming begins penetrating Europe EW<br />Major shift from Matriarchal to Patriarchal societies in Mediterranean region<br />Possible event remembered as Gilgamesh and Biblical Flood<br />
  9. 9. World-Wide “Dust Veil” EventsTree Rings Show 5-10 Year Effects<br />Chinese, Roman, Mayan, Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian:<br />“Sun has no warmth”<br />Crops fail due to extended draughts<br />Wide-spread famines<br />“Sun casts no shadow”<br />“Stars not seen”<br />Summer frosts kill crops<br />Irish bog oaks, California bristlecones, German & Turkish trees show no-growth rings<br />Ice cores may show sulfur signals, narrow bands<br />Synopsis made from Baillie’s Exodus to Arthur<br />
  10. 10. Three Candidates for Disturbances<br />Volcanoes<br />May produce Sulfur signal in ice cores<br />Effects last 2-3 years at most<br />Marine “Outgassing”<br />Effects local or regional<br />Effects may imitate plagues<br />Comet &/or Bolide Strikes<br />Effects differ for marine or land hits<br />Can vary from local to world-wide<br />Can have prolonged effects<br />Effects captured in myth imagery<br />
  11. 11. 2,354 BCEruption of Hekla IV<br />Chinese floods & famine<br />Sudden water level rises in Irish lakes<br />Weak link to Egyptian 1st Intermediate Period<br />
  12. 12. 1,628 BCProbable date of Thera/Santorini eruption<br />Stonehenge abandoned<br />Hyksos rule of Egypt (2nd Intermediate period) <br />Three fourths of “men” of Ireland die<br />End of Minoan hegemony, power shifts to Greece<br /><ul><li>End of Xia Dynasty in China
  13. 13. Biblical Exodus?
  14. 14. Recovery begins ~ 200 yr later in Egypt</li></li></ul><li>1,159 BC<br />End Mediterranean, Aegean, Egyptian, Syrian Cultures<br />Trojan War, “Sea Peoples”<br />Irish King list cites “Catastrophes” <br />End Shang dynasty in China<br />Bronze Age ends in Europe<br />Recovery begins with rise of Classic Greece, 800 BC<br />1100 BC, Chou dynasty begins 900 year run<br />
  15. 15. 207 BC<br />Chinese lose “Mandate of Heaven”, dynasty change amid famines<br />“Stones fall from sky” in Mediterranean<br />Roman famines, epidemics<br />California tree rings extremely narrow<br />Rapid recovery in Mediterranean<br />
  16. 16. 540 ADLikelyComet Impact<br />Chinese lose “Mandate of Heaven”, suffer famines<br />“Failure of bread” in Ireland<br />Justinian plague & Collapse of Roman Empire<br />Gupta dynasty ends in India, 540 AD<br />Brief Mayan “intermediate” period<br />Coldest summer, including frosts, in 1500 yr<br />Recovery appears with <br />Classic Mayan (600 AD)<br />Beginning of Medieval Europe (~1,000 AD)<br />After 500 yr of brief dynasties, Song stabilized China, 960 AD<br />
  17. 17. 16<br />Short-List of “Things out of Place” - 1<br />Excerpted from “Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages” by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, 2006<br />CiS = carved in stone<br />
  18. 18. 17<br />Short-List of “Things out of Place” - 2<br />Excerpted from “Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages” by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, 2006<br />CiS = carved in stone<br />
  19. 19. 18<br />Short-List of “Things out of Place” - 3<br />Excerpted from “Biological Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages” by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, 2006<br />CiS = carved in stone<br />
  20. 20. 19<br />Copper Removal from Keweenaw Region<br />Roger Jewell Model<br />Bronze Age Begins<br />Minoan Civilization<br />Level of Mining Activity<br />Collapse of Bronze Age<br />Old Copper Culture<br />3,000 BC<br />2,400 BC<br />600 BC<br />1,200 BC<br />1,800 BC<br />
  21. 21. 20<br />Some pre-Columbian Maps<br />
  22. 22. 21<br />Recommended Reading<br />Roger L. Jewell, Ancient Mines of Kitchi-Gummi, 2004<br />Victor H. Mair (ed), Contact and Exchange in the Ancient World, 2006 (paper by Sorenson and Johannessen)<br />Charles Mann, 1491, 2006 (Pre-Columbian conditions)<br />Gavin Menzies, 1421, 2002 (Chinese world tour)<br />Gavin Menzies, 1434, 2008 (Chinese visit to Europe)<br />Firestone, Allen & West, Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes, 2006 (comet theory)<br />Mike Baillie, Exodus to Arthur, 1999 (Dust Veil Events)<br />Mike Baillie, New Light on the Black Death, 2006<br />
  23. 23. QUESTIONS ???<br />
  24. 24.
  25. 25. Average World Temperatures<br />
  26. 26. 80<br />Timeline of Selected Events<br />kBP = Thousand Years Before Present<br />Early Modern Sapiens Moves “Out of Africa” (~100 kBP)<br />75<br />70<br />Modern Sapiens Bottleneck to Approximately 3,000 Individuals<br />65<br />60<br />55<br />Modern Sapiens Successfully Leaves Africa <br />50<br />Modern Sapiens (Cro-Magnon) Occupies Europe, Paints Caves!<br />45<br />40<br />35<br />30<br />S<br />25<br />Australia colonized by sea (~40-50 kBP)<br />20<br />Americas 1st populated by sea, estimated 18-30 kBP<br />15<br />Younger-Dryas (12.8-11.5 kBP)<br />10<br />Earliest “City” -- Catalhuyuk<br />5<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />25<br />Today<br />Stonehenge<br />
  27. 27. Topper Site, South Carolina (19-16 kBP, to 50 kBP?)<br />16<br />15<br />Many Sites (Meadowcroft, Cactus Hill, Monte Verde, etc)<br />14<br />13<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />12<br />Clovis Culture (11.0-10.8 kBP)<br />11<br />Comet strikes N.A. Ice Sheet<br />10<br />Maximum Ice Sheet<br />(18-14 kBP)<br />9<br />8<br />7<br />Virtually Blank N.A. Slate<br />6<br />Japan Current Route<br />5<br />Textbook Paradigm denies any contact between N.A. & rest of World for 10,000 years!<br />4<br />3<br />2<br />Timeline of Selected Events<br />kBP = Thousand Years Before Present<br />1<br />26<br />Today<br />
  28. 28. Bronze Age (Europe, E Med.)<br />Using the World’s Oceans<br />Events in Americas<br />11<br />Clovis Culture (11.0-10.8 kBP)<br />Bering Land Bridge Opens<br />Folsom Culture<br />10<br />Indian Ocean trading<br />Black Sea floods at Bosporus<br />9<br />Plainview Culture<br />Polynesians Leave Taiwan <br />(5.7 kBP)<br />8<br />7<br />East Coast “Red Paint” Culture<br />Fengtien jade trade Taiwan to Asia (5.2 kBP)<br />Copper Mining in Keweenaw (7-3.2 kBP)<br />Most intense period 4.5-3.2 kBP<br />6<br />Egyptians import cedars & obelisks (5-2 kBP)<br />East Coast “Megalithic Culture<br />5<br />Adena, Hopewell & Mississippian Mound Builders<br />Uluburun ship sinks w/10 tons of copper (3 kBP)<br />4<br />3<br />Chinese Explore N.A. West<br />Hittite, Egyptian, Levant cultures Collapse, Trojan War (1,200 BC)<br />2<br />Greek, Persian & Roman Navies, & Trading<br />African trade to Central America<br />1<br />Vikings, L’Anse Aux Meadows<br />Timeline of Selected Events<br />kBP = Thousand Years Before Present<br />Columbus<br />27<br />Today<br />