GOAL SETTING• Definition – a • Michael Johnson 400m world technique used to • Goals based on control anxiety by physical conditioning, directing attention mental strength, clear vision, plan away from stress and towards an achievable target
Do Group Goals Enhance Group Performance?1. Very strong evidence showing individual goals improve individual performance: Locke and Latham (1990) reported that 175 studies2. (i.e., 91%) showed a positive effect.2. Ten non sport studies (1978 - 1992) showed that GROUP goals hada positive effect on GROUP Performance3. Four sport studies (1988 - 1993) showed that TEAM goals enhancedteam performance.
b) SPECIFICITY OF TEAM GOALS How specific should team goals be?VERY GENERAL vs. VERY SPECIFICe.g. Being the best I can be e.g. Being able to direct 50% of my shots at one of 4 corners of net
d) INVOLVEMENT IN TEAM GOAL SETTINGWho should be involved in team goal setting i) the coach only? ii) the coach and key players? iii) just the key players? iv) everyone on the team?
c) DIFFICULTY OF TEAM GOALS How difficult should team goals be? VERY EASY vs. VERY DIFFICULTe.g. Wanting 50% on a test e.g. Wanting 100% on a test when you are a 75% student when you are a 75% student If a team normally can sink 50% of their free throws Wanting to sink 30% of their Wanting to sink 90% of free throws their free throws
e) Time frame for goals.Teams should have i) Short term goals (e.g., reducing # of turnovers in tonights game)? ii) Middle range goals (e.g., reducing # of turnovers by 3 per game)? iii) Long range goals (e.g., reducing # of turnovers by 5 per game by the end of this season)?
5. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AFTER GOALS ARE SET? a) Write down goals. b) Monitor progress toward goals. c) Reward successful completion of team goals (process and performance). d) Adjust goals if necessary.
Outcome Goals!• Targets to achieve a result eg qualifying for next round• Method not important• Advantages; Increase motivation – outcome goal oriented• Disadvantage ; Result can be affected by outside influences so may not win• If unsuccessful – increased anxiety
Performance Goals• Performers attempts judged against themselves or others eg achieving a time, running first lap of 1500m in under 60secs• Result does not matter• Advantage; focus on performance so not anxious about result• Maintains motivation and may be increased
Process Goals• Concentrate on techniques and tactics eg slower backswing during a bunker shot• Influence performance goals
Try this!• 2004 Olympics 1500m final women – YouTube• Explain the differences between outcome, performance and process goals using your own sporting example. (3 marks)• Which of these tends to be best at reducing anxiety? Explain your answer. (4 marks)
• Elite performers take part in training programmes that are carefully planned and will often include goal-setting to improve performance.• (a) Why should goal-setting lead to improved performance? (3 marks)• (a) 1. Task persistence;• 2. Focuses learning/target to aim for/directs attention to certain skill;• 3. Motivates performer/mobilises effort through feedback;• 4. Reduces stress/anxiety;• 5. Increases self-efficay/confidence.
(b) Explain the main principles of effective goal-setting. (5 marks)• (b) 1. SMARTER (Mnemonic must be in correct order to credit)• 2. Specific so that the athlete knows what they are working towards and when they have reached the goal/specific to themselves;• 3. Challenging/exciting to provide an incentive and the satisfaction of achievement;• 5. Attainable/realistic . within the athlete’s capabilities so that the performer does not become disheartened by being unable to reach the goal;• 6. Measurable and recordable . use times/distances;• 7. Personal/agreed . set jointly between athlete and coach;• 8. Short and long-term/timed/feedback on progress can be provided• 10. Set goals for both practice and competition;• 11. Performance/individual goals used;• 12. Outcomes/team goals not as effective.