Module   3 Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
Module Overview <ul><li>Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks  </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and Configuring Virtual Ma...
Lesson  1 : Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks  <ul><li>What  Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines ? </li...
What Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines? IDE SCSI <ul><li>Two IDE controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Two devices each...
Dynamically Expanding Disks vs. Fixed Disks  Dynamically expanding virtual hard disk: Fixed-Size virtual hard disk: Test  ...
Differencing Disks Differencing virtual hard disks: <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate changes  </li></ul><ul><li...
Pass-through Disks Pass-through disks: <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Support for more ...
Host Computer Considerations for Virtual Hard Drives Considerations: <ul><li>Fast hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrored a...
Using and Configuring iSCSI Storage iSCSI Initiator iSCSI storage: <ul><li>Uses the existing IP network </li></ul><ul><li>...
Demonstration: Creating Virtual Hard Disks with the Virtual Disk Wizard <ul><li>In this demonstration ,  you  will learn  ...
Demonstration: Inspecting and Editing Virtual Disks <ul><li>In this demonstration ,  you   will  learn how to:  </li></ul>...
Lesson 2: Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines <ul><li>Settings for Virtual Machines </li></ul><ul><li>What Are the C...
Settings for Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Settings
What Are the Components of a Virtual Machine? Virtual Machine components include: <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Network...
Demonstration: New Virtual Machine Wizard <ul><li>In this demonstration ,  you  will learn how to use the new Virtual Mach...
Demonstration: Hyper-V Integration Settings <ul><li>In this demonstration ,  you  will learn how  to  configure and instal...
Exporting and Importing Virtual Machines in Hyper-V  Originating Computer Exported Virtual Machine Destination Computer Im...
Virtual Machine Installation Methods Install using  CD/DVD Install from  an .ISO Install from a  boot floppy
Considerations for Migrating Legacy Virtual Machines  Virtual Server 2005 Hyper-V Virtual Machine Additions Integration Se...
Lesson 3: Managing Virtual Machine Snapshots <ul><li>What Are Hyper-V Virtual Machine Snapshots?  </li></ul><ul><li>Design...
What Are Hyper-V Virtual Machine Snapshots?  Snapshots: <ul><li>Are a point-in-time copy of a virtual machine </li></ul><u...
Design Considerations for Using Snapshots in Hyper-V Snapshots: <ul><li>Should not be used in production environments  </l...
Implementing Hyper-V Snapshots  Manage snapshot options: <ul><li>Create Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>View Snapshot </li></ul...
Demonstration: Using Snapshots in Hyper-V R2 <ul><li>In this demonstration ,  you  will learn how to: </li></ul><ul><li>Ta...
 
Lesson 4: Working with the Virtual Machine Connection Application <ul><li>Virtual Machine Connection Application </li></ul...
Virtual Machine Connection Application Virtual Machine Connection: <ul><li>Is used to manage local or remote virtual machi...
Demonstration: Managing the Virtual Machine Connection Application <ul><li>In this demonstration ,  you  will learn  how t...
Lesson 5: Planning Virtualization for Applications <ul><li>Planning Hyper-V Hosts  </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Virtual Mac...
Planning Hyper-V Hosts  When planning Hyper-V hosts: <ul><li>Simplify and standardize the host platform </li></ul><ul><li>...
Guidelines for Designing Virtual Machines Guidelines: <ul><li>Simplify and standardize the host platform </li></ul><ul><li...
Designing Virtual Machines for SQL Server Guidelines: <ul><li>Ensure that the Hyper-V integration components are installed...
Designing Virtual Machines for Exchange Server When designing virtual machines for Exchange Server: <ul><li>Use standard s...
Designing Virtual Machines for SharePoint When designing virtual machines for SharePoint: <ul><li>Configure virtual machin...
L ab : Creating Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines <ul><li>Exercise  1 :   Creating Virtual Hard Disks Based on Organ...
Lab Scenario <ul><li>Contoso, Ltd. has decided to introduce virtualization into their IT environment. They want to reduce ...
Lab Review <ul><li>How will you use snapshots in your organization ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a standard design for v...
Module Review and Takeaways <ul><li>Review Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Common Issues and Troubleshooting Tips </li></ul><u...
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  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines Presentation: 60 minutes Lab: 60 minutes After completing this module, students will be able to: Create and configure virtual hard disks (VHDs). Create and configure virtual machines. Manage virtual machine snapshots. Work with the virtual machine connection application. Required materials To teach this module, you need the Microsoft® Office PowerPoint® file 10215A_03.ppt. Important: It is recommended that you use PowerPoint 2002 or a later version to display the slides for this course. If you use PowerPoint Viewer or an earlier version of PowerPoint, all the features of the slides might not be displayed correctly. Preparation tasks To prepare for this module: Read all of the materials for this module. Practice performing the demonstrations and the lab exercises. Work through the Module Review and Takeaways section, and determine how you will use this section to reinforce student learning and promote knowledge transfer to on-the-job performance. Make sure that students are aware that there are additional information and resources for the module on the Course Companion CD.
  • Briefly present the different sections. See if any of the students have worked with snapshots before. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Introduce the lesson content. Emphasize that most of the lesson content centers around planning , which is a very important component of the deployment process. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • How is IDE and SCSI implemented in Hyper-V? There are two types of disk controllers that Hyper-V supports: small computer system interface (SCSI) and integrated development environment (IDE). There are two IDE controllers and four SCSI controllers available. Each IDE controller can have two devices. You cannot boot from a SCSI controller, so therefore, an IDE disk is required. If you want a CD-ROM drive, it will consume an IDE device slot. Each SCSI controller can support up to 64 devices. Both SCSI and IDE can support pass-through disks, fixed-size disks, and dynamic disks. The difference between IDE and SCSI is how you implement the controllers. The IDE controller is emulated, whereas the SCSI controller is synthetic. Synthetic and Emulated Devices Synthetic devices are new with Microsoft Hyper-V™, and are designed to have the lowest overhead for devices. These devices package requests and forward them to the StorVSP driver in the root over the Virtual Machine BUS (VMBUS), which then forwards them to the device after any needed processing. Emulated devices, on the other hand, emulate a real piece of hardware. Emulation happens in the vmwp.exe process (one per VM). The most important reason for having emulated devices is to support operating systems that do not have integration components installed. The emulated devices can also be thought of as boot-strapping devices since the preference should be to use the virtual devices. Keep in mind that the boot IDE drive uses a filter driver after boot for improved performance if integration components are installed. The synthetic devices are important because they help reduce the central processing unit (CPU) overhead when accessing a device. The IDE controller implements a well-known IDE controller and this means there is extra processing before the input/output (I/O) is sent to the disk. The SCSI controller is synthetic, not emulated. The SCSI controller uses VMBUS (Virtual Machine BUS). The I/O&apos;s pass from the Guest Partition to the root over VMBUS and enter the I/O stack. Once and I/O completes its completion is sent over VMBUS. The VMBUS is a point-to-point memory bus that the Virtualization Service Provider (VSP) and Virtualization Service Client (VSC) use to communicate with each other. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Dynamically Expanding Virtual Hard Disks Dynamically expanding VHDs start off very small (just a few megabytes in size) and grow as data is written them. By default, Hyper-V creates dynamically-expanding virtual hard disks. When you create a dynamically expanding virtual hard disk, you specify a maximum file size. The default maximum size is 127 gigabytes (GB), and they can be as large as 2 terabytes. The maximum size specified at creation restricts how large the virtual hard disk file size can grow. For example, if you create a 127 GB dynamically expanding virtual hard disk, the initial size of the .VHD file is about 3 megabytes (MB). As the virtual machine uses the virtual hard disk, the size of the .VHD file grows as data is written the VHD up to 127 GB. If you hit the limit, you can expand the size through the Hyper-V Disk Wizard. Because dynamically expanding virtual hard disks grow as required, a dynamically expanding virtual hard disk is likely to become fragments on the host computer&apos;s physical hard disk. Therefore, depending on how fragmented the host computer&apos;s physical hard disk is, it could impact performance depending on the amount of fragmentation. Dynamic VHD Benefits Efficient: Dynamically expanding virtual hard disks grow dynamically as the virtual machine needs more storage. Great for portability. Dynamic VHD Drawbacks Deferred storage allocation: Suppose you create 10 virtual machines with a maximum size of 100 GB each, and you place these on a 500-GB disk. These 10 virtual machines may all fit within 500 GB when you create them. However, over time, as those disks grow, it is possible that they outgrow storage because the disk resources are not allocated upfront. Fragmentation and possibly slight performance impact: Because dynamically-expanding virtual hard disks grow only when needed, they tend to fragment easily. In addition, when the virtual hard disks grow, NTFS file system automatically zeros the new allocation (for security), which has a very small performance overhead.   Dynamic VHD Use Scenario Dynamically expanding virtual hard disks are ideal for use in test and development environments, where performance is not always a factor. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • About undo and differencing disks Differencing disks store all state changes to a virtual machine or virtual hard disk in a separate file. This allows you to isolate changes to a virtual machine and keep a virtual hard disk in an unchanged state. Virtual Server 2005 and Virtual PC 2007 use another disk type, called an undo disk. The main difference between an undo disk and a differencing disk is that undo disks apply to all virtual hard disks associated with a virtual machine, and a differencing disk applies to one virtual hard disk only. Windows Server® 2008 Hyper-V does not include the undo disk type, but does introduce a new feature called a snapshot. A snapshot allows you to take a point-in-time snapshot of a virtual machine. All virtual machine state information is saved. At any time, you can revert the virtual machine back to that specific point in time. You cannot specify a size for an differencing disk. Differencing disks are a special type of dynamically expanding disks. The size of any dynamically expanding disk only grows; it does not shrink, even when you delete data. Differencing disks can grow as large as the parent disks to which they are associated. However, unlike dynamically expanding disks, differencing disks cannot be compacted directly. When the parent disk has been updated with the changes stored in the differencing disk the parent disk can be compacted as if it is a dynamically expanding disk. If the parent disk is a fixed-size disk, you can compact it by converting it to a dynamically expanding disk and then compacting the converted disk. Question: In what scenarios would a differencing disk be useful? Answer: A differencing disk provides the ability to have a standardized parent disk, which would remain unchanged. You then could create multiple child disks based on the parent disk. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Pass-through disks With both dynamic and fixed-size virtual hard disks, the VHD is a file on disk. Pass-through disks are a different type of storage option where a Logical Unit Number (LUN) is associated with a virtual machine and the virtual machine writes directly to the LUN without encapsulation in a virtual hard disk. With pass-through disks, there is no VHD. Pass-through disk benefits: Performance: Like fixed-size disks, pass-through disks are very fast. Keep in mind that fixed-size virtual hard disks perform so well that they are about equal to pass-through disks. This is testament to the new Hyper-V driver architecture. Support for greater than 2 terabytes per disk: VHDs are limited to 2 terabytes each. With pass-through disks, the limit per disk is whatever the guest operating system supports and the size of your physical storage.   Pass-through disk drawbacks: Cannot use virtual machine snapshots: When you create a virtual machine snapshot, Hyper-V is asynchronously saving the state of a virtual machine and creating a differencing disk. You cannot do that with a physical disk. Portability and encapsulation: VHDs encapsulate everything in files, which makes them portable.   Question: In what scenario would a pass-through disk be ideal? Answer: A pass-through disk is ideal if you seek better performance than VHDs offer. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Use drives that are at least 10,000, preferably 15,000 RPM as this will improve performance. Use a redundant array of independent disks (RAID) 1 (Mirror) array for the host operating system. Use Internet SCSI (iSCSI) with the exiting network to improve performance. Use storage area networks (SANs) to host and store virtual machines. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • iSCSI is a standard developed to enable transmission of SCSI block commands over an existing IP network using the TCP/IP protocol. The advantage of iSCSI is that it allows organizations the capability of delivering both messaging traffic and block-based storage over an existing IP network without having to install a separate, expensive Fibre Channel network. The iSCSI target provides block-level storage as disk volumes. You can mount these disk volumes with any client running an iSCSI initiator. The iSCSI target uses space that is allocated as VHDs within the Windows ® Storage Server. Hyper-V can take advantage of the capabilities and use iSCSI as a storage solution for virtual machines and virtual hard drives. You can use SANs and iSCSI to optimize hard disk usage, and improve virtual machine and hard disk performance. The advantage in using a SAN is that it spreads disk usage across many physical drives. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • D emonstration steps: Creating a dynamic virtual disk 1. On NYC-Host1, in Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click New , and then click Hard Disk . 2. On the Before You Begin page, and then click Next . 3. On the Choose Disk Type page, click Dynamically expanding , and then click Next . 4. On the Specify Name and Location page, in the Name field, type Demo3-Dynamic.vhd , and in the Location field, type c:\\Virtual Machines , and then click Next . 5. On the Configure Disk page, leave the default values, and then click Next . 6. On the Completing the New Virtual Disk Wizard page, click Finish . Creating a fixed virtual disk: 1. In Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click New, and then click Hard Disk . 2. On the Before You Begin page, and then click Next . 3. On the Choose Disk Type page , click Fixed size , and then click Next. 4. On the Specify Name and Location page, in the Name field, type Demo3-Fixed.vhd , and in the Location field type c:\\Virtual Machines, and then click Next . 5. On the Configure Disk page, change the Create a new blank virtual disk size to 5 GB , and then click Next . 6. On the Completing the New Virtual Disk Wizard page, click Finish . Creating a differencing virtual disk: 1. In Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click New , and then click Hard Disk . 2. On the Before You Begin page, click Next . 3. On the Choose Disk Type page, click Differencing , and then click Next . 4. On the Specify Name and Location page, in the Name field, type Demo3-Diff-drive.vhd , and in the Location field type c:\\Virtual Machines, and then click Next . 5. On the Configure Disk page, click Browse . Browse to E:\\Program Files\\Microsoft Learning\\Base . Click Base10A-WS08R2-HV.vhd , click Open , and then click Next . 5. On the Completing the New Virtual Disk Wizard page, click Finish . Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • D emonstration steps: Compacting a virtual disk 1. In Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click Edit Disk , and then click Next . 2. On the Locate Virtual Hard Disk page, click Browse . 3. On the Open page, browse to C:\\Virtual Machines , select Lab3-Dynamic.vhd , click Open , and then click Next . 4. On the Choose Action page, select Compact . 5. On the Completing the New Virtual Disk Wizard page, click Finish . Converting a virtual disk 1. In Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click Edit Disk , and then click Next . 2. On the Locate Virtual Hard Disk page, click Browse . 3. On the Open page, browse to c:\\Virtual Machines , select Lab3-Dynamic.vhd , click Open , and then click Next . 4. On the Choose Action page, select Convert . 5. On the Convert Virtual Hard Disk page, type c:\\Virtual Machines\\Demo3-Converted.vhd , and then click Next . Point out that converting a dynamically expanding disk creates a fixed size disk. Because the disk was created with a maximum size of 127 GB, the process would create a fixed hard disk with that size. 6. On the Completing the New Virtual Disk Wizard page, click Cancel . Expanding a virtual disk 1. In Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click Edit Disk , and then click Next . 2. On the Locate Virtual Hard Disk page, click Browse. 3. On the Open page, browse to c:\\Virtual Machines , select Lab3-Fixed.vhd , click Open , and then click Next . 4. On the Choose Action page, select Expand , and increase the size by 5 GB . 5. On the Completing the New Virtual Disk Wizard page, click Finish . Inspecting a virtual disk 1. In Hyper-V Manager , in the Actions pane, click Inspect Disk , and then click Next . 2. In the Open dialog box, click Demo3-DiffDrive.vhd , and then click Open . 3. In the Virtual Hard Disk Properties dialog box, show the link to the parent drive. Click Inspect . This action displays the information about the parent hard disk. 4. Click Close twice. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Introduce the lesson content. Emphasize that most of the lesson content talks about planning , which is a very important component of the deployment process. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Discuss the use of the New Virtual Machine Wizard. This module will provide more detail on the wizard’s use. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Virtual Machine Wizard The New Virtual Machine Wizard provides you with a simple and flexible way to create a virtual machine. The New Virtual Machine Wizard is available from Hyper-V Manager. You can use default settings to create a virtual machine without proceeding through all configuration pages of the wizard. This type of virtual machine is configured as follows: Name: New Virtual Machine Location: The default location configured for the Hyper-V server Memory: 512 MB Virtual hard disk: Dynamically expanding hard disk with a storage capacity of 127 gigabytes Operating system: No media specified Network connection: Not connected Instead of using the default configuration above, you can use the wizard to specify a custom configuration. The wizard uses the following pages to create a virtual machine that is customized for your needs. Before You Begin You can create a virtual machine without working through the pages of the wizard. If you click Finish on this page, the wizard creates a virtual machine with a default configuration. Otherwise, you can customize a virtual machine on the following pages. Specify Name and Location You can specify a name and location suited to your environment. Note: If you plan to cluster this virtual machine hard disk, choose the option to store the virtual machine in a new folder, and then specify a shared location. Assign Memory Specify at least enough memory to run the guest operating system and all applications that you want to run simultaneously. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • D emonstration steps: Inserting integration services setup disk 1. On NYC-Host1, in the Actions pane, click New , and then click Virtual Machine . 2. The New Virtual Machine Wizard appears. Click Next . 3. On the Specify Name and Location page, in the Name field, type Demo3-VM . 4. Select the Store the virtual machine in a different location check box. In the Location field, type C:\\Virtual Machines , and then click Next . 5. On the Assign Memory page, in the Memory field, type 1024 , and then click Next . 6. On the Configure Networking page, in the Connection list, click Internal Network , and then click Next . 7. On the Connect Virtual Hard Disk page, click Use an existing virtual hard disk . Click Browse , click Demo3-Dynamic.vhd , click Open , and then click Next . On the Completing the New Virtual Machine Wizard page, click Finish . Question: How would you create a virtual machine that will use a SCSI controller for data disks? Answer: You would need to complete the creation of the virtual machine, and then access the virtual machine properties and add a SCSI controller and disk. When you run the New Virtual Machine wizard, you are configuring the boot disk for the virtual machine, and this disk must be connected to an IDE controller. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Demonstration steps: Configuring the integration services 1. On NYC-Host1, in Hyper-V Manager , right-click 10215A-NYC-CL1 , and click Settings. 2. Under Management , click Integration Services . Discuss the different integration services that are provided for virtual machines. Click Cancel . Install the integration services 1. Right-click 10215A-NYC-CL1 , and click Start . 2. Right-click 10215A-NYC-CL1 , and click Connect . 3. Log on to NYC-CL1 as Administrator with a password of Pa$$w0rd . 4. On the Action menu, in the 10215A-NYC-CL1 on localhost – Virtual Machine Connection window, click Insert Integration Services Setup Disk . 5. In the AutoPlay window, click Install Hyper-V Integration Services . In the Hyper-V Integration Services dialog box, click OK . Question: How would you know if you needed to install the integration services in a virtual machine? Answer: You should install the integration services if you notice that some of the integration services are not working correctly. For example, you would install it if the virtual machine time is not synchronizing with the host time. For some virtual machine operating systems, you also need to install the integration services before you can enable synthetic devices, such as synthetic network adaptors. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Import and Export The Hyper-V import and export tools are used to move virtual machines from host to host. The Import tool will load the exported virtual machine, read the configuration file, and will then run the virtual machine at the import location. The export tool gathers all related files of a Hyper-V virtual machine and places them into a specified folder. Useful Scenarios Moving a virtual machine from one host to another. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Discuss the options for installing a virtual machine . Ensure to emphasize using: CD and DVD International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Network installation Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Virtual PC and Virtual Server Migration Virtual PC 2007, Microsoft Virtual Server 2005, and Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V utilize the common, open VHD format for storing the file content of virtual machines. Consequently, existing virtual machines created with Virtual Server 2005 and Virtual PC 2007 can be migrated to a Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V host. Administrators can create and manage existing virtualized workloads in Virtual Server 2005, and after deployment, move those virtual machines directly to Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V without any need to recreate the virtual hard drives. This ensures that administrators can continue to leverage their existing investment in a virtualized infrastructure, and move that infrastructure to Hyper-V as they are ready. Migration Steps: Remove the virtual machine additions from the virtual machine in Virtual Server 2005 R2, and then move it over to Hyper-V. Copy .vhd file to the Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V server. Note: Do not copy the .vmc file to Hyper-V server. Create the new virtual machine in Hyper-V with the copied VHD file. Note: If the operating systems are NOT supported then you must remove the network adaptor and add the Legacy Network Adapter to get networking running. Install the integration services on the guest operating system if they are available. This is a one-way migration. Virtual Server 2005 and Virtual PC 2007 virtual machines can be migrated to Hyper-V. However, you cannot migrate Hyper-V virtual machines back to Virtual Server 2005 or Virtual PC 2007. Question: Is there a scenario in which you would not complete step 4 above? Answer: It is best practice to always install the integration components . if they available for the guest operating system. Under regular circumstances, the ICs would not be installed if they are not available for the guest operating system. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Introduce snapshots. Cover snapshots at a high level, as this lesson provides more detail . Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Snapshot Overview Snapshots are a new feature of Windows Server 2008 Hyper-V. Snapshots are a point-in-time version of a virtual machine. This means that when the virtual machine is running, you can create a snapshot. At any time, you can select the snapshot, and revert the virtual machine back to that point in time. When a VM is restored using a snapshot, the virtual machine is in the exact configuration that it was when the snapshot was created (memory, virtual hardware, processes, and machine state). Snapshots do not affect the running state of the virtual machine. When you create a snapshot, it does not change the virtual machine hardware, applications, or the processes that are running. Additionally, when deleting a snapshot, the virtual machine does not change, and the point-in-time save point is no longer restorable. The snapshot files consist of the following: A copy of the virtual machine configuration .xml file Any save state files A differencing disk (.avhd) that is the new working disk for all writes that is the child of the working disk prior to the snapshot. Question: How are multiple branches are created in a snapshot tree? Answer: If you create snapshots, one right after each other, and never apply a previous snapshot, then you will have a tree with one branch. If you apply a previous snapshot, then you will get another branch to the snapshot tree, starting at the applied snapshot. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Emphasize that snapshots are fine for use in a lab or test environment, but not for use in a production environment. You should not use snapshots as a backup or recovery mechanism for Exchange or Active Directory® Domain Services (AD DS) or other transactional applications. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Managing Snapshots with Hyper-V Snapshots are implemented at the virtualization layer, and can be taken at any time with any guest operating system (even during an operating system installation). Snapshots can be taken whether the virtual machine is running or stopped. If the virtual machine is running when the snapshot is taken, there is no downtime involved to create the snapshot. Create Snapshot Snapshots can be created in the Hyper-V Manager: select a virtual machine, and on the Action menu or panel, click Snapshot . Note: If you select to create a snapshot from the Hyper-V Manager, the snapshot will be created with an autogenerated name. Snapshots can also be created using the Virtual Machine Connection window: Click the snapshot button in the toolbar, or open the Action menu, and select Snapshot . Note: Selecting to create a snapshot from the Virtual Machine Connection window will result in a dialog box that allows you to enter a custom name for the snapshot (for example, “Installed Office 2007”)  The dialog can be dismissed, and the snapshot will use an autogenerated name. The autogenerated name will consist of the name of the virtual machine followed by the date and time when the snapshot was taken. View Snapshot When a virtual machine with snapshots has been selected, the Snapshots pane of the Hyper-V Manager appears below the Virtual Machines pane. Snapshots are displayed in the Snapshots pane in a hierarchal manner that describes the order in which the snapshots where taken.  One snapshot will have a green arrow head underneath it, which indicates that this snapshot was the last one to be taken or applied to the virtual machine.  Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Demonstration steps: Creating snapshots 1 On NYC- Host1, access the 10215A-NYC-CL1 on localhost – Virtual Machine Connection window. 2. Right-click the virtual machine desktop, point to New , and click Text document . Type Snapshot1.txt , and press ENTER. 3. In Hyper-V Manager, click 10215A-NYC-CL1 . In the Actions pane, under 10215A-NYC-CL1 , click Snapshot . 4. Click the snapshot, and type Snapshot1 . 5. Open Windows Explorer, and browse to E:\\Program Files\\Microsoft Learning\\10215\\Drives\\10215A-VAN-CL1\\Snapshots . Point out the XML document, and then open the folder with the GUID name. Point out the bin and .vsv files. 6. Browse to E:\\Program Files\\Microsoft Learning\\10215\\Drives\\10215A-VAN-CL1\\Virtual Hard Disks . Point out the .avhd files created in the folder. 7. Right-click the virtual machine desktop, point to New , and click Text document . Type Snapshot2.txt , and press ENTER. 8. In Hyper-V Manager, click 10215A-NYC-CL1 . In the Actions pane, under 10215A-NYC-CL1, click Snapshot . 9. Click the new snapshot, and type Snapshot2 . 10. In Windows Explorer, display the E:\\Program Files\\Microsoft Learning\\10215\\Drives\\10215A-VAN-CL1\\Virtual Hard Disks folder. Point out the additional .avhd files created in the folder. 11. Right-click the virtual machine desktop, point to New , and click Text document . Type NewData.txt , and then press ENTER. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Demonstration steps, continued: Reverting to a previous snapshot In Hyper-V Manager , ensure that the 10215A-NYC-CL1 virtual machine is selected. 2. Under 10215A-NYC-CL1 , click Revert . In the Revert Snapshot dialog box, click Revert . 3. On the virtual machine, verify that the NewData.txt is no longer on the desktop. 4. In the Snapshots pane, under Virtual Machines , right-click Snapshot1 , and then click Apply . 5. In the Apply Snapshot window, click Apply . 6. On the virtual machine, verify that the Snapshot1.txt is no longer on the desktop. 7. In the Snapshots pane, under Virtual Machines , right-click Snapshot2 , and then click Apply . 5. In the Apply Snapshot window, click Apply . On the virtual machine desktop, verify that the Snapshot2.txt is on the desktop. Merging snapshots 1. In Hyper-V Manager , ensure that the 10215A-NYC-CL1 virtual machine is selected. 2. In the Snapshots pane, under Virtual Machines , right-click Snapshot1 , and then click Delete Snapshot Subtree . 3. In the Delete Snapshot Tree dialog box, click Delete . 4. On the virtual machine, verify that Snapshot1.txt and Snapshot2.txt are on the desktop. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Introduce the Virtual Machine Connection Application. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Demonstration steps: Connecting to a virtual machine 1. On NYC-Host1, if required, open Hyper-V Manager In the Hyper-V Manager, right-click 10215A-NYC-CL1 , and click Connect . Manage the virtual machine. 1. In the Virtual Machine Connection window, point out the top bar, which provides information about the virtual machine and the Hyper-V server where the virtual machine is running. 2. Click the File menu, and then click Settings . You can use the Settings dialog box to configure the same virtual machine settings that you can through the Hyper-V Manager. Click Cancel . 3. Click the Action menu, and then click CTRL+ALT+DELETE. The Action menu allows the user to execute selected actions in the virtual machine. Click Cancel . 4. Click the Media menu, and describe the options for connecting to DVDs or diskettes. The DVD Drive selection allows for ejecting or inserting a DVD, CD, or ISO into the virtual machine DVD drive or capturing the Hyper-V server optical drive. The Diskette Drive selection allows for ejecting or inserting a Virtual Floppy Disk drive (*.vfd). 5. Click the Clipboard menu. The Clipboard menu provides two selections – Type clipboard text and Capture screen . Type clipboard text allows for the transfer of text from the parent partition into the child partition. Capture screen allows for the taking of a screenshot in the child partition and then pasting it into an application running in the parent partition. 6. Click the View menu, and describe the options. 7. Close the Virtual Machine Connection window. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Reference Running SQL Server 2008 in a Hyper-V Environment - Best Practices and Performance Recommendations http://sqlcat.com/whitepapers/archive/2008/10/03/running-sql-server-2008-in-a-hyper-v-environment-best-practices-and-performance-recommendations.aspx Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Reference Performance and Capacity Requirements for Hyper-V http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd277865.aspx Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • In this lab, students will create VHDs and virtual machines. Exercise 1 In this exercise, students will create new virtual hard disks. Exercise 2 In this exercise, students will create a virtual machine, and they will use the virtual hard drive they created in the last exercise. Exercise 3 In this exercise, you will need to make modifications to the virtual machine. Exercise 4 After creating the virtual machines, you will need to create a snapshot before making any further changes. Before the students begin the lab, read the scenario associated with each exercise to the class. This will reinforce the broad issue that the students are troubleshooting and will help to facilitate the lab discussion at the end of the module. Remind the students to complete the discussion questions after the last lab exercise. Note: The lab exercise answer keys are provided on the Course Companion CD. To access the answer key, click the link located at the bottom of the relevant lab exercise page. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Use the questions on the slide to guide the debriefing after students have completed the lab exercises: How will you use snapshots in your organization ? Answer : Answers will vary. In most organizations snapshots will be used only a test environment. 2. Do you have a standard design for virtual machines in your organization? Answer: Answers will vary. As organizations start deploying virtual machines they are less likely to have standards in place. Over time, most organizations will develop some standards in order to reduce the administrative effort in managing virtual machines. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
  • Review Questions What is the main difference between a differencing disk and pass-through disk? Answer: You can use a differencing disk to create a standardized virtual machine or parent disk. New machines created using the parent disk are known as child disks. A pass through disk uses a physical drive as the disk for a virtual machine Differencing disks allow you to create many virtual machines from a single parent virtual hard disk while minimizing physical storage utilization in test and development environments. Differencing disks should not be used in a production environment. 2. What are some of the advantages of using a pass-through disk? Answer: Faster performance than a virtual disk and you are not limited to the 2,040 GB limit. Implementing and Managing Microsoft Server Virtualization Module 3: Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
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    1. 1. Module 3 Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines
    2. 2. Module Overview <ul><li>Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks </li></ul><ul><li>Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Virtual Machine Snapshots </li></ul><ul><li>Working with the Virtual Machine Connection Application </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Virtualization for Applications </li></ul>
    3. 3. Lesson 1 : Creating and Configuring Virtual Hard Disks <ul><li>What Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines ? </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamically Expanding Disks vs. Fixed-size Disks </li></ul><ul><li>Differencing Disks </li></ul><ul><li>Pass-through and Automatic Disks </li></ul><ul><li>Host Computer Considerations for Virtual Hard Drives </li></ul><ul><li>Using and Configuring iSCSI Storage </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Creating Virtual Hard Disks with the Virtual Disk Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Inspecting and Editing Virtual Disks </li></ul>
    4. 4. What Are the Storage Options for Virtual Machines? IDE SCSI <ul><li>Two IDE controllers </li></ul><ul><li>Two devices each </li></ul><ul><li>Emulated/synthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Four SCSI controllers </li></ul><ul><li>256 devices each </li></ul><ul><li>Methods supported: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass-through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed-disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Methods supported: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass-through </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed-disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must be used for the boot partition </li></ul>
    5. 5. Dynamically Expanding Disks vs. Fixed Disks Dynamically expanding virtual hard disk: Fixed-Size virtual hard disk: Test & Development Production <ul><li>Benefit: </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient use of storage </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred storage allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmentation </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Upfront storage resource allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: </li></ul><ul><li>Portability </li></ul>
    6. 6. Differencing Disks Differencing virtual hard disks: <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Isolate changes </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for standardized base images </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic size </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be compacted </li></ul><ul><li>Increased overhead </li></ul>
    7. 7. Pass-through Disks Pass-through disks: <ul><li>Benefits: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Support for more than 2TB </li></ul><ul><li>Drawbacks: </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot use virtual machine snapshots </li></ul><ul><li>Portability and encapsulation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Host Computer Considerations for Virtual Hard Drives Considerations: <ul><li>Fast hard drives </li></ul><ul><li>Mirrored arrays for operating system </li></ul><ul><li>iSCSI </li></ul><ul><li>SANs </li></ul><ul><li>Antivirus </li></ul>
    9. 9. Using and Configuring iSCSI Storage iSCSI Initiator iSCSI storage: <ul><li>Uses the existing IP network </li></ul><ul><li>Is configured using the iSCSI initiator </li></ul><ul><li>Should use a dedicated NIC </li></ul><ul><li>Required for virtual machine failover clustering </li></ul>
    10. 10. Demonstration: Creating Virtual Hard Disks with the Virtual Disk Wizard <ul><li>In this demonstration , you will learn how to : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a virtual disk with the Virtual Disk Wizard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a dynamic virtual disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a fixed disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a differencing virtual disk </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Demonstration: Inspecting and Editing Virtual Disks <ul><li>In this demonstration , you will learn how to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I ns pect and edit a virtual disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact a virtual disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert a virtual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expand a virtual disk </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Lesson 2: Creating and Configuring Virtual Machines <ul><li>Settings for Virtual Machines </li></ul><ul><li>What Are the Components of a Virtual Machine? </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Virtual Machine Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Hyper-V Integration Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Exporting and Importing Virtual Machines in Hyper-V </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Machine Installation Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Considerations for Migrating Legacy Virtual Machines </li></ul>
    13. 13. Settings for Virtual Machines Virtual Machine Settings
    14. 14. What Are the Components of a Virtual Machine? Virtual Machine components include: <ul><li>Memory </li></ul><ul><li>Network adapters </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual disks </li></ul>Default configuration options: <ul><li>Name: New Virtual Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Location: The default location configured for the Hyper-V server </li></ul><ul><li>Memory: 512 MB </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual hard disk: Dynamically expanding hard disk with a storage capacity of 127 GB </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system: No media specified </li></ul><ul><li>Network connection: Not connected </li></ul>
    15. 15. Demonstration: New Virtual Machine Wizard <ul><li>In this demonstration , you will learn how to use the new Virtual Machine Wizard to: </li></ul><ul><li>Name of a new virtual machine </li></ul><ul><li>Locate the default files and folders </li></ul><ul><li>Store the files in a different location </li></ul><ul><li>Set memory settings </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to the Private network </li></ul><ul><li>Select the differencing drive </li></ul>
    16. 16. Demonstration: Hyper-V Integration Settings <ul><li>In this demonstration , you will learn how to configure and install the integration services in a virtual machine </li></ul>
    17. 17. Exporting and Importing Virtual Machines in Hyper-V Originating Computer Exported Virtual Machine Destination Computer Imported Virtual Machine
    18. 18. Virtual Machine Installation Methods Install using CD/DVD Install from an .ISO Install from a boot floppy
    19. 19. Considerations for Migrating Legacy Virtual Machines Virtual Server 2005 Hyper-V Virtual Machine Additions Integration Services 1 2 3 4
    20. 20. Lesson 3: Managing Virtual Machine Snapshots <ul><li>What Are Hyper-V Virtual Machine Snapshots? </li></ul><ul><li>Design Considerations for using Virtual Machine Snapshots in Hyper-V </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing Snapshots in an Enterprise Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Using Snapshots in Hyper-V </li></ul>
    21. 21. What Are Hyper-V Virtual Machine Snapshots? Snapshots: <ul><li>Are a point-in-time copy of a virtual machine </li></ul><ul><li>Do not affect the running state of a virtual machine </li></ul>Snapshot files: <ul><li>Virtual machine configuration .XML file </li></ul><ul><li>Save state files </li></ul><ul><li>Differencing disk (.AVHD) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Design Considerations for Using Snapshots in Hyper-V Snapshots: <ul><li>Should not be used in production environments </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used in testing and training environments </li></ul><ul><li>May consume a significant amount of hard disk space </li></ul><ul><li>Can have unexpected results when deleted </li></ul>
    23. 23. Implementing Hyper-V Snapshots Manage snapshot options: <ul><li>Create Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>View Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Snapshot Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Apply a Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Rename a Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Delete a Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Delete a Snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Subtree </li></ul><ul><li>Revert </li></ul>
    24. 24. Demonstration: Using Snapshots in Hyper-V R2 <ul><li>In this demonstration , you will learn how to: </li></ul><ul><li>Take and manage a virtual machine snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Create a snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Revert to a previous snapshot </li></ul><ul><li>Merge snapshots </li></ul>
    25. 26. Lesson 4: Working with the Virtual Machine Connection Application <ul><li>Virtual Machine Connection Application </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Managing the Virtual Machine Connection Application </li></ul>
    26. 27. Virtual Machine Connection Application Virtual Machine Connection: <ul><li>Is used to manage local or remote virtual machines </li></ul><ul><li>Is installed with Hyper-V or RSAT </li></ul><ul><li>Uses RDP on port 2179 </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the mstsc.exe Active X control </li></ul><ul><li>Requires the port 2179 open on Windows Firewall </li></ul>
    27. 28. Demonstration: Managing the Virtual Machine Connection Application <ul><li>In this demonstration , you will learn how to </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to a virtual machine </li></ul><ul><li>Manage the virtual machine </li></ul>
    28. 29. Lesson 5: Planning Virtualization for Applications <ul><li>Planning Hyper-V Hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Virtual Machines: General Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Virtual Machines for SQL Server </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Virtual Machines for Exchange Server </li></ul><ul><li>Designing Virtual Machines for SharePoint </li></ul>
    29. 30. Planning Hyper-V Hosts When planning Hyper-V hosts: <ul><li>Simplify and standardize the host platform </li></ul><ul><li>Consider using the Server Core installation option </li></ul><ul><li>Automate and standardize administration of the virtual server environment by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standardizing the host and virtual server configuration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing remote management solutions at the host server level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementing VMM </li></ul></ul>
    30. 31. Guidelines for Designing Virtual Machines Guidelines: <ul><li>Simplify and standardize the host platform </li></ul><ul><li>Plan virtual machines for specific server roles by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring the servers before virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configuring each virtual machine with a hardware configuration that is similar to the hardware required on a physical server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deploy Windows Server 2008 or Windows Server 2008 R2–based virtual machines whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Consider other options for ensuring physical server utilization </li></ul>
    31. 32. Designing Virtual Machines for SQL Server Guidelines: <ul><li>Ensure that the Hyper-V integration components are installed </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure adequate CPU capacity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember virtual machines are limited to four processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not over-commit CPU resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember networking-intensive workloads require more CPU capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plan virtual machine hardware settings to match physical server hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Use fixed-size disks and SCSI controllers for database and log file drives </li></ul>
    32. 33. Designing Virtual Machines for Exchange Server When designing virtual machines for Exchange Server: <ul><li>Use standard server sizing rules </li></ul><ul><li>Configure appropriate storage </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use virtual machine snapshots </li></ul><ul><li>Configure adequate CPU resources </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how to use Hyper-V and native Exchange Server high availability </li></ul><ul><li>Consider I/O requirements </li></ul>
    33. 34. Designing Virtual Machines for SharePoint When designing virtual machines for SharePoint: <ul><li>Configure virtual machine hardware like physical server hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Do not take snapshots of virtual servers </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid over-committing the virtual CPUs </li></ul><ul><li>Consider deploying all of the servers in a server farm on a single physical server </li></ul><ul><li>Assign adequate memory </li></ul><ul><li>Use only Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the right storage implementation for the SharePoint server role </li></ul>
    34. 35. L ab : Creating Virtual Hard Disks and Virtual Machines <ul><li>Exercise 1 : Creating Virtual Hard Disks Based on Organizational Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise 2 : Creating New Virtual Machines Using the Virtual Machine Wizard </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise 3 : Modifying Virtual Machine Settings </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise 4: Creating and Applying Virtual Machine Snapshots </li></ul>Logon information Estimated time: 60 minutes Virtual machine NYC-Host1, NYC-Host2   User name Administrator Password Pa$$w0rd
    35. 36. Lab Scenario <ul><li>Contoso, Ltd. has decided to introduce virtualization into their IT environment. They want to reduce their expenditures for hardware and power for the data center. The company has started deploying Hyper-V host computers running on Windows Server 2008 R2. You now need to create several virtual machines on the host computers . </li></ul>
    36. 37. Lab Review <ul><li>How will you use snapshots in your organization ? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a standard design for virtual machines in your organization? </li></ul>
    37. 38. Module Review and Takeaways <ul><li>Review Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Common Issues and Troubleshooting Tips </li></ul><ul><li>Real-world Issues and Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Best Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul>

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