Pedro Ruiz Gallo NATIONAL UNIVERSITYSUBJECT: MEDICAL ENGLISH PROFESSOR:
TEAM 8: Burga Cueva Jonatan Cabanillas Ventura JorgeChapoñán Bances Cristhian Torres Tafur KarinaZulueta Santacruz Jaroslav Zúñiga Callacna Gustavo
ONCOLOGY “ONCO” “-LOGY” mass, or tumor studyLiterally means Branch of science that deals with tumours and cancers
CANCER Begins When cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control There are many kinds of cancer, but they all start because of abnormal cells which GROW OUT OF CONTROL.
Role of an oncologist Called: «Cancer specialists» Oncologists have several specific roles Diagnosis of the cancer Staging the cancer Grading the aggressive nature of the cancer
Treatment of cancer may involve other specialists as: Surgeons Radiation oncologists Radiotherapisthowever, The cancer therapy is coordinatedby the oncologists
NEW METHODS OF CANCER DETECTION People usually start treatment when there are physical symptoms of diseaseRecent research for cancer are based on early detection
COMMONLY in BREAST CANCER, it’s beenused a new mammography to detect tumors. But now we have GAMMA RAY DETECTORS. It has higher resolution machine, specifically dedicated to detecting breast cancer at early stages and its assessment in later
A team of British researchers has developed a SYSTEM TO DIAGNOSE TUMORS UP TO FIVE YEARS, before it is detected with conventional methods The system is based on how the immunesystem responds in the early stages of tumor development METHOD: Analyzing only 10 milliliters of blood, the cancer is detected.
Surgeons who operate strive cancer killcancer cells preserve as much healthy tissueas they can Unfortunately, cancer cells are notoriously difficult to identify with the eyes But nowA group of the National Cancer Institute, hasdeveloped a FLUORESCENT SPRAY CANHIGHLIGHT CANCER CELLS
CANCER TREATMENTS In cases where the cancer is detected at an early stage, surgery may be ENOUGHSurgery TO CURE the patient by removing all cancer cells.
Radiation The radiation to kill cancer cells directly by damaging them with high energy beams. Chemotherapy drugs work by damagingChemotherapy cancer cells keep dividing and preventing their reproduction.
They work by targeting specific proteins and processes that are almost alwaysSpecific inhibitors limited to cancer cells. Inhibition of these processes prevents growth and division of cancerous cells. These antibodies can work through several different mechanisms, either depriving cancer cells of necessary signals Antibodies or the direct death. For their specificity, the antibodies can be considered a type of specific inhibitors.
These treatments use normal proteinsBiological Response that occur naturally in our bodies to Modifiers stimulate own defenses against cancer. The purpose of cancer vaccines is to stimulate our bodys defenses. Vaccines In administering these proteins, treatment focuses on increasing the immune response of our bodies against cancer cells.
In treating cancerwith nanotechnology could detect early tumors or destroy cancer cells.
PHOTOLUMINESCENT NANOPARTICLESThey help to recognizebetween cancerous cellsand healthy cells Cell fluorescence microscopy loaded nanoparticles.
NANODEVICES• They can produce a specific anticancer drug, particularly in deep tumors of the body.
It is the spread of a disease from one organ to another NON- AFFECTED organ WHAT ISMETASTASIS? Some cancer cells penetrate and infiltrate normal tissues
EXAMPLE colon cancer has a tendency to metastasize to the liver. What ismetastasis? EXAMPLE Stomach cancer often metastasize to the ovary in women, then called a Krukenberg tumor
Metastasis of breast cancer, medulloblasto ma and prostate cancer all had similar patterns of expression of these genes associated with metastasis. metastasis and primary cancer BIOPSY The metastatic signature has been can investigate theassociated with poor subpopulation of prognosis and. cancer cells, except subpopulation with metastatic potential.