Sport and the Physical Activity in the 21 st century
SPORT AND THE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE 21ST CENTURYENJOY WATCHING SPORT AND JUST DO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY A LIFE STYLE
INTRODUCTION • Sport is one of the most important phenomena happened in the last 100 years. It’s an activity with plenty of advantages: physical, mental, educative and social. • But, on the other hand, a misuse of sport can cause problems, interests and conflicts.
WE MUST CREATE A CRITICAL OPINION • How is sport nowadays? • Which are its characteristics? • Which are the most important expressions? • Which are its values?
CONCEPT OF SPORT• Driving situation, there are mates and opponents that try to cooperate or make more difficult my actions.• Game, free participation to have fun.• Competition, a desire for self-improvement.• Rules, they must exist to define the characteristics of the activity.• Institutionalization, an institution must state the development and the regulations of the game. Any kind of physical activity that by means of an organized participation or not, has as an aim the expression or improvement of the mental or physical condition, the development of the social relationships or the obtaining of scores in every competition.
THE DIFFERENT WAYS OFUNDERSTANDING SPORT IN OUR SOCIETY• We can say that sport is a social phenomenon, everybody plays sport, it’s fashionable, and we can see it on the media, on advertisement…• On the one hand, we consider sport as a mass spectacle where great amounts of money are moved.• On the other hand, another social reality is developed and this is also sport, a big percentage of the world population practices it in an anonymous way, people who work in a club or for a sport association, millions of students who play at school, the disabled or the old age people…
SOCIETY SPORT• The competitive aspect became the main aspect for those who practice as sport and for those who watch it. Therefore, competitivity will be one of the characteristics of the 21st society.• That competitivity is a dominant value in our contemporary society as well as the performance and the result. ‘The sports behaviours are due to cultural phenomena and to customs of the community they belong to’
For a long time, in Spain there were a greater number of spectators watching a sport than the number of people who practiced it. This tendency has changed in the last decades. Great clubs have seen how the number of spectators has been reduced. That’s the reason why they have resorted to advertising, television and sports marketing. On the contrary, our towns and cities filled with a greater number of people who do sport. The sports facilities have increased dramatically, also the number of professionals devoted to training and the sports teaching
SPORTS PRACTICE IN SPAIN AT A GENERAL LEVEL Nearly 16 million of people over 14 do sport in Spain. EVOLUTION OF THE SPORTS PRACTICE IN THE LAST 30 YEARS (1980-2010) Population between 15 and 65, the practice has increased in these years, it has gone from 25% to 45% nowadays. SPORTS PRACTICE DEPENDING ON GENDER There is a 31% of women that do sport and the percentage of men is 49%. REASONS TO PLAY SPORT Nowadays the reasons have changed; we have the desire of adventure, the need of having fun, the physical appearance or the human interaction.
THE PRESENCE OF SPORT IN SHOOLS After many years, Physical Education appears as a subject in schools in all levels: more qualified teachers, more facilities and materials. Students are constantly in contact with the physical education. Moreover, sport out of schools has been fostered but we must go on growing to get a society with habits of physical education to prevent cardiovascular illnesses, to improve our mind and to make us feel as member of a group thanks to the sport practice. In this way, we will consider the importance of our BODY in MOTION.
For a long time the tracksuit and doing sport have been associated with children and young people with higher social classes or a high cultural level with the male sex… Nowadays sport is within everybodys reach: children, older….., women. The economic or cultural level is not a problem to carry out physical activities, everybody can do sport and everywhere can be practiced.
INSTITUTIONALIZATION AND APPEARING OF NEW WAYS OF ORGANIZATIONGovernments have created institutions that make theorganization of this phenomenon easier. Besides, greateradministrative, economic and political resources go toimprove its management.
IOC (International Olympic Committee)INTERNATIONAL FEDERATIONSASSOCIATIONS OF PROFESSIONAL SPORTSMEN They are the institutions that regulate the greatestcompetitions in our society such as the Olympic Games, the WorldCups of every sport and the competitions of Clubs. It would be theprofessional sport devoted to earn millions of euros. All the international federations of the Olympic Games areincluded in the International Committee. In the mass sports there are ASSOCIATIONS OFPROFESSIONAL SPORTSMEN in golf or tennis; the PGA in golf or theWTA in tennis for women.
SPORTS COUNCILNATIONAL FEDERATIONSPROFESSIONAL LEAGUES This sport depends directly on the government of each country and itsdevelopment depends on this Council which depends at the same time on the Ministryof Education and Culture. Each NATIONAL FEDERATION regulates the competitions in every sport aswell as its organization and promotion. The sports with a higher number of licenses in Spain: FOOTBALL, BASKETBALL, HUNTING, GOLF, CLIMBING, TENNIS, JUDO, HANDBALL, ATHLETICS, FISHING, KARATE, OLYMPIC SHOOTING, CYCLING, VOLLEYBALL ANDSWIMMING. There are a total of 3,520,192 licenses. In mass sports there are PROFESSIONAL LEAGUES where clubs gather toorganize their own competitions, in Spain, the Professional League of Football, themost important competition of clubs in our country. In other sports, these competitions depend directly on the nationalFederations: FEB (Spanish Federation of Basketball) or the RFEA (the SpanishFederation of Athletics) or the RFTET (the Spanish Federation of Tennis)
THE REGIONAL EDUCATION MINISTRYTERRITORIAL FEDERATIONSThe different autonomous regions have authority in the promotion of sportand physical activity. AT A PROVINCIAL LEVELCOUNCILS (SPORTS SECTIONS)TERRITORIAL OFFICES AT A LOCAL LEVELSPORTS BOARDSSPORTS CLUBSPOPULAR SPORTAnd finally, the town halls promote the popular sport as a means of favoringhealth of citizens.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE AFFILLIATED AND THE POPULAR SPORT Each person chooses depending on his own necessities, motivations and interests. Summing up, to get the promotion of sport would be the main aim of our society, the respect for our body, the importance of effort and enjoy a spectacle make that sport is present in our society something difficult to understand 100 years ago. The sooner we start to do sport, the greater the tendency to do it in an autonomous way during our life. Therefore, practice sport, enjoy watching it and make of the physical activity your lifestyle.