Power Point SPORTS INJURIES 3º ESO Secciones


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Power Point SPORTS INJURIES 3º ESO Secciones

  1. 1. SPORTS INJURIES<br />PhysicalDepartment<br />
  2. 2. INJURIES<br />Sports injuries are not uncommon and can be either acute (sprains, fractures, tears, etc.) or chronic (tendinitis, overuse, etc.) Learn how to recognize and treat the most common sports injuries so they heal properly. Some can be treated at home, and some require a trip to the doctor.<br />
  3. 3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Muscle is one of the major components of human body. There are more than 650 muscles in our body. In fact, muscles amounts to approximately half of the total body weight of a human.<br />
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  5. 5. OSTEOARTICULAR SYSTEM<br />The major portion of vertebrate’s skeleton is formed by calcified connective tissues called bones. <br />Calcium is major component of the bone.  <br />There are approximately two hundred fifty six bones in human body. <br />Bones contain more calcium when compared to other body organs.<br />
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  7. 7. TYPES OF JOINTS<br />Fibrous or Fixed Joints.<br />Cartilaginous or Slightly Joints.<br />Synovial Joints.<br />
  10. 10. TENDON INJURIES</li></li></ul><li>BONE INJURIES<br />Bone Fracture<br />Dislocation<br />Shin splints<br />
  11. 11. Different forms of Fractures<br />Simple Fracture: In this type of fracture bone breaks into two pieces. <br />Stress: It is a peculiar form of fracture. In this type of fracture, hairline break occurs which is usually invisible (even on X-ray) during first few weeks from the time of pain <br />Comminuted Fracture : In this form the bone is crushed into number of pieces <br />Impacted Fracture: In this type of fracture embedding of one bone fragment into another bone fragment is apparent.<br />Compound fracture: It is also known by common name open fracture. In this type the bone protrudes through skin <br />Complete Fracture: Bone snaps totally in two or more pieces <br />Incomplete Fracture: Though the bone develops crack it is not separated.<br />
  12. 12. Bone Fracture<br />Symptoms of Fracture:<br />Treatments for Fracture:<br /> <br />Swelling of the affected area <br />Inability to carry out functions of the injured area <br />Deformity of limb.<br />Bruising around the affected area.<br />Use of splint or cast for ensuring immobilization <br />Realigning the bone with the help of surgery known as open reduction. <br />Rehabilitation is conducted as preventive measure against stiffness.<br />
  13. 13. What is termed as Dislocation of Joints<br />The joint which loses its original place or slips out from its natural place is termed in medical terminology as ‘dislocated joint’. <br />
  14. 14. Dislocation of Joints<br />Symptomsof dislocated joint.<br />Treatment of Dislocated Joint<br />Swelling around the joint area <br />Severepain.<br />Difficulty in moving (immobility) the affected <br />Medication, the main aim of medication is to relieve the pain and reduce swelling <br />In certain severe cases of joint dislocation a surgery may be recommended. Such surgery is conducted to repair or tighten ligaments that have been stretched as a result of joint dislocation<br />
  15. 15. What are shin splints?<br />The term shin splints is a name often given to any pain at the front of the lower leg. However, true shin splints symptoms occur at the front inside of the shin bone and can arise from a number of causes.<br />This has lead to the use of terms such as Medial Tibial Traction Periostitis.<br />
  16. 16. What are shin splints?<br />Symptoms of shinsplints:<br />What can the athlete do about shin splints?<br />Pain over the inside lower half of the shin. <br />Pain at the start of exercise which often eases as the session continues <br />Pain often returns after activity and may be at its worse the next morning. <br />Sometimessomeswelling. <br />Lumps and bumps may be felt when feeling the inside of the shin bone. <br />A redness over the inside of the shin (not always present). <br />Rest to allow the injury to heal. <br />Apply ice or cold therapyin the early stages.<br />Stretch the muscles of the lower leg. Wear shock absorbing insolesin shoes. Maintain fitness with other non weight bearing exercises such as swimming, cycling or running in water. <br />Apply heat and use a heat retainer or shin and calf support after the initial acute stage and particularly before training. <br />
  17. 17. MUSCULAR INJURIES<br />Strains, Tears and cramps and repetitive stress injury are some of the most common forms of muscle injuries.<br />
  18. 18. Muscle strain or muscle pull or even a muscle tear implies damage to a muscle or its attaching tendons. <br />You can put undue pressure on muscles during the course of normal daily activities, with sudden, quick heavy lifting, during sports, or while performing work tasks.<br />Muscle Strain<br />
  19. 19. Muscle Strain<br />MuscleStrainSymptoms<br />Treatment<br />Swelling, bruising or redness, or open cuts as a consequence of the injury <br />Pain at rest<br />Pain when the specific muscle or the joint in relation to that muscle is used <br />Weakness of the muscle or tendons (A sprain, in contrast, is an injury to a joint and its ligaments.) <br />Inability to use the muscle at all<br />Note: Ice or heat should not be applied to bare skin. Always use a protective covering such as a towel between the ice or heat and the skin.<br />Take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin and ibuprofen to reduce the pain and to improve your ability to move around. <br />Protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as the PRICE formula) can help the affected muscle. Here's how: First, remove all constrictive clothing, including jewelry, in the area of muscle strain.<br />
  20. 20. Muscle Injuries<br />Muscle Tears<br />Muscle Cramp<br />The most common cause for muscle tears occur from strenuous activity, particularly when the ligaments and muscles are pulled or strained. This can include everything from landing badly on an ankle or walking or exercising on uneven surfaces. This type of injury generally causes sprains in knees or ankles<br />A muscle cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle that does not relax.<br />Several vitamin deficiency states may directly or indirectly lead to muscle cramps. These include deficiencies of thiamine (B1), pantothenic acid (B5), and pyridoxine (B6). The role of deficiency of these vitamins in causing cramps is unknown.<br />
  21. 21. LIGAMENTS INJURIES<br />Your ligaments are tough, elastic-like bands that connect bone to bone and hold your joints in place. A sprain is an injury to a ligament caused by excessive stretching. The ligament can have a partial tear, or it can be completely torn apart.<br />
  22. 22. Sprains<br />Of all sprains, ankle and knee sprains occur most often. Sprained ligaments swell rapidly and are painful.<br />Treatment:<br />Protect the injured limb from further injury by not using the joint. You can do this using anything from splints to crutches.<br />Rest the injured limb. But don't avoid all activity. Even with an ankle sprain, you can usually still exercise other muscles to minimize deconditioning.<br />Ice the area. Use a cold pack, a slush bath or a compression sleeve filled with cold water to help limit swelling after an injury. Try to ice the area as soon as possible after the injury and continue to ice it for 10 to 15 minutes four times a day for 48 hours. If you use ice, be careful not to use it too long, as this could cause tissue damage.<br />Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Compressive wraps or sleeves made from elastic or neoprene are best.<br />Elevate the injured limb above your heart whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling.<br />
  23. 23. TENDON INJURIES<br /><ul><li>Tendonitis
  24. 24. Tendon Separations</li></li></ul><li>TENDON INJURIES<br />Tendonitis<br />Tendon Separations<br />Tendonitis is the inflammation of a tendon caused by irritation due to prolonged or abnormal use. The Achilles tendon is a common site where tendonitis occurs.<br />Most tendonitis can be avoid with proper warm-up exercises, rest, and gradual increase in physical activity:<br />Tendons are the fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bone in the human body. A key feature of all tendons is their capacity to withstand significant forces.<br />When a rupture of the tendon occurs, the athlete will not be able to move very efficiently, as the structures are now disconnected and unstable.<br />
  25. 25. TENDONITIS<br />Symptoms of tendonitis:<br />Pain or tenderness on the tendon near or around a joint.<br />Stiffness and pain on the tendon, which restricts movement.<br />Occasionally, mild swelling, numbness, or a tingling sensation at the joint.<br />Tendonitis is usually named after the affected tendon or joint. For example, tendonitis of the Achilles tendon is known as “Achilles tendonitis”. Similarly, tendonitis resulting from exercises strain in the forearm and elbow is often referred to as “tennis elbow”.<br />Treatment of tendonitis:<br />Rest.<br />Cold and heat therapy<br />Casts and splints.<br />A doctor may also prescribe oral medication for inflammation and pain.<br />
  26. 26. Tendon Separations<br />Tendons are the fibrous connective tissues that connect muscles to bone in the human body. A key feature of all tendons is their capacity to withstand significant forces.<br />When a rupture of the tendon occurs, the athlete will not be able to move very efficiently, as the structures are now disconnected and unstable.<br />
  27. 27. Tendon Separations<br />Rehabilitation should be undertaken with the following considerations:<br />Assess the quality and construction of the athletic shoes to be worn. <br />To reduce the risk of a recurrence of the tendon rupture, the shoe should be well cushioned in the heel to lessen the forces of the heel strike on impact. <br />Where the alignment of the lower leg is believed to be a factor in the cause of the rupture, an orthotic should be considered.<br />A thorough warm up, with attention paid to the stretching of the entire lower leg structure, is of critical importance.<br />There should be a very gradual increase in both training intensity and duration in the rehabilitative process; such increases should not exceed 5% to 7% per week.<br />Hard running, such as hill running or sprinting, should be avoided in this phase.<br />
  28. 28. Thankyouforyourattention…<br />PhysicalDepartment<br />