Bridges2 Unit4


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Bridges2 Unit4

  1. 1. Unit 4. Relationships Student's Book VOCABULARY 2. Look at the pictures. What do you think is happening in each picture? 1. Football players playing for the same team. They are celebrating because they must have scored a goal or won a match. 2. A young couple laughing over a joke. 3. A group of friends on a roller coaster in an amusement park. 4. A father arguing with his teenage daughter. 5. Businesspeople shaking hands. They may have either signed a contract or reached an important agreement. 6. A teenage girl is not sitting with her group of friends. She must have argued with them. 3. Look at the pictures again. POSSIBLE ANSWERS 1. excited, delighted, proud 2. in love, excited 3. excited, terrified 4. The father may be annoyed, upset and disappointed. The girl may feel embarrassed, upset and miserable. 5. grateful, satisfied, relieved, delighted 6. grateful, confused, jealous, broken-hearted, disappointed 4. Match the situations in A to the feelings in B 1.d 2. c 3. a 4. e 5. b 5. Which if the following expressions…? When someone is upset: 1, 2, 5, 7 When someone is delighted: 3, 4, 6, 8 READING 1. Exercise 1 1: The Amish lifestyle has remained the same since they arrived in the USA because they turn their backs on change and refuse to use technological advances such as electricity and cars.
  2. 2. 2. When young Amish reach the age of 16, they go into the Rumspringa period, when they don't have to obey the rules of their society and can experience the things that other young people do. 3. At the end of the Rumspringa period, young Amish people must decide whether they want to turn into full members of their society and obey its rules or break away from it. 2. Exercise 2 1. a "... came from Europe in the 1600s to run away from religious persecution." (line 8) 2. c "In the end, the majority ... becoming full members of their church." (lines 27-30). 3. Exercise 3 1: they (line 5): young Amish people. 2: their (line 9): the Amish's 3: its (line 21): the Amish community's 4. Exercise 4 1: have fun 2: run away from 3: let 4: follow 5: turn a blind eye to 5. Exercise 5 3. in a youth magazine 6. Exercise 6 1: hardly 2: carriages 3: turn their backs on 4: experience 5: lifestyle 6: forbidden 7: break away from GRAMMAR First, Second and Third Conditionals 1. Look at the sentences above… a. cartoon 3 b. cartoon 2 c. cartoon 1
  3. 3. 2. Look at the verbs in bold… First Conditional: Present Simple in the condition and will + base form of the verb in the result. Second Conditional: Past Simple in the condition and would + base form of the verb in the result. Third Conditional: Past Perfect in the condition and would + have + past participle in the result. 1. Choose the correct answer. 1: let 2: wouldn't have broken up 3: behaves 4: were 5: were 6: hadn't had 7: would you have come 8: give 2. Complete the sentences… 1: would read, had 2: would have got married, hadn't broken up 3: might have given, had asked 4: will get, take 5: will lend, promise 6: calls, will let 3. Complete the sentences… 1: If I hadn't eaten so much, I wouldn't have felt ill. 2: As soon as he gets tickets, David will give us a ring. 3: I would buy a motorbike if I had ad enough money. 4: We can't have the party tonight unless we finish our project. 5: Emma wouldn't have bought the dress if she hadn't been invited to the wedding. 6: If I lived in London, I would buy a travel card. Wish Clauses Question 1 1: Wish C 2: Wish B 3: Wish A Question 2 2. Past Wishes (wish C): Past Perfect
  4. 4. Present Wishes (wish B): Past Simple Future Wishes (wish A): would + base form of the verb 4. Choose the correct answer. 1: had told 2: would go 3: were 4: had brought 5: knew 5. Read the questions… 1. I wish I lived nearer to school. 2: If only he would be quieter. 3: I wish you hadn't moved so far away. 4: If only you wrote to me more often. 5: I wish I had spoken to him. 6. Complete the conversation… 1: had lasted 2: were 3: would go 4: would stop 5: take 6: won't go 7: had stayed 8: hadn't left 9: would have seen VOCABULARY 1. Complete the sentences with the words and expressions below 1: relative 2: gets along 3: date, couple 4: siblings 5: spouse 6: treated, broke up
  5. 5. 2. Match A and B A1 – Be, Bf lose (your) patience, lose friends A2 – Bi keep in touch A3 – Bb, Bg, Bi get to know, get on (your) nerves, get in touch A4 – Bc feel comfortable with A5 – Ba fall in love with A6 – Bh share common interests A7 – Bf make friends A8 – Bd, Bh have a sense of humour, have common interests 3. Complete the sentences… 1: have / share common interests 2: get to know 3: keep in touch 4: fell in love with 5: feel comfortable with 6: makes friends 7: lost my patience 8: have a sense of humour 9: gets on my nerves 4. Complete the sentences… 1: 1. pleased with 2: proud of 3: afraid of 4: fond of 5: pleased for 6: sorry for 7: jealous of 8: sorry about 5. Complete the passage… 1: fell in love 2: upset 3: couple 4: proud 5: similar background 6: spouse
  6. 6. WRITING 1. When writing a for and against essay… 1. Reasons for moving out: Paragraph II Reasons against moving out: Paragraph III 2. Paragraph I 3. Paragraph IV 2. Choose the correct connector. 1.c 2. a 3. b 4. c 3. Complete the sentences… 1. Young people need to enjoy their freedom. MOREOVER / HOWEVER / IN ADDITION / FURTHERMORE / WHAT'S MORE, they also need to get used to life in the real world. 2. ALTHOUGH.they have broken up, Pete and Jill have remained good friends. 3. I was quite annoyed with Kate,.HOWEVER.I decided not to say anything. 4. She apologised for her behaviour. MOREOVER / IN ADDITION / FURTHERMORE / WHAT'S MORE she gave him a small gift. 5. Robert decided to leave home IN SPITE OF / DESPITE the extra cost. 6. Many young people prefer to stay at home now MOREOVER / IN ADDITION / FURTHERMORE / WHAT'S MORE, their parents often encourage them to do this. 7. Sue decided to buy a flat IN SPITE OF / DESPITE the fact that it was very expensive. 8. Tim arrived late MOREOVER / IN ADDITION / FURTHERMORE / WHAT'S MORE, he couldn't stay for the entire meeting. 4. Complete the sentences… 1. We went ahead with our plans in spite of the bad weather. 2. The food at the restaurant was terrible. Moreover, the service was even worse. 3. Helen agreed to go to the wedding although she had just been invited the day before. 4. Exercise is very healthy for the body. In addition, it helps you to relax. 5. I haven't got enough money to buy a ticket. What's more, my parents won't give me any money. 6. Emma wants to move out of her parents' house. However, her parents don't like the idea.
  7. 7. LOOKING BACK Vocabulary 1. Choose the correct answer. 1. I've been studying all day so I'm (a: exhausted) 2. Many (c: consumers)have bought our new products. 3. Although this MP4 is (b: second-hand) it works perfectly. 4. It's important to be fair and (b: treat) everyone equally 2 Complete the passage with the words and phrases below bargains • steady job • common interests • sense of humour • got to know • employees • falling in love • make friends • out of work • diet Love and Work When I started working at Techno Computers, I was glad to have found a (1) steady job after several months of being (2) out of work. I liked the other (3) employees and found it easy to (4) make friends. But with Ian, one of the other programmers, it was more than that. As we (5) got to know each other, we found that we shared a lot of (6) common interests We both enjoyed dancing, cooking and going shopping for (7) bargains. We both exercised in order to keep fit and tried to maintain a healthy (8) diet. Ian and I started meeting after work, and truly enjoyed each other's company. What I liked best about him was that he had a wonderful (9) sense of humour. Soon I found myself (10) falling in love with him, and fortunately, he felt the same way! 3. Complete the sentences with a suitable preposition 1. Goodbye, and don't forget to keep IN touch. 2. Mark is sad because he has just broken UP with Elaine. 3. Sue always complains. It gets ON my nerves. 4. Our new car is fantastic. We're just so pleased WITH it. 5. Vera is my favourite aunt. I'm very fond OF her. 6. This shirt looks nice. I think I'll try it ON 7. Our lunch hour is over. Let's get back TO work Grammar 4. Complete the sentences with the correct form… 1. If I HAD (have) more money, I would travel. 2. Before the film BEGINS (begin), we will buy popcorn. 3. The guard warned us NOT TO GO (not go) into that room. 4. I wish I WERE (be) taller. Then I could play basketball. 5. This letter MUST BE SENT (must send) immediately. 6. It's raining. I wish I HAD BROUGHT (bring) an umbrella. 7. We wouldn't have got lost if Holly HADN'T FORGOTTEN (not forget) the map. 8. I'm sorry, but there are no more tickets. They HAVE already BEEN SOLD (sell). 9. Justin asked me whether I COULD (can) play the guitar. 10. The dog WON'T BITE (not bite) you unless you frighten it 5. Rewrite the sentences… 1: I would have forgotten Larry's birthday if you hadn't reminded me. 2: I wish you had enjoyed the party. 3: Nancy told me that Bill had spoken to her the night before / the previous night. 4: Was that play written by Shakespeare? 5: We won't get wet if we take an umbrella. / If we take an umbrella, we won't get wet. 6: I would help you if I knew how. Writing 6. Replace the words in bold… 1. My father is quite clever. In addition, he has got a great sense of humour. MOREOVER 2. We don't see each other very often. Nevertheless, we keep in touch by phone. HOWEVER
  8. 8. 3. It seems that the problem has been solved. APPARENTLY 4. I went to the party despite my mother's warning. IN SPITE OF 5. We talked about some old problems and several new issues. AS WELL AS 6. Feel free to contact me if you have got any further questions. DO NOT HESITATE 7. My girlfriend and I get along well, even though we are very different. ALTHOUGH 8. What type of information do you need? REQUIRE
  9. 9. WorkBook VOCABULARY 1. Complete the sentences with the words below. confused • satisfied • grateful • annoyed • jealous • loyalty • terrified • relieved 1. I'm so grateful for your help in maths. I got a very high mark in my exam! 2. Jane found the £50 she thought she had lost. She's relieved! 3. Ann's boyfriend was jealous because she danced with Mark. 4. Sandy didn't answer my e-mails or my messages. I'm annoyed with her. 5. Bob regretted going on the rollercoaster. He was terrified the entire time. 6. John is contused by Sara's behaviour. Sometimes she seems to like him, and sometimes she ignores him. 7. I'm satisfied with the mark I got in my last test. I got 90. 8. There is no doubt about her loyalty to him. She always supports him. 2. Match the sentences in A with the correct sentences in B A B 1. Amanda is nice, but it's hard to find things to talk about. 6 a I haven't got much patience 2. 1 want to be with her all the time. 3 b I don't always like her sense of humour. 3. Mary sometimes tells jokes that l don't understand. 7 c I'm amazed at her generosity. 4. One of my friends is younger than me. 4 d It doesn't bother me that we're not the same age. 5. I'm glad that Cindy told me the truth. 1 e We don't share any common interests. 6. 1 get angry when I don't understand something immediately. 8 f I have complete trust in her. 7. My aunt is paying for my trip to New York. 5 g Honesty is very important to me. 8. My older sister always gives me good advice. 9 h We've got similar backgrounds 9. Our families come from the same town in Europe. 2 i. I think I'm in love with her. Words from the Text. Complete the dialogue with the words and phrases below carriage • turn their backs on • forbidden • hardly • experience • break away from • lifestyle 1. I hardly ever play football these days. I'm too busy doing other things. 2. I want to go and work in Africa and experience life in a different country. 3. Smoking is forbidden in restaurants in the UK. 4. Ken has got a very healthy lifestyle. He works out three times a week and eats a lot of fruit and vegetables. 5. Until the beginning of the 20th century, people travelled by horse and carriage 6. Unfortunately, many people turn their backs on the poor and do nothing to help.
  10. 10. 7. Frank wants to break away from the group and start working on his own. GRAMMAR. Conditionals and Wish Clauses 1. Choose the sentence that is closer in meaning to the original sentences. 1. If I weren't tired, I would go to the party. (a) I'm tired, so I'm not going to the party. 2. As soon as I save enough money, I'll buy a motorbike. (b) I haven't got enough money to buy a motorbike. 3. If I had had breakfast, I wouldn't have been hungry by 10.00. (a) I was very hungry at 10.00. 4. Providing that the tickets aren't too expensive. I might want to go to the concert.(a). I won't go to the concert unless the tickets are cheap. 5. When Jack arrives, we'll decide what to do tonight. (b) We can't decide what to do until Jack arrives. 6 You can use the car today as long as you fill it with petrol. (b) Unless you fill the car with petrol, you can't borrow it 7. Take an umbrella with you in case it rains. (b) lf it rains later, you will need an umbrella. 8. If we had arrived at the airport earlier, the queue would have been shorter. (a). If we had come earlier, the queue wouldn't have been so long. 2 Choose the correct answer. 1: b 2: c 3: a 4: c 5: b 6: c 7: a 8: a 3 Complete the sentences without changing the meaning of the original sentence. 1: If Cathy hadn't been ill, she would have taken the exam 2 If John didn't run every day, he wouldn't be so fit 3: If I had more money, I would buy this computer game 4: If it weren't so late, we could / would go to the film. 5: If we don't wear jackets, we'll be cold 4 Choose the correct answer 1: b 2: b 3: a 4: a 5: a 6: b
  11. 11. 5 Write suitable sentences for each situation. Use the correct wish clause and the words in brackets. 1. I didn't give you permission to wear my sweater! (ask before take my things) I wish you would ask before you take my things. 2. I hate my hair this short! (longer) I wish it were longer. 3. My parents insist that I be home by 1.00. (can stay out all night) I wish I could stay out all night. 4. We shouldn't have gone to that Chinese restaurant It was terrible! (go to the Italian restaurant) I wish we'd gone to the Italian restaurant. 5. All my friends have got dates tonight (have date) I wish I had a date. 6 Complete the mini- dialogues. Use the correc of the verbs in brackets. 1. Nancy: I need some advice. Trevor hasn't rung me for three days. I wish I knew (know) what to do! Jane: if I were (be) you, I would call (call) him. 2. Mum: If you don't tidy (not tidy) your room today, you can't go out this evening! Mike: That's so unfair! I wish you didn't care (not care) so much about tidiness! 3. Ellen: I wasn't at school the day the exam date was announced. If somebody had told (tell) me, I would have studied for it. Joe: I'm sorry, if I had remembered (remember) you were absent that day, I would have told (tell) you about it 7 Correct the errors. 1. Pete will buy a motorbike as soon as he will save enough money. Pete will buy a motorbike as soon as he saves enough money. 2. Amish youth won't become full members of their community unless they rejected the modern world. Amish youth won't beconje full members of their community unless they reject the modern world. 3. Would Maggie came with me if I asked her? Would Maggie come with me if I asked her? 4. Marge wouldn't has broken up with me if I had told her the truth. Marge wouldn't have broken up with me il I had told her the truth. 5. If only the party wasn't cancelled last night. If only the party hadn't been cancelled last night. 8 Translate the sentences into your own language 1. Sophie won't go to university unless she takes her studies more seriously. Sophie no irá a la universidad a no ser que se tome sus estudios más en serio. 2. What would your parents do if you left school? ¿Qué harían tus padres si dejaras el colegio? 3. Some Amish youth will break away from their community as soon as they are not obliged to follow its rules. Algunos jóvenes Amish dejarán su comunidad en cuanto / tan pronto como no se les obligue a seguir sus reglas. 4. The Amish lifestyle wouldn't have remained the same if they hadn't isolated themselves from the rest of the world. EI estilo de vida de los Amish no se habría mantenido igual si ellos no se hubieran aislado del resto del mundo. 5. I wish my parents would let me wear the clothes I like. Ojalá mis padres me dejaran ponerme la ropa que me gusta.
  12. 12. VOCABULARY 1 Circle the correct answer. 1. I'm really sorry about the plate. I didn't mean to break it. 2. I don't get along with my sister. We argue a lot. 3. I felt sorry for Tom because he broke his leg 4. I'm happy that Sue keeps in touch. She often calls me. 5. John's siblings are his twin brothers. 6. I enjoy seeing the family when we have Sunday lunch with relatives. 7. She's very nice and has always made friends easily. 8. I'm very pleased with my new MP4. It's fantastic. 9. He is afraid of snakes. He hates them. 10. They're an interesting couple, I like both of them. 11. You shouldn't complain. You should be grateful for the things you've got. 12. We are proud of you. You passed all your exams. 2 Choose the correct answer 1. My father often loses his patience when he drives. (b) He gets angry very quickly. 2. In the film Notting Hill, a man and a famous actress fall in love. (a) They are romantically attracted to one another. 3. It's not easy to get to know Fiona. (a) She is very shy and doesn't talk much. 4. I didn't feel comfortable with Stephen. (b). It wasn't easy for me to talk to him. 5. She has no sense of humour. (b).She never understands my jokes. 6. Allan makes friends easily. (a) Everyone likes him. 3 Complete the blog with the correct form of the words and expressions below. get on my nerves • date • get in touch • get to know • fond of • couple • break up • feel comfortable with • treat • afraid of • proud of LINDA'S BLOG As everyone who reads this blog knows, I have wanted to go out on a (1) date with lan lor a long time. Well, we've gone out a lot recently Now that I've (2) got to know him a bit better. I'm not sure how I feel about him. He's always late, which really (3) gets on my nerves. Also, on our second date, we went 0ut for dinner with another (4) couple that he knew. Although they were friendly, I didn't (5) feel comfortable with them and lan didn't pay much attention to me. However, when I told him later that he hadn't (6) treated me very nicely, he apologised and said he was very (7) fond of me. Since then, we've had somo good conversations and he's even confided in me that he's (6) afraid of not being accepted to university – because he wants his parents to be (9) proud of him. Should l (10) break up with him or continue to see him? If anyone has got any good advice please (11) get in touch!
  13. 13. WRITING A For and Against Essay 1 Circle the TWO correct answers in each sentence. 1. Even though / Although / I love John, I'm not ready to get married yet. 2. Shelly goes to university and works. In addition / Furthermore, she does voluntary work at a hospital. 3. Daryl liked the joke, while / whereas I didn't think it was funny. 4. I wish l didn't have to wake up so early tomorrow, however / but our flight leaves at 8.00. 5. Anna is a talented guitarist What's more I Also, she's an excellent student. 2 Complete the essay with the words below. furthermore • despite • on the other hand • it is important to • in my opinion TEENS AND MONEY In the United States, where many teenagers have got after–school jobs, the issue of pocket money is often debated. Some parents think that working teenagers should pay for their own clothes and entertainment while others believe that pocket money should still be provided (1) despite the fact that their children are working. On the one hand, working teenagers who pay for their own expenses learn the importance of living within a budget. (2)Furthermore, they also have the satisfaction that comes from saving for special purchases. (3) On the other hand, most working teenagers have low-paying jobs and (4) it is important to remember that they earn too little to pay for all their clothes and entertainment. In my opinion, parents of working teenagers should pay for necessities such as dothes, but not provide pocket money for things such as fast-food meals or CDs. I believe that this solution would still allow teenagers to learn how to spend their money wisely.
  14. 14. EXTRA READING 1. Find the following words in the text and say what they refer to 1. They (line 1) parents 2. their (line 10) colleges' 3. It (line 13) a recent study 4. they (line 18) children Helicopter Parents 1st ¶ kids: children (colloquial) pick up: cosechar / recoger del suelo / contester el teléfono college: facultad o centro de formación profesional scream at = shout at professor: profesor de una facultad mark = qualification so–called: así llamado because of = due to hover over: sobrevolar (aquí metafóricamente: estar encima de algo) swoop in: precipitarse, abalanzarse, bajar en picado slight = thin, light at the slightest: al mínimo / a la mínima 2nd ¶ increas•ing•ly: cada vez más result in: tener como resultado more tan ever: más que nunca (do not use 'never') facilitate = make easier involve: involucrarse, implicarse attempt = try make an attempt = make a try, have a go 3rd ¶ deal with: encargarse, ocuparse de / implicarse, involucrarse (aquí) seminar: cursillo, congreso offspring = child(ren), descendant remain: permanecer, seguir integral = whole / essential 4th ¶ disservice = wrong, disfavour data [Uncountable]: datos, información whose: of who intervene: intervenir, interceder
  15. 15. on (possessive adjective) behalf of (+ reflexive pronoun): de parte de, en nombre de. De parte mía: on my behalf / on behalf of myself likely: probable; likely to + infinitive: probable que + verbo hold: aguantar / sostener / mantener discussion (false friend): debate. Discusión: argument fulfil (o también 'fulfill', pero no deriva de 'fill'): cumplir / satisfacer. This fulfils my needs: esto satisface mis necesidades. potential: capacidad 5th ¶ a fine line. una tenue línea divisoria appropriate (del latín proprio): adecuado, apropiado. Verbo: apropiarse over–: prefijo que da un matiz negativo. Overpopulated: excesivamente poblado; overrated: sobrevalorado. to be to: haber de develop: desarrollar / into: convertirse en responsibil•ity: responsabilidad along the way: en el transcurso, en el camino. 2 Now read the whole text and choose the best answer. 1. Universities and colleges… (c) are attempting to encourage appropriate involvement by parents 2. A recent study supports the idea that… (b) parental involvement can be beneficial to students 3 Write four words from the text that have got the same sound as: sock /Z/ constantly, helicopter, of, hover, competitive… 4 Answer the questions according to the text 1. What are "helicopter" parents? They are parents who hover over their children and are involved in their college education. 2. Why has there been art increase in the number of "helicopter" parents in recent years? Society has become more competitive, so parents want to protect their children more, and mobile phones have made it easier to be in constant contact. 5 Find words or expressions in the text that mean the same as: 1. intervene ( (paragraph 1) swoop in 2. more and more (paragraph 2) increasingly 3. important, essential (paragraph 3) integral 4. suitable ( paragraph 5) appropriate 5. useful, creative (paragraph 5) productive
  16. 16. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS Vocabulary 1. Complete the dialogues with the words below couple • treat • miserable • get to know get along • annoyed • date • fell in love with 1. Dad, when did you decide to marry Mum? Well, I fell in love with her the first time we met! 2. Do you and your brother argue a lot? No. In fact, I get along with him very well. 3. Where are you going tonight? I'm going on a date with a girl I met last night 4. Why does Fiona want to break up with Andrew? She says that he doesn't treat her well. 5. Why does Greg look so upset? He's miserable because his girlfriend broke up with him. 6. Hasn't Ronny returned your maths book yet? No, and I'm getting annoyed! 7. Are you going out tonight? Yes, Carol and I are going out with another couple. 8. Jane doesn't seem very nice. I think you'll change your mind when you get to know her better. 2. The sentences below do not make sense Make them logical by replacing the words or phrases in bold wfth the words or phrases below break up • relieved • fond of • pleased for • has a sense of humour • siblings 1. I'm very jealous of Sandy. She's my best friend. fond of 2. All the students felt terrified when the teacher cancelled the exam. relieved 3. I've got three spouses – two brothers and a sister. siblings 4. I'm planning to make friends with my boyfriend. I never want to see him again! break up 5. My friend has just got a great job I feel very sorry for her. pleased for 6. Ronald always makes me laugh. He really gets on my nerves. has a sense of humour. Grammar 3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verbs in brackets 1. I didn't know his phone number. If I had known it I would have called him. 2. I've got a lot of work to do. I wish someone would help me. 3. If you ate more vegetables, you would feel better. 4. If you invite Jenny to the party, she will come.
  17. 17. 5. I'm bored. I wish I had something to do. 4 Complete the passage with the correct form of the verb in brackets A TEENAGER'S BLOG My parents and I argue all Ihe time, I wish that we (I) got (get) along better! Sometimes I leave the house without saying goodbye, because I know that if I (2) tell (tell) them I'm going out, they'll ask me all sorts of questions. Yesterday, they didn't want me to go to a party and I got really upset I wish I (3) had acted (act) more calmly. If they had listened to me, I (4) might not have lost (might not lose) control! I was afraid that they would punish me if I (5) went (go), but that didn't stop me – I went anyway. I didn't even have a good time, and I wish I (6) hadn't gone (not go). I know that my mum and dad only want the best for me. If they (7) didn't care (not care) about me, then they wouldn't worry so much. But I really think if they (8) gave (give) me more freedom, we would get along much better. Writing 5 Choose the correct connector 1. First we did warm-up exercises.(b) Next we learned some new dance steps. 2. Harris and Betsy are in love. Furthermore they are planning to get married. 3. I borrow clothes from my sister .(c) although she doesn't like it. 4. I'm old enough to live on my own. (a) In addition, I earn enough money. 5. John is quite clever. (b) Nevertheless, he doesn't get very high marks.