HWT aCHRNG€R 

D€SIGN

HRNDBOOK
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
A Series of Textbooks and Reference Books
Founding Editor
L. L. Faulkner
ColurnbusDivision, Battell...
37. Potential Flows: Computer Graphic Solutions, Robert H. Kirchhoff
38. Computer-Aided Graphicsand Design: Second Edition...
81. Mechanism Analysis: Simplifiedand Graphical Techniques, Second Edition, Revised
and Expanded, Lyndon 0.Barton
82. Fund...
125. Handbook of HydraulicFluid Technology,edited by George E. Totten
126. Heat Exchanger Design Handbook,T. Kuppan
Additi...
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H€RT €XCHRNG€R 

D€SIGN 

HRNDBOOK

T. KUPPRN
Southern Railway
Madras, India
M A R C E L
MARCEI,DEKKER,INC. NEWYORK BASEL
...
ISBN: 0-8247-9787-6
This book is printed on acid-free paper
Headquarters
Marcel Dekker, Inc.
270 Madison Avenue, New York,...
To my parents
Thulukkanarn
Senthamarai
To my mentor
Dr. Ramesh K. Shah
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Preface 

A heat exchanger is a heat transfer device that exchanges heat between two or more process
fluids. Heat exchange...
i Preface
problems, computer-aided thermal design, pressure drop analysis, temperature-dependent fluid
properties correcti...
Preface lii
Proper material selection is important for desired thermal performance, strength considera-
tions, safe operat...
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Contents 

Preface
1. Heat Exchangers-Introduction, Classification, and Selection
2. Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundam...
.r Contents
13. Material Selection and Fabrication 667 

14. Quality Control and Quality Assurance, Inspection, and Nondes...
1
Heat Exchangers-Introduction,
Classification, and Selection
1 INTRODUCTION
A heat exchanger is a heat-transfer devise th...
2 Chapter I
and construction refer to Shah [ 1,2], Gupta [3], and Graham Walker [4]. For classification and
systematic pro...
Heat Exchangers 3
CUSSJFICATION ACCORDING TO TRANYER PROCESS
DlRECT CONTACT W E INDIRECT CONTACT TYPE1
DIRECT TRANSFER TYP...
4 Chapter 1
i
Tt 

Figure2 Double pipe heat exchanger. (a) Single pass with counterflow; and (b) multipass with count-
erf...
5Heat Exchangers
Figure 3 Glass coil heat exchanger [101.
3. Plate coil or panel heat exchangers made from embossed plates...
6 Chapter 1
Figure 4 Plate heat exchanger. [From Hydrocnrbon Processing,p. 123, ( 1996).]
More details on the SPHE are fur...
7Heat Exchangers
Figure 5 Alfa-Lava1 spiral plate heat exchanger.
Figure 6 Panel coil heat exchanger.
8 Chapter I
Figure 7 Embossing pattern of Paul-Muller panel coils. (a) double embossed surface; (b) single em-
bossed surf...
9Heat Exchangers
(a) (b) (a
Figure9 Jacketing construction details. (a) Conventional; (b) dimple; and (c) half-pipe [121.
...
10 Chapter I
and similar in magnitude to that of the inside of the bank of elements; due to this, the velocities
of the tw...
11Heat Exchangers
Regenerator

b 

Fixed 

Disk type Drum
(thermal tYPe 

Figure 12 Classification of regenerators.
utiliz...
12 Chapter 1
Warm air Hot gas
out in
Rotati ng
/heat cwchangt
matrix
,Circumif went ial
seals
Radial
t
seals
Cold air Cool...
13Heat Exchangers
Figure 14 Rothemuhle regenerative air heater. Main parts: I, stationary matrix; 2, revolving hoods.
(Cou...
14 Chapter 1
-
Figure 15 Parallel flow arrangement.
heat) ratio, and surface area. Moreover, the existence of large temper...
15
Heat Exchangers
Figure 16 Temperaturedistribution for parallel flow arrangement.
16 Chapter 1
I
-t- ----I--
Figure 17 Counterflow arrangement.
tube-fin exchanger with flat (continuous) fins and a plate-f...
Heat Exchangers 17
a->cc
h,
I
-Lc, 0
L,, 

0 0 

Figure 18 Temperature distribution for counterflow arrangement.
18 Chapter 1
4I
i
1
Figure 19 Crossflow arrangement. (a) Unmixed-unmixed; (b) unmixed-mixed; (c) mixed-mixed.
cooled engin...
Heat I 9
t h,';
Figure 20 Temperature distribution for unmixed-unmixed crossflow arrangement.
heat-transfer rate, so norma...
20 Chapter I
Unfired Systems. These embrace a great variety of steam generators extending over a broad
temperature range f...
21Heat Exchangers
Table 1 Heat Exchanger Selection Criteria [5]
Air Spiral Plate Coiled Double Scraped Shell
Criteria cool...
22 Chapter I
Materials of Construction
For reliable and continuous use, the construction materials for pressure vessels an...
23Heat Exchangers
heat exchanger, compact heat exchanger, gasketed plate heat exchanger, and spiral exchanger
is discussed...
24 Chapter I
compensate for the effects of fouling. Compact heat exchangers are generally preferred for
nonfouling applica...
Heat Exchangers 25
Fabrication Techniques
Fabrication techniques are likely to be the determining factor in the selection ...
26 Chapter I
5. Material compatibility with the process fluids
6. Convenient size, easy for installation, reliable in use
...
2
Heat Exchanger
Thermohydraulic Fundamentals
1. HEAT EXCHANGER THERMAL CIRCUIT AND
OVERALL CONDUCTANCE EQUATION
In order ...
------
28 Chapter 2
Rh
-
Th
fouling loyer
wall
fouling loyer
Figure 1 Elements of thermal resistance of a heat exchanger.
...
29Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals
Since UA = UhAh= U&, the overall heat-transfer coefficient U as per Eq. 7 ma...
30 Chapter 2
The basics of these methods are discussed next. For more details on these methods, refer to
Refs. 1 and 2.
E-...
31Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals
= q / q m d  (211
The value of E ranges between 0 and 1. Using the value of ...
32 Chapter 2
where the right-hand-side expressions come from an energy balance and indicate the tempera-
ture drop/rise ra...
33Heat Exchanger ThermohydraulicFundamentals
A chart to determine LMTD from the terminal temperature differences is presen...
34 Chapter 2
where GTTD =Greater Terminal Temperature Difference .
LTTD = Lesser Terminal Temperature Difference.
Greater ...
35Heat Exchanger The~ u ~ ~ d r aulic FundamentaIs
+150
o f200
a
150
v- 4 - I00
w
0
90
2
w 00
a
70
60
x)
40
t- 30
v)
I-
<
...
36 Clmyter 2
and the heat-transfer rate is given by
4 = UAW(th.1- tc.J (394
= UAv(T,- tl) (396)
Since v represents the non...
37Heat Exchanger Thennohydraulic Fundamentals
Table 2 Relationship Between Dimensionless
Groups of the E-NTU,P-NTU,,LMTD, ...
--
38 Chapter 2
aF 1
d P - N T U ( 1 - P ) ( 1 - P R )
dF -F
+ 1_--
d R - ( R - 1) N T U ( R - 1)(1 -PR)
and
3. THERMAL EF...
39Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals
8.5 9 . 0 3 . 8 2.8 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.8 4.5 5.8 9.5 6.8 6.S 7.8 7.5 8.0
(9) NTU
...
40 Chapter 2
Figure 3(a) is the most widely used of these charts and was introduced by Bowman et al.
[111 in 1940. In this...
Heat Exchanger Thermohydraulic Fundamentals 41
be found directly for both types of problems. Thus to find exchanger surfac...
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Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
Heat exchanger design handbook
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